210 terms

Semester 1 Vocabulary Review

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acetylcholine
neurotransmitter; triggers muscle contraction
acetylcholinesterase
An enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
acidic
a solution when disolved in water releases excess Hydrogen ions (+); low pH; proton donor
action potential
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
adenine
double-ring nitrogenous base found in DNA and RNA; pairs with thymine
adipose tissue
connective tissue containing stored fat that serves as a source of energy; cushioning and insulating
afferent neuron
neurons that transmit messages from sense organs to the central nervous system.
amino acids
Building blocks of protein
Anaerobic glycolysis
The initial steps of glucose breakdown occur via a pathway called glycolysis which is anaerobic.
anaphase
3rd phase; the chromatids of each chromosome separate at the centromere and move in opposite directions
anatomical position
Body is standing straight, facing forward, upper limbs at side and palms facing forward.
anatomy
Study of Structure; ana = to separate; tomy = to cut
anion
A negatively charged ion
antibodies
antigen-binding immunoglobulin, produced by B cells, that functions as the effector in an immune response.
aponeuroses
Broad, fibrous sheets of connective tissue
arachnoid mater
middle meningeal layer; attached to the inside of the dura mater. CSF flows under this layer, in the subarachnoid space.
astrocytes
CNS cells responsible for physical support and maintaining blood brain barrier
atlas
1st cervical vertebra
Atomic mass
The average mass of all the isotopes of an element
axial skeleton
Bones of the skull, vertebral column, ribs, and sternum (thoracic cage)
axons
a part of a neuron that carries impulses away from the cell body
basement membrane
Layer between epithelium and underlying connective tissue
base
A substance that decreases the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution; high pH; proton acceptor
bipolar neurons
Neurons composed of a single dendrite and axon; located in the eyes and nose
brain stem
area of brain consisting of the medulla oblongata, midbrain, and pons
calcaneus
Heel bone; a tarsal
canaliculi
small canals that connect lacunae to each other and the central canal; connects osteocytes
carbohydrates
Class of organic compounds containing only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (CH2O); mono, di, and poly versions
cardiac muscle
forms the wall of the heart, striated, involuntary, and uninucleate; intercalated discs
cation
a positively charged ion
cell cycle
Series of events in which a cell grows, prepares for division, and divides to form two daughter cells
central nervous
Brain and spinal cord
ceruminous gland
glands that secrete cerumen (ear wax) into the external ear canal
choroid
pigmented layer of the vascular layer
ciliary body
intrinsic eye muscle involved in lens accommodation
cone cells
photoreceptors for color vision; red, blue, and green cones
connective tissue
tissue that functions mainly to bind and support other tissues, consists of cells scattered through an extracellular matrix
cornea
Fibrous transparent layer of clear tissue that extends over the anterior portion of the eyeball; extension of the sclera
Creatine phosphate
An energy storage molecule used by muscle tissue. The phosphate from creatine phosphate can be removed and attached to an ADP to generate ATP quickly.
cytosine
A single-ring nitrogenous base found in DNA and RNA; binds with guanine
dendrites
Branchlike parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information.
diffusion
passive transport; movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
DNA
a double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins.
dura mater
outer layer of the meninges; tough layer
ear ossicles
three ear bones; malleus, incus, and stapes
eccrine glands
most numerous and wide spread of the sweat glands, mostly on forehead, upper lip, palms and soles, not hair follicles, regulate temperature
effectors
Any organ or structure that creates an effect in response to a signal from the nervous system; usually a muscle or gland
efferent neuron
Nerves that carry impulses away from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands; motor neurons.
endocrine system
Glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells.
endocytosis
active transport process where a cell engulfs materials with a portion of the cell's plasma membrane and releases the contents inside of the cell.
endomysium
connective tissue surrounding a muscle fiber
enzymes
biological catalysts
ependymal cells
neuroglia cells that line ventricles of brain and central canal of spinal cord; active role in formation and circulation of CSF
epidermis
outer layer of skin designed to provide protection
epimysium
A dense layer of collagen fibers that surrounds a skeletal muscle and is continuous with the tendons/aponeuroses of the muscle and with the periosteum
epiphyseal plate
made out of hyaline cartilage; located at the junction of the diaphsis and epiphysis
epithelial tissue
a sheet of tightly packed cells that covers body surfaces or lines body cavities
ethmoid
an irregularly shaped bone located between the eye orbits; it helps form the boney structure of the nasal cavity; cribriform plate and crista galli are major structures
exocytosis
process by which a cell releases large amounts of material; form of vesicular transport
external ear
pinna or auricle; outer structures of the ear that collect sound
fascicle
a bundle of muscle fibers or nerve fibers
filtration
passive process; movement across a membrane from high pressure to low pressure
fovea centralis
area of acute or discriminatory vision; made up of cones
functional proteins
proteins that cause chemical changes in the molecules, control cell activities; enzymes
ganglia
an anatomically distinct collection of sensory or motor neuron cell bodies within the PNS
glucose
6-carbon monosaccharide sugar; important source of energy within cells; substrate for glycolysis
glycogen
extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch
goblet cells
mucus secreting cells in mucous membranes, columnar epithelial cells that contain a large vacuole with mucus
Golgi apparatus
an organelle that modifies and packages proteins for export by the cell
guanine
nucleotide that bonds with cytosine; a purine
gyri
gyrus: elevated ridge (wrinkle) of the brain
Haversian canals (central canal)
longitudinal canals located at the core of every osteon; hold blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves.
hematopoiesis
blood cell formation; occurs in red bone marrow
homeostasis
tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level or set point
hormones
chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another
hypertonic
a solution having a higher osmotic pressure than a comparison solution; more solute
hypodermis
also called a subcutaneous layer; located under the dermis of the skin; helps to insulate the body and protects underlying muscles and other structures; primarily adipose tissue
hypotonic
a solution having a lower osmotic pressure than a comparison solution; less solute
inner ear
innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs.
inorganic molecule
non-carbon-based molecule
integumentary system
consists of the skin, hair, and nails
interphase
stage of the cell cycle when the cell grows, performs its normal functions, and prepares for division; consists of G1, S, and G2 phases
iris
ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening
isotonic
solutions having the same or equal osmotic pressure; same solute
isotope
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
keratin
fiber protein that is the principal component of hair, skin, and nails
lacrimal gland
gland responsible for the production of tears
lacunae
small cavities in bone that contain osteocytes
lamellae
concentric rings of osteocytes around the central (Haversian) canal in compact bone
lens
focuses light onto retina
levels of structural organization
chemical level - cellular level - tissue level - organ level - organ system level - organism level
lipids
energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and little oxygen.
lymphatic system
composed of a network of vessels, ducts, nodes, and organs. Provides defense against infection.
melanin
dark brown to black pigment produced in melanocytes
metaphase
centromeres of duplicated chromosomes are aligned at the center of the cell (metaphase plate)
microglia
neuroglia cells that act as phagocytes, eating damaged cells and bacteria, act as the brains immune system
microvilli
fingerlike extensions of plasma membrane of apical epithelial cells, increase surface area, aid in absorption
middle ear
chamber between the eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny bones that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea's oval window
molecule
group of atoms bonded together
motor neurons
neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands
motor unit
a motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it innervates
mucous membranes
lining the body structures/cavities that open to the outside of the body
muscle tissue
a body tissue that contracts or shortens, making body parts move
myelinated
surrounded by extensions from oligodendrocytes or schwann cells that wrap repeatedly around segment of axon
myofilament
contractile proteins, actin and myosin, of muscle cells
negative feedback
a primary mechanism of homeostasis, whereby a change in a physiological variable that is being monitored triggers a response that counteracts the initial fluctuation.
nervous system
body system of sensitive cells that respond to stimuli such as sound, touch, and taste
nervous tissue
a body tissue that carries electrical messages back and forth between the brain and every other part of the body
neuroglia
many types of cells that support, insulate, and protect neurons
neuromuscular junction
the junction between a nerve fiber and the muscle it supplies
neurotransmitter
chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons
neutral
pH of 7
nucleic acids
consists of DNA and RNA; nucleotides are the building blocks
oligodendrocytes
neuroglia cells that form myelin sheath in CNS
optic disc
location where ganglion cell axons exit the eye to form the optic nerve; blind spot
osmosis
diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
osteoblasts
a type of cell that is responsible for bone formation
osteoclasts
a type of bone cell that removes bone tissue; large, multinucleated cell
osteocytes
mature bone cells; reside in lacunae
osteon
a structural unit of compact bone consisting of a central canal surrounded by concentric cylindrical lamellae of matrix.
osteoporosis
condition in which the body's bones become weak and break easily
oval window
membrane that covers the opening between the middle ear and inner ear; stapes pushes on the oval window
parietal pericardium
outer wall of the pericardium; Superficial fibrous layer of connective tissue; deep, thin, smooth, moist serous layer
parietal peritoneum
outer layer of the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity
parietal pleura
outer fold of pleura lying closer to the ribs and chest wall.
passive transport
movement across the cell membrane that does not require energy from the cell
pericardium
double-walled membranous sac that encloses the heart
perimysium
connective tissue surrounding a muscle fascicle
peripheral nervous system
a division of the nervous system consisting of all nerves that are not part of the brain or spinal cord; 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves
phagocytosis
form of vesicular transport; process in which phagocytes engulf and digest microorganisms and cellular debris
physiology
study of function
pia mater
innermost meningeal layer covering the brain; gentle mother
pinocytosis
a type of vesicular transport (endocytosis) in which the cell ingests extracellular fluid and its dissolved solutes.
plasma membrane
a selectively-permeable phospholipid bilayer forming the boundary of the cells
positive feedback systems
strengthen or reinforce a change in controlled condition; child birth, blood clotting, and immune response are examples
presbyopia
farsightedness caused by aging
prophase
chromosomes become visable, nuclear envelop dissolves, spindle forms
protein
organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells
pupil
opening in the center of the iris
red marrow
bone marrow of children and some adult bones that is required for the formation of red blood cells
reflex arc
reflexes that occur over neural pathways
retina
light sensitive layer of the eye; contains rods and cones
ribosomes
cytoplasmic organelles at which proteins are synthesized
rod cells
rod-shaped cells in the retina that register degrees of lightness and darkness
rough endoplasmic reticulum
endomembrane system covered with ribosomes where many proteins for transport are assembled
sarcolemma
cell membrane of a muscle fiber (cell)
sarcomere
contractile unit of muscle
sarcoplasm
cytoplasm of a muscle cell
sarcoplasmic reticulum
smooth ER of a muscle cell, enlarged and specialized to act as a Ca2+ reservoir
Schwann cells
supporting cells of the peripheral nervous system responsible for the formation of myelin
sclera
"white" of the eye
sebaceous gland
secrete sebum (oil) into the hair follicles where the hair shafts pass through the dermis
sella turcica
cavity in the sphenoid bone that contains the pituitary gland
sensory
neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord
serous membranes
line body cavities that do NOT open to the outside
skeletal muscle
a muscle that is attached to the bones of the skeleton and provides the force that moves the bones
skeletal system
protects and supports body organs and provides a framework the muscles use to support movement; made up of bones and joints
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
an endomembrane system where lipids are synthesized, calcium levels are regulated, and toxic substances are broken down
smooth muscle
Involuntary muscle found inside many internal organs of the body
sodium-potassium pump
a carrier protein that uses ATP to actively transport sodium ions out of a cell and potassium ions into the cell
sphenoid
a butterfly-shaped bone that forms part of the floor and sides of the cranium; it also forms part of the orbits surrounding the eyes
spiral organ of Corti
organ of hearing located in the cochlea
structural proteins
proteins that are important for holding cells and organisms together, such as the proteins that make up the cell membrane, muscles, tendons, and blood
subatomic particles
protons, neutrons, and electrons
sulci
grooves of the cerebral cortex
synaptic cleft
small gap between the presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes of a synapse
synovial membranes
loose, connective tissue that lines the joint cavity
talus
tarsal that articulates with the tibia to form the ankle joint
tanning effect
when sunlight stimulates the melanocytes to produce more of the melanin pigment
telophase
after the chromosome seperates, the cell seals off, Final Phase of Mitosis
third-degree burn
a burn involving all layers of the skin; characterized by the destruction of the epidermis and dermis, with damage or destruction of subcutaneous tissue
threshold potential
level of potential at which an action potential or nerve impulse is produced
thymine
a component of nucleic acid that carries hereditary information in DNA in cells. Chemically, it is a pyrimidine base.
trabeculae
any of the fibrous bands extending from the capsule into the interior of an organ; strut or thin plate of bone in spongy bone
tracts
bundles of neuron processes in the CNS
transitional epithelium
epithelial tissue found in bladder, ureters, urethra - allows for stretching - rounded cells become like squamous when stretched
tympanic membrane
the eardrum; structure that separates the outer ear from the middle ear and vibrates in response to sound waves
visceral peritoneum
the inner layer of the peritoneum that surrounds the organs of the abdominal cavity
visceral pleura
innermost membrane of the pleura, lying closest to the lung tissue itself
vitamin D
an important vitamin that is formed in the skin when it is exposed to sunlight; steroid formed from cholestrol
Volkmann's canals
channels lying at right angles to the central canal, connecting blood and nerve supply of the periosteum to that of the Haversian canal; also called perforating canals
yellow marrow
adipose tissue found within the medullary cavity of long bones
vestibule
static equilibrium
semicircular canals
fluid-filled structures in the inner ear that are associated with the sense of balance; dynamic equilibrium
pinna
auricle; flap of the ear
external acoustic meatus
Canal leading to eardrum and middle ear
organ of corti
the hearing organ of the inner ear
aqueous humor
fluid in the eye, found between the cornea and the lens
vitreous humor
gel-like substance that helps to reinforce the eyeball; presses retina against choroid layer
photoreceptors
The light-sensitive cells in the retina; rods and cones.
foveo centralis
highest visual acuity
optic chiasma
the crossing of the optic nerves from the two eyes at the base of the brain
macula lutea
yellowish spot on the back of the retina; contains the fovea
gustation
sense of taste
growth hormone
hormone secreted by anterior pituitary gland that stimulates growth of bones
insulin
hormone secreted by the beta cells of the isles of Langerhans in the pancreas; lowers glucose
glucagon
hormone secreted by the alpha cells of the isles of Langerhans in the pancreas; raises glucose
melatonin
hormone released by the pineal gland in response to daily cycles of light and dark
cochlea
bony, spiral-shaped sense organ used for hearing; houses the organ of corti
adrenal glands
paired glands, one above each kidney; consists of outer cortex and inner medulla
epinephrine
a catecholamine secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to stress (trade name Adrenalin)
testosterone
male sex hormone
cortisol
a glucocorticoid stress hormone of the adrenal cortex
thyroxine
the thyroid hormone, accelerates oxidative metabolism though out the body
FSH
stimulates production of eggs or sperm
TSH
increases release of metabolic thyroid hormones; T3, T4 (thyroxine)
PRL
stimulates milk production
posterior pituitary
neurohypophysis; does not produce hormones, but stores and releases oxytocin and ADH
anterior pituitary
makes and releases hormones; under regulation of the hypothalamus; hormones include PRL, GH, ACTH, TSH, FSH, & LH
z-disc
narrow, plate-shaped regions of dense protein material that separate one sarcomere from the next