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APES Ch. 18-19 Vocab
Terms in this set (34)
Whole mass of air surrounding the earth.
Force or mass per unit area of air, caused by the bombardment of a surface by the molecules in air.
Innermost layer of the atmosphere. Contains about 75% of the mass of earth's air and extends about 17 kilometers above sea level.
Short term changes in temperature, humidity, precipitation, and other conditions in the troposphere at a given place and time.
Physical properties of the troposphere of an area.
Second layer of the atmosphere that extends about 11-30 miles above the earth's surface.
layer of gaseous ozone in the stratosphere that protects life on earth by filtering our most harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun.
One or more chemicals in high enough concentrations in the air to harm humans, other animals, vegetation, or materials.
Chemical that has been added directly to the air by natural events or human activities and occurs in a harmful concentration.
Harmful chemical formed in the atmosphere when a primary air pollutant reacts with normal air components or other air pollutants.
CO (carbon monoxide) and CO2 (carbon dioxide)
Colorless gas that forms when nitrogen and oxygen gas in air react at the high-combustion temp in car engines and coal-burning plants.
a colorless or pale yellow liquid acid that is corrosive and poisonous and has strong oxidizing properties
Colorless gas with an irritation odor. About 1/3 in the atmosphere comes from natural sources. Comes from combustion of coal in electric power and industrial plants.
Suspended particles of sulfate and salts that return to Earth after acid deposition.
Suspended Particulate Matter
Variety of solid particles and liquid droplets small and light enough to remain suspended in the air for long periods.
Colorless and highly reactive gas and a major component of photochemical smog.
Type of air pollution consisting mostly of sulfuric dioxide, sulfuric acid formed from sulfur dioxide, and suspended solid particles. Industrial smog is usually grey.
Complex mixture pf air pollutants produced in the lower atmosphere by the reaction of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides under the influence of sunlight.
Volatile Organic Compounds
organic compounds that exist as gases in the atmosphere and act as pollutants.
powerful respiratory and eye irritants present in photochemical smog.
Layer of dense, cool air trapped under a layer of less dense, warm air. Prevents upward-flowing air currents from developing.
Acid Deposition (dry vs. wet)
The Falling of acids and acid-forming compounds from the atmosphere to the earth's surface. (Commonly known as acid rain)
Indoor Air Pollution
Indoor air pollution refers to chemical, biological and physical contamination of indoor air. It may result in adverse health effects.
Naturally occurring colorless, odorless radioactive gas found in some types of soil and rock.
Clean Air Act
Set emission standards for cars, and limits for release of air pollutants
Toxic Release Inventory
publicly available database containing information on toxic chemical releases and other waste management activities in the United States.
Emissions Trading (cap and trade)
is a market-based approach to controlling pollution by providing economic incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants.
Ozone Depletion (stratospheric)
Decrease in concentration of ozone in the stratosphere.
Natural effect that release heat in the atmosphere near the earth's surface. Temp. increases.
Gases in the earth's lower atmosphere that cause the greenhouse effect. (carbon dioxide, ozone, methane, NO)
Climate Change Tipping Points
Point at which an environment problem reaches a threshold level which scientists fear could cause irreversible climate disruption.
increasing levels of acid in world's oceans due to their absorption of much of the CO2 emitted into the atmosphere by human activities.
Carbon Capturing and Storage (CCS)
Process of removing carbon dioxide gas from coal-burning power and industrial plants and storing it somewhere so that it is not released into the atmosphere.
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