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Physical Geography, 10-12

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Russia-Siberian Flatt's
"Mother of All extinctions" location
color
Soil horizon MOST distinguished by
igneous
Class or rock that contains silicon, oxygen and metallic elements
cenozoic
The era we are currently living in
lithosphere
Solid part of the mantle
bits of glass
Ash is composed mostly of this
oxygen
Earth's crust is composed of this
Alaska quake, 1964
Based on the Richter Scale, this is the largest quake
surface wave
Slowest wave to travel through Earth
tephra
igneous rock fragmented material
California & Indonesia
Besides Yellowstone, another super-volcano is here
640,000 years ago
The last eruption of the Yellowstone super-volcano
Movement of the Earth's plate over a hot spot
Hawaiian islands created due to this
Mount Tambora
Biggest eruption in human history
Mantle
Heat from this part of the Earth helps drive the movement of plates
Tephra
Igneous rock & fragmented material blown out under gas pressure from a vent
Pacific & North American
San Andreas Fault is between these two plates
Lithosphere
The solid part of the upper mantle
Stratovolcano
Krakatoa was this type of volcano
Moho
Contact surface between the Earth's crust & mantle
250 million years ago
"Mother of All Extinctions" approximately went off this many years ago
Precambrian
This era is the oldest
5 explosions
This many explosions went off during Krakatoa's last eruption
Spreading
The boundary that is best described as the crust being pulled apart
Krakatoa eruption effects
Green Moon, Red Sunsets, Decrease in sunlight
71%
The Earth is covered by this percentage of ocean
535 AD
This is the year the biggest eruption on Krakatoa went off
Pangea
Earth had a single great continent millions of years ago
Soil Composition
25% water, 25% air, 5% organic, 45% inorganic
Regolith, Organics & Liquids
This is the soil mixture of solids
Texture
Proportions of sand, silt & clay that is found in soil
Dust Bowl
There was a lack of crop rotation, extensive drought & deep plowing of land, but did not occur in the Midwest
Sill
This is formed when magma forces its way between 2 preexisting sedimentary rock layers
Extrusive Igneous
Type of rock that cools quickly when it reaches the surface
Oxygen
Earth's crust is composed mostly of this
Dike
Formed when a vertical fracture is forced open by magma
Clastic
Type of sedimentary rock that consists of inorganic rock & mineral fragments
Intrusive Igneous
Type of rock that is formed by pressure & intense heat
Fault
Large crack in the Earth's crust where one part of the crust is moving against the other
Normal fault
Lithosphere is being pulled apart, resulting in 1 side dropping down
Reverse fault
Lithosphere is being pushed together resulting in 1 side raising up
Strike-Lip Fault
Both sides of the lithosphere move past one another (CA's San Andreas Fault)
P-Waves, Primary waves
Waves travels through any type of material in the Earth, fastest waves
S-Waves, secondary waves
Travels only through solids, slower than p-waves
Surface Waves
Low frequency & long duration, they are most destructive, slowest waves
Graben
A narrow block dropped down between 2 normal faults
Horst
Narrow block elevated between 2 normal faults
Focus
Origin of a earthquake
Epicenter
Point of the Earth's surface, directly above the focus
Richter scale
Energy released by an earthquake measured
Seismic sea wave
Centered on subduction plate boundaries
Chilean Earthquake
Most powerful quake in the world, 1960
Anchorage, AK quake
Most powerful quake in the US, 9.2, 1964
Volcano
Dome-shaped landforms built by the emissions of lava and tephra
Strata-volcanoes
Many felsic layers & volcanic ash which is thick & contains gas under high pressure, explosive
Hotspot
Plume of upwelling basaltic magma deep within the mantle, arising far down in the astheopshere
Flood basalts
Layers of lava from numerous vents & fissures
Cinder cones
Form when frothy basalt magma is ejected under high pressure from a narrow vent, producing tephra
Anticlines
Wave-like shape imposed on strata consist of arch-like up-folds
Syncline
Through-like down-folds
Soil
A mixture of solids, inorganic material derived from regolith, organics & liquids
Loam
Is the composition of sand, silt & clay
Strata Beds
Sediment horizontal layers
Metamorphic Rocks
Formed from preexisting rocks by intense heat & pressure, alter rock structure and chemical composition
Pluton
Body of intrusive igneous rocks
Batholiths
Granite accumulates in enormous plutons
Veins
Magma enters small, irregular branching fractures in surrounding rock & solidifies into a network
Intrusive Igneous rocks
Magma this is underground, preexisting surface
Extrusive Igneous rocks
Magma reaches surface, emerges as lava
Converging
Plates in collision and 1 plate may go under another
Transforming
Two plates glide past each other
Krakatoa
Loudest volcano
Mount Tambora
Biggest volcano, caused the "Little Ice Age"
Mount Vesuvius
Most famous volcano, destroyed Italian Roman city of Pompei
Yellowstone
First and oldest national park, est. in 1972
Asthenosphere
This is beneath the lithosphere, layer of soft, plastic rock in the mantle & tectonic plates are able to move due to relative weakness of this
Ring of Fire
90% of earthquakes occur here, Alaska to New Zealand
Silica
Most abundant lava, less able to flow