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Russia-Siberian Flatt's

"Mother of All extinctions" location


Soil horizon MOST distinguished by


Class or rock that contains silicon, oxygen and metallic elements


The era we are currently living in


Solid part of the mantle

bits of glass

Ash is composed mostly of this


Earth's crust is composed of this

Alaska quake, 1964

Based on the Richter Scale, this is the largest quake

surface wave

Slowest wave to travel through Earth


igneous rock fragmented material

California & Indonesia

Besides Yellowstone, another super-volcano is here

640,000 years ago

The last eruption of the Yellowstone super-volcano

Movement of the Earth's plate over a hot spot

Hawaiian islands created due to this

Mount Tambora

Biggest eruption in human history


Heat from this part of the Earth helps drive the movement of plates


Igneous rock & fragmented material blown out under gas pressure from a vent

Pacific & North American

San Andreas Fault is between these two plates


The solid part of the upper mantle


Krakatoa was this type of volcano


Contact surface between the Earth's crust & mantle

250 million years ago

"Mother of All Extinctions" approximately went off this many years ago


This era is the oldest

5 explosions

This many explosions went off during Krakatoa's last eruption


The boundary that is best described as the crust being pulled apart

Krakatoa eruption effects

Green Moon, Red Sunsets, Decrease in sunlight


The Earth is covered by this percentage of ocean

535 AD

This is the year the biggest eruption on Krakatoa went off


Earth had a single great continent millions of years ago

Soil Composition

25% water, 25% air, 5% organic, 45% inorganic

Regolith, Organics & Liquids

This is the soil mixture of solids


Proportions of sand, silt & clay that is found in soil

Dust Bowl

There was a lack of crop rotation, extensive drought & deep plowing of land, but did not occur in the Midwest


This is formed when magma forces its way between 2 preexisting sedimentary rock layers

Extrusive Igneous

Type of rock that cools quickly when it reaches the surface


Earth's crust is composed mostly of this


Formed when a vertical fracture is forced open by magma


Type of sedimentary rock that consists of inorganic rock & mineral fragments

Intrusive Igneous

Type of rock that is formed by pressure & intense heat


Large crack in the Earth's crust where one part of the crust is moving against the other

Normal fault

Lithosphere is being pulled apart, resulting in 1 side dropping down

Reverse fault

Lithosphere is being pushed together resulting in 1 side raising up

Strike-Lip Fault

Both sides of the lithosphere move past one another (CA's San Andreas Fault)

P-Waves, Primary waves

Waves travels through any type of material in the Earth, fastest waves

S-Waves, secondary waves

Travels only through solids, slower than p-waves

Surface Waves

Low frequency & long duration, they are most destructive, slowest waves


A narrow block dropped down between 2 normal faults


Narrow block elevated between 2 normal faults


Origin of a earthquake


Point of the Earth's surface, directly above the focus

Richter scale

Energy released by an earthquake measured

Seismic sea wave

Centered on subduction plate boundaries

Chilean Earthquake

Most powerful quake in the world, 1960

Anchorage, AK quake

Most powerful quake in the US, 9.2, 1964


Dome-shaped landforms built by the emissions of lava and tephra


Many felsic layers & volcanic ash which is thick & contains gas under high pressure, explosive


Plume of upwelling basaltic magma deep within the mantle, arising far down in the astheopshere

Flood basalts

Layers of lava from numerous vents & fissures

Cinder cones

Form when frothy basalt magma is ejected under high pressure from a narrow vent, producing tephra


Wave-like shape imposed on strata consist of arch-like up-folds


Through-like down-folds


A mixture of solids, inorganic material derived from regolith, organics & liquids


Is the composition of sand, silt & clay

Strata Beds

Sediment horizontal layers

Metamorphic Rocks

Formed from preexisting rocks by intense heat & pressure, alter rock structure and chemical composition


Body of intrusive igneous rocks


Granite accumulates in enormous plutons


Magma enters small, irregular branching fractures in surrounding rock & solidifies into a network

Intrusive Igneous rocks

Magma this is underground, preexisting surface

Extrusive Igneous rocks

Magma reaches surface, emerges as lava


Plates in collision and 1 plate may go under another


Two plates glide past each other


Loudest volcano

Mount Tambora

Biggest volcano, caused the "Little Ice Age"

Mount Vesuvius

Most famous volcano, destroyed Italian Roman city of Pompei


First and oldest national park, est. in 1972


This is beneath the lithosphere, layer of soft, plastic rock in the mantle & tectonic plates are able to move due to relative weakness of this

Ring of Fire

90% of earthquakes occur here, Alaska to New Zealand


Most abundant lava, less able to flow

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