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Jacksonian Democracy Study Guide
Terms in this set (35)
The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers. Starts the indian removal act
Led by Thomas Jefferson, believed people should have political power, favored strong STATE governments, emphasized agriculture, strict interpretation of the Constitution, pro-French, opposed National Bank
The practice of giving government jobs to political backers
Indian removal act
Passed in 1830, authorized Andrew Jackson to negotiate land-exchange treaties with tribes living east of the Mississippi. The treaties enacted under this act's provisions paved the way for the reluctant—and often forcible—emigration of tens of thousands of American Indians to the West.
Trail of tears
The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
Force Bill (1833)
Jackson's response to S. Carolina's ordinance of nullification that declared the tariffs of 1828 & 2832 null and void, & S. Carolina would not collect duties on them; authorized President Jackson to use military force to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832; never invoked b/c it was passed by Congress the same day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary; nullified by S. Carolina
Famous American politician and orator. he advocated renewal and opposed the financial policy of Jackson. Many of the principles of finance he spoke about were later incorporated in the Federal Reserve System. Would later push for a strong union.
John c calhoun
In 1828, he lead the fight against protective tariffs which hurt the south economically. Created the doctrine of nullification which said that a state could decide if a law was constitutional. This situation became known as the Nullification Crisis.
Martin Van Buren
(1837-1841) Advocated lower tariffs and free trade, and by doing so maintained support of the south for the Democratic party. He succeeded in setting up a system of bonds for the national debt.. finished the indian removal act
Tariff of abominations
Tariff passed by Congress in 1828 that favored manufacturing in the North and was hated by the South
Bank of the united states
Proposed by Alexander Hamilton as the basis of his economic plan. He proposed a powerful private institution, in which the government was the major stockholder. This would be a way to collect and amass the various taxes collected. It would also provide a strong and stable national currency. Jefferson vehemently opposed the bank; he thought it was un-constitutional. nevertheless, it was created. This issue brought about the issue of implied powers. It also helped start political parties, this being one of the major issues of the day.
An American political party formed in the 1830s to oppose President Andrew Jackson and the Democrats, stood for protective tariffs, national banking, and federal aid for internal improvements
Panic of 1837
When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. A panic ensued (1837). Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.
William Henry harrison
was an American military leader, politician, the ninth President of the United States, and the first President to die in office. His death created a brief constitutional crisis, but ultimately resolved many questions about presidential succession left unanswered by the Constitution until passage of the 25th Amendment. Led US forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe.
elected Vice President and became the 10th President of the United States when Harrison died 1841-1845, President responsible for annexation of Mexico after receiving mandate from Polk, opposed many parts of the Whig program for economic recovery
Explain the result of the election fo 1824, who won, and how did they win
How did Andrew Jackson use the spoils system
Why were they called the five civilized tribes
their farming communities were like other american communities
Explain the Indian Removal Act
A law passed by Congress to relocate Native American out west making room for new European settlers coming to the US.
Explain how the Cherokee fought back
What happened on the trail of tears and where were they headed
Who was president when the Cherokee were finally moved westward
What is the purpose and goal of the american system
What is the purpose of a protective tariff, who did it help and who did it hurt
A tax on imported goods that is intended to protect a nation's businesses from foreign competition
- helped the North, hurt the South
Why did the south hate the tariff and 1828, how did the tariff help the north
- high tariffs on manufactured goods
- reduced British exports to the US
- forced the south to buy more expensive northern manufactured goods
- made money off the tariff
Who led the fight against the protective tariff
John C. Calhoun
Who was Andrew Jackson's first Vice President and why did he leave
John C. Calhoun- left because he thought the 1828 tariff was an abomination i
What is theory of nullification
States can refuse to enforce laws that are unconstitutional
On the issues of state's rights, what did South Carolina threaten to do
In response what did Andrew Jackson prepare to do
Use force to attack
What are pet banks?
Smaller banks placed across the country to distribute money evenly. Did not work well.
What created the Whig party, what did they support
Created by people who were tired of the policies of Jackson... even some democrats. They supported the ideas of the american system
Because of the panic of 1837, what was the government forced to do
Caused bank closings, a collapse of credit, and many people lost their savings
What happened under William Henry Harrison's presidency
Gave the longest inaugural speech at 2 hours on a cold day without a hat or a coat, he went to three balls and he died a month later of pneumonia
Who became president after William Henry Harrison and why
John Tyler because he was the Vice President of William Henry Harrison and Harrison died of pneumonia
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Antebellum/ Civil War Test
Chapter 7 sections 3 & 4 Quiz
Chapter 3 vocabulary
Colonial period test
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