AP Government Unit 5
Terms in this set (97)
The many different ways that people take part in politics and government
the right to vote
The belief that one's political participation makes a difference.
Voting based on what is perceived to be in the citizen's individual interest
voting based on the past performance of a candidate
voting for a candidate because you favor his or her ideas for handling issues
Supporting a party by voting for candidates from one political party for all public offices at the same level of government.
the percentage of eligible voters who cast a ballot in an election
Structural barriers to voting
A clause in registration laws allowing people who do not meet registration requirements to vote if they or their ancestors had voted before 1867.
a requirement that citizens show that they can read before registering to vote
A requirement that citizens pay a tax in order to register to vote
the practice of keeping blacks from voting in the southern states' primaries through arbitrary use of registration requirements and intimidation
Voter registration laws
Require individuals to first place their name on an electoral roll in order to be allowed to vote
the people can elect their representatives in the middle of the term of the executive. ... Only a fraction of a body's seats are up for election while others are not until the terms of the next set of members are to expire.
Elections held in years when the president is on the ballot.
A state-level method of direct legislation that gives voters a chance to approve or disapprove proposed legislation or a proposed constitutional amendment.
procedure whereby voters can remove an elected official from office
A procedure by which voters can propose a law or a constitutional amendment.
A voting district
individual and collective actions designed to identify and address issues of public concern
When a network or organization is partisan to a party and influences it's viewers through their ideological orientales news programs
Contemporary political issues
any event, idea, opinion or topic in a given subject that is relevant to the present day.
A term indicating an individual's acceptance of knowledge, beliefs, and practices related to a particular faith.
groups that help elect people and shape policies
private organizations whose members share certain views and work to shape public policy
The channels through which people's concerns become political issues on the government's policy agenda. In the United States, linkage institutions include elections, political parties, interest groups, and the media.
the citizens eligible to vote
a party's efforts to inform potential voters about issues and candidates and to persuade them to vote
The period before any votes are cast when candidates compete to win early support from the elite of the party and to create a positive first impression of their leadership skills.
In January or February of a presidential election year Presidential candidates campaign hard in Iowa -- a win in Iowa or New Hampshire can help fundraising and build momentum for future primaries and caucuses.
New Hampshire Primary
First Presidential primary and its winner becomes the media's major attention
States that are not clearly pro-Republican or pro-Democrat and therefore are of vital interest to presidential candidates, as they can determine election outcomes
Candidate or party with the most votes cast in an election, not necessarily more than half.
The candidate or party that wins more than half the votes cast in an election.
The recent tendency of states to hold primaries early in the calendar in order to capitalize on media attention.
Campaign style emphasizing close personal contact between candidate and voters
A political party's statement of its goals and policies for the next four years. The platform is drafted prior to the party convention by a committee whose members are chosen in rough proportion to each candidate's strength. It is the best formal statement of a party's beliefs.
the chairman of the national committee of the political party who usually acts as the head of the party's permanent organization and has general direction of party strategy especially during election campaigns.
A person appointed or elected to represent others
party leaders and elected officials who become delegates to the national convention without having to run in primaries or caucuses
The boost that candidates may get in an election because of the popularity of candidates above them on the ballot, especially the president.
developing product or service offerings customized for the appropriate customer segment and then pricing and communicating these offerings for the purpose of enhancing customer/constituents relationships
parties often ask viable candidates to run and target seats they see as winnable
choosing the media that will bring the most effective advertising message to the targeted consumer
An electoral "earthquake" where new issues emerge, new coalitions replace old ones, and the majority party is often displaced by the minority party. Such periods are sometimes marked by a national crisis and may require more than one election to bring about a new party era.
A process in which a substantial group of voters switches party allegiance, producing a long-term change in the political landscape.
Weakening of partisan preferences that points to a rejection of both major parties and a rise in the number of independents.
Third Party Candidate
someone who represents a political party that is neither Democrat nor Republican
a candidate who is not associated with any political party
minor party candidates can pull decisive votes away from one of the major parties' candidates, especially if the minor party candidate is from a splinter party
Elector who does not vote for the candidate they promised to vote for. These have never determined outcome of presidential election but is a major problem with electoral college system
Proportional voting system
A system in which each party receives a percentage of seats in a representation assembly that is roughly comparable to its percentage of the popular vote.
An electoral district in which voters choose one representative or official.
an election system in which the candidate with the most votes wins
Interest groups draft legislation and attempt to convince members of Congress to introduce it on their behaves
Mobilization of membership
Local parties target outreach to mobilize and register voters by contacting citizens, robocalls, and registration drives
free rider problem
For a group, the problem of people not joining because they can benefit from the group's activities without joining.
individual or group that expresses and shapes public values, struggles for power, and decides issues of public policy
Groups that have a narrow interest, tend to dislike compromise, and often draw membership from people new to politics.
public interest group
an organization that supports causes that affect the lives of Americans in general
A strategy by which organized interests seek to influence the passage of legislation by exerting direct pressure on members of the legislature.
Efforts by groups and associations to influence elected officials indirectly, by arousing their constituents.
amicus curiae brief
Literally, a "friend of the court" brief, filed by an individual or organization to present arguments in addition to those presented by the immediate parties to a case.
the tendency of public officials, journalists, and lobbyists to move between public and private sector (media, lobbying) jobs
nonprofit organization that works to improve the image, working conditions, and skill levels of people in particular occupations
The electoral advantage a candidate enjoys by virtue of being an incumbent, over and above his or her other personal and political characteristics
A primary election in which voters may choose in which party to vote as they enter the polling place
a primary election in which voting is limited to already registered party members
meetings of party leaders to determine party policy or to choose the party's candidates for public office
A meeting of party delegates to vote on matters of policy and in some cases to select party candidates for public office.
National popular vote
a new plan where states would award their electoral votes to the candidate who gets the most popular votes nationwide
Professional campaign consultants
Contemporary local, state, and national campaigns increasingly rely on
2 year period between general elections
Judicial interpretations of common law principles and doctrines, as well as interpretations of constitutional law, statutory law, and administrative law.
funds collected by a candidate to spend on a political campaign
Money raised in unlimited amounts by political parties for party-building purposes. Now largely illegal except for limited contributions to state or local parties for voter registration and get-out-the-vote efforts.
Political contributions given directly to a party, candidate, or interest group that are limited in amount and fully disclosed.
funds given to politically active nonprofits that can receive unlimited donations from corporations, individuals, and unions but are not required to disclose their donors.
Campaign advertising that criticizes a candidate's opponent-typically by making potentially damaging claims about the opponents background or record- rather than focusing on positive reasons to vote for the candidate
ads that focus on issues and do not explicitly encourage citizens to vote for a certain candidate
Spending by political action committees, corporations, or labor unions that is done to help a party or candidate but is done independently of them.
requires candidates in the United States for federal political office, as well as interest groups and political parties supporting or opposing a candidate, to include in political advertisements on television and radio "a statement by the candidate that identifies the candidate and states that the candidate has approved the communication.
Political Action Committee (PAC)
A committee set up by a corporation, labor union, or interest group that raises and spends campaign money from voluntary donations
a type of independent political action committee which may raise unlimited sums of money from corporations, unions, and individuals but is not permitted to contribute to or coordinate directly with parties or candidates.
Independent groups that seek to influence the political process but are not subject to contribution restrictions because they do not directly advocate the election of a particular candidate.
A tax code classification that applies to most interest groups; this designation makes donations to the group tax-deductible but limits the group's political activities.
nonprofit groups that also engage in issue advocacy. Under Section 501c(4) of the federal tax code such a group may spend up to half its revenue for political purposes
the claim that the media is more interested in covering a campaign like a horserace focusing more on who is ahead rather than in-depth coverage of issues.
The media can influence what subjects become national political issues and for how long.
The role played by the national media in keeping track of and helping make political reputations.
The role played by the national media in investigating political personalities and exposing scandals.
the bias or perceived bias of journalists and news producers within the mass media in the selection of events and stories that are reported and how they are covered
Consumer driven media
Influenced by the actions and needs of consumers
News source and information credibility
Non-partisan, reliable sources that provide information that one can believe to be true.
a brief, memorable comment that can easily be fit into news broadcasts
the tendency of the national media to be suspicious of officials and eager to reveal unflattering stories about them