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82 terms

chapter 4

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Epithelial membranes
covering of an organ that contains an epithelial tissue layer and a connective tissue layer
mucous membrane, serous membrane, cutaneous membrane
three types of epithelial membranes
epithelial membranes and connective tissue membranes
2 types of body tissue membranes
cutaneous membrane
skin; only dry membrane; outermost protective boundary
mucous membrane
Lines all body cavities that open to the exterior body surface; often adapted for absorption or secretion
Serous Membranes
Lines open body cavities that are closed to the exterior of the body; _______ layers separated by ______ fluid; two layers to add extra protection; fluid prevents friction
Peritoneum
serous membrane found in abdominal cavity
pleura
serous membrane found around lungs
Pericardium
serous membrane found around heart
synovial membrane
connective tissue membrane; found in movable joints (where bone meets bone); lines fibrous capsules surrounding joints; secretes synovial fluid
Skin derivatives
small structures found within the skin; e.g. sweat glands and oil glands in dermis, hairs, nails
epidermis
outer layer of skin; often keratinized (hardened by keratin); contains no blood vessels
hypodermis
layer underneath dermis; not part of the skin; anchors skin to underlying organs; composed mostly of adipose tissue
stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum basale
layers of epidermis, outside to inside
stratum basale
bottom-most layer of epidermis where cells undergo mitosis
Stratum lucidum
layer of epidermis which only occurs in thick skin, like palms of hands and soles of feet
Stratum corneum
top layer of epidermis; found all places where skin is found; shingle-like dead cells
melanin
Pigment that contributes most to skin color; yellow, black, or brown
melanocytes
type of cell melanin is produced by
stratum basale
where melanin is found
genetics and exposure to sunlight
amt of melanin produced depends on...
protects skin from UV rays
function of melanin
freckle
pocket of concentrated melanocytes
papillary and reticular layers
2 layers of dermis
dermal papillae
projections of papillary layer of dermis which are responsible for fingerprints
Papillary layer
top, thin layer of dermis; pain receptors and capillary loops
reticular layer
layer which makes up most of the dermis; blood vessels; glands; nerve receptors
Carotene
Orange-yellow pigment from some vegetables; gets absorbed into skin through blood vessels, which can make you an orange color
Hemoglobin
Red coloring from blood cells in dermis capillaries; oxygen content determines the extent of red coloring; when it is bound to blood, skin turns bright red
erythema
fancy word for redness due to embarrassment (blushing), fever, hypertension (high blood pressure), inflammation, or allergy
Pallor/blanching
whitening of skin due to emotional stress (fear, anger) or anemia (lack of iron), low blood pressure, or impaired blood flow
Jaundice
abnormal yellow skin tone due to liver disorder in which bile pigments are absorbed by body tissues
Bruises
sites where blood has clotted in tissue spaces (clotted blood masses=hematomas)
Sebaceous glands
produce oil, most with ducts that empty into hair follicles, glands are activated at puberty, found everywhere except your palms and the soles of your feet
sebum
oil, lubricant for skin, kills bacteria
Sweat glands
widely distributed in skin; type of gland
eccrine and apocrine
2 types of sweat glands
eccrine
type of sweat gland that opens via duct to pore on skin surface (secretes sweat through pores); found everywhere, including palms of hands and soles of feet
Apocrine
type of sweat gland where ducts empty into hair follicles (secretes sweat through hair follicles); found in axillary (armpit and genital) regions
sweat
composed of mostly water, in addition to metabolic waste and fatty acids and proteins in the case of apocrine; function is to help dissipate heat, excrete waste products; acidic nature inhibits bacteria growth; odor is from associated bacteria
hair follicle
what produces hair; not part of the actual hair
hair
Consists of hard, keratinized epithelial cells
hair root
_______ is enclosed in follicle
Matrix of hair
(growth zone)- where stratum basale epithelial cells divide to form a hair
bulb
base of hair
shaft
part of hair you can see
medulla
centermost layer of hair
cortex
second layer of hair
cuticle
outermost layer of hair, most heavily keratinized so it can be the strongest layer
bulb
where melanocytes are found in hair
melanocytes
what provides pigment for hair color
dermal and epidermal sheath
2 layers of hair follicle
epidermal sheath
innermost layer of follicle which provides cell with epithelial cells
dermal sheath
outermost layer of follicle
Arrector pilli
smooth muscle that attaches to follicle; when it contracts, goose bumps appear on skin surface
Nails
Scale-like modifications of the epidermis; more heavily keratinized than hair
nail bed
what stratum basale extends beneath in nails
nail matrix
thickened, proximal area responsible for nail growth
lack of pigment
why are nails colorless?
lunula
region over thickened nail matrix that appears as a white crescent
Free edge
Part of nail hanging off the skin that you file/cut
free edge, body, and root
3 parts of nail
nail folds
what borders of nail are overlapped by
cuticle
thick, proximal nail fold
Acne
common skin disease that causes pimples caused by hair follicles under the skin clogging
Boils & Carbuncles
painful, pus-filled bumps that form under the skin caused by bacteria infecting one or more hair follicle
boil
red, tender lumps that grow larger as they fill with pus
Carbuncle
cluster of boils
Psoriasis
common, chronic (long-lasting) skin disease in which cells build up rapidly on the surface of the skin, forming thick, silvery scales and itchy, dry, red patches that are sometimes painful; cause unknown; symptoms triggered by trauma, infection, stress
Burns
Tissue damage & cell death caused by heat, electricity, UV radiation, or chemicals
first degree burn
burn where only epidermis is damaged; skin is red and swollen
second degree burn
burn where epidermis and upper dermis are damaged; skin is red with blisters
third degree burn
burn which destroys entire skin layer (epidermis & dermis & possibly hypodermis); burn is gray-white or black
Basal cell carcinoma
Least malignant, most common type of skin cancer (abnormal cell mass); arises from the stratum basale layer of the epidermis; appears as an abnormal mole on the skin
Malignant Melanoma
Most deadly form of skin cancer; cancer of the melanocytes (melanin-producing cells in stratum basale); metastasizes (spreads) rapidly to lymph nodes & blood vessels; detection uses ABCD rule to identify abnormal moles
asymmetry, border irregularity, color, diameter
ABCD rule
Athlete's foot
infection that develops in the moist areas between your toes and sometimes on other parts of the foot; causes itching, stinging & burning
Cold sores
(also called fever blisters) fluid-filled lesions caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 infection; appears as red blisters on lip
Contact dermatitis
inflammation of the skin (red, itchy rash) caused by direct contact to certain substances, such as soap, cosmetics, jewelry, or weeds, including poison ivy or poison oak
impetigo
highly contagious skin condition that mainly affects infants and children; appears as red sores on the face, especially around the child's nose and mouth; caused by bacteria entering the skin through cuts or insect bites
Alopecia
hair loss, or baldness; cause- can be hereditary or caused by hormonal changes in body, certain medications (e.g., chemotherapy), thyroid problems, lack of nutrients, chemical hair treatments, etc.
papilla
hair structure that provides blood supply to the matrix in the hair bulb