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287 terms

MT - Chpt 11

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opt/i, opt/o
Means eyes/sight (1)
Optic/o
Means pertaining to the eyes (2)
Opthalm/o
Means eyes (3)
Ir/i, ir/o
Means iris (1)
Irid/o
Means iris (2)
Irit/o
Means iris (3)
Eyes
Receptor organs for the sense of sight
Phac/o, phak/o
Means lens
lens
clear, flexible, curved structure that focuses rays of light (images) on retina
Retin/o
Means retina
Retina
Converts light images into electrical impulses and transmits them to the brain. Sensitive innermost layer that lines the posterior segment of the eye
dacryocyst/o
means lacrimal apparatus (1)
lacrim/o
means lacrimal apparatus (2)
lacrimal apparatus
consists of accessory structures of the eyes that produce, store, and remove tears
acous/o, acoust/o
means ears (1)
audi/o, audit/o
means ears (2)
ot/o
means ears (3)
ears
receptor organs for the sense of hearing; helps maintain balance
pinn/i
means outer ear
outer ear
transmits sound waves to the middle ear
myring/o
means middle ear (1)
tympan/o
means middle ear (2)
middle ear
transmits sound waves to the inner ear
labyrinth/o
means inner ear/ labyrinth
inner ear
receives sound vibrations and transmits them to the brain
adnexa of the eyes
structures outside the eyeball, including: orbit, eye muscles, eyelids, eyelashes, conjunctiva, and lacrimal apparatus
adnexa
means appendages or accessory structures of an organ
orbit
bony cavity of the skull that contains and protects eyeball and its associated muscles, blood vessels, and nerves
eye muscles
6 major ones that come in 3 pairs and are attached to the eye
binocular vision
musces of both eyes work together in coordinated movement to enable this
bin-
means two
ocul
means eye
-ar
means pertaining to
upper and lower eyelids
________________ of each eye help protect the eyeball from foreign matter, excessive light, and injuries due to other causes
canthus
where the eyelids meet nearest the nose
epicanthus
a vertical fold of skin on either side of the nose
outer canthus
where the eyelids meet farthest from the nose
tarsus
framework within the upper and lower eyelids that provides necessary stiffness and shape
tars/o
means (edge of) eyelid
-us
singular noun ending
eyebrows and eyelashes
prevent foreign matter from reaching the eyes.
cilia
eyelashes consist of small hairs known as _________
conjunctiva
transparent mucous membrane that lines the underside of each eyelid & continues to form a protective covering over the exposed surface of the eyeball
lacrimal glands
secrete lacrimal fluid; located on the underside of the upper eyelid just above the outer corner of each eye
lacrimal fluid
function of this is to maintain moisture on the anterior surface of the eyeball. Blinking distributes this
lacrimal canal
consists of a duct at the inner corner of each eye. These ducts collect tears and empty them into the lacrimal sacs
lacrimal sac
an enlargement of the upper portion of the lacrimal duct
lacrimal duct
the passageway that drains excess tears into the nose
eyeball
a 1" sphere with only about 1/6 of its surface visible
ocular
means pertaining to the eye
extraocular
means outside the eyeball
extra-
means outside
intraocular
means within the eyeball
intra-
means within
sclera
maintains shape of the eye and protects delicate inner layers of tissue. Tough, fibrous tissue that forms the outer later of the eye, except for part covered by cornea. White of the eye
scler/o
means white of the eye
choroid
opaque middle layer of eyeball that contains many blood vessels and provides blood supply for entire eye
anterior segment
makes up the front one-third of the eyeball; divided into anterior and posterior chambers
anterior chamber
located behind the cornea and in front of the iris
posterior chamber
located behind the iris and in front of the ligaments holding the lens in place
aqueous fluid
fills anterior and posterior chambers. Helps eye maintain shape and nourishes intraocular structures
trabecular meshwork
constantly filters and drains aqueous fluid, above canal of Schlemm
canal of Schlemm
constantly filters and drains aqueous fluid, below trabecular meshwork
intraocular pressure
measurement of the fluid pressure inside the eye; rate at which aqueous fluid enters and leaves the eye regulates this pressure
posterior segment
makes up the remaining two-thirds of the eye; lined with retina and filled with vitreous gel
vitreous gel
soft, clear, jelly-like mass that contains millions of fine fibers that helps maintain shape of eye
rods and cones
in retina, receive images that have passed through lens of eye and converted into nerve impulses and transmitted to the brain via optic nerve
macula
clearly defined yellow area in the center of the retina; area of sharpest central vision
fovea centralis
a pit in the middle of the macula; color vision is best in this area because it contains high concentration of cones and no rods
optic disk
small region in the eye where nerve endings of the retina enter the optic nerve. Doesn't contain any rods or cones
optic nerve
transmits these nerve impulses from retina to brain
uveal tract
pigmented layer of eye, has rich blood supply and consists of choroid, ciliary body, and iris
ciliary body
located within the choroid, set of muscles and suspensory ligaments that adjust the thickness of the lens to refine the focus of light rays on the retina
-produces aqueous fluid that fills anterior segment of eye
-thickens to focus on nearby object
-thins to focus on distant objects
iris
colorful muscular layer of the eye that surrounds pupil and controls the amount of light allowed to enter through the pupil
cornea
transparent outer surface of the eye covering the iris and pupil. Primary structure focusing light rays entering the eye
pupil
black circular opening in the center of the iris that permits light to enter eye
accommodation
process whereby the eyes make adjustments for seeing objects at various distances. Adjustments include contraction and dilation of pupil, movement of eyes, and changes in shape of lens
convergence
simultaneous inward movement of the eyes toward each other. Occurs in effort to maintain single binocular vision as an object comes nearer
emmetropia
normal relationship between refractive power of the eye and the shape of the eye that enables light rays to focus correctly on the retina
emmetr
means in proper measure
-opia
means vision condition
refraction
ability of lens to bend light rays so they focus on the retina
visual acuity
ability to distinguish object details and shape at a distance
ophthalmologist
physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the eyes and vision
-ologist
means specialist
optometrist
holds a Doctor of Optometry degree and specializes in measuring the accuracy of vision to determine whether corrective lenses are needed
-metrist
means one who measures
blepharoptosis
drooping of the upper eyelid that is usually due to paralysis
blephar/o
means eyelid
-ptosis
means dropping or sagging
chalazion
localized swelling inside the eyelid resulting from obstruction a sebaceous gland
ectropion
the eversion (turning outward) of the edge of the eyelid, usually affects lower lid
ec-
means out
trop
means turn
-ion
means condition
entropion
inversion (turning inward) of the edge of an eyelid, usually effects lower lid
en-
means in
hordeolum
pus-filled lesion on the eyelid resulting from an infection in a sebaceous gland
periorbital edema
swelling surrounding the eye or eyes that can cause eyes to be partially closed
orbit
means eyeball/ bony socket
conjunctivitis
an inflammation of the conjunctiva that is usually caused by an infection or allergy
conjunctiv
means conjuctiva
dacryoadenitis
an inflammation of the lacrimal gland that can be caused by a bacterial, viral, or fungal infection. Symptoms include sudden severe pain, redness, and pressure in orbit of eye
dacry/o
means tear
aden
means gland
subconjunctival hemorrhage
bleeding between the conjunctiva and sclera, creates red area over white of eye
xerophthalmia
drying of eye surfaces including the conjunctiva
xer
means dry
-ia
means abnormal condition
iritis
inflammation of the uveal tract affecting primarily structures in the front of the eye
corneal abrasion
an injury, such as a scratch or irritation, to the outer layers of the cornea
corneal ulcer
a pitting of the cornea caused by an infection or injury
keratitis
inflammation of the cornea, can be due to
kerat/o
means cornea (also means hard)
pterygium
a benign growth on the cornea that can become large enough to distort vision
scleritis
an inflammation of the sclera
scler
means white of eye
synechia
an adhesion that binds the iris to an adjacent structure such as the lens or cornea
anisocoria
condition in which the pupils are unequal in size
anis/o
means unequal
cor
means pupil
cataract
the loss of transparency of the lens that causes a progressive loss of visual clarity; usually associated with age
Pupils are Equal, Round, Responsive to Light and Accommodation
PERRLA stands for:
retinal detachment
retina is pulled away from its attachment to the choroid in the back of the eye
floaters
particles of cellular debris that float in the vitreous fluid and cast shadows on the retina. Occur normally with aging
nystagmus
an involuntary, constant, rhythmic movement of the eyeball that can be congenital or caused by a neurological injury or drug use
papilledema
swelling and inflammation of the optic nerve at the point of entrance into the eye through the optic disk
papill
means nipple-like
-edema
means swelling
retinal tear
occurs when a hole develops in the retina as it is pulled away from its normal position
retinitis pigmentosa
progressive degeneration of the retina that affects night and peripheral vision; detected by presence of dark pigmented spots in retina
vitreous detachment
occurs as aging causes the vitreous gel to slowly shrink. This shrinkage causes fine fibers within the gel pull on the retinal surface. Fibers usually break, allowing vitreous to separate and shrink
glaucoma
group of diseases characterized by an increased intraocular pressure that cause damage to the retinal nerve fibers and the optic nerve. Pressure is caused by a blockage in the flow of fluid out of the eye. If untreated can cause loss in peripheral vision and eventually blindness.
open-angle glaucoma
trabecular meshwork gradually becomes blocked, which causes buildup of pressure. Symptoms aren't noticed by patient until optic nerve has been damaged
closed-angle glaucoma
opening between the cornea and iris narrows so that fluid cannot reach the trabecular meshwork. Narrowing causes sudden increase in intraocular pressure that produces severe pain, nausea, redness, and blurred vision
macular degeneration
gradually progressive condition in which the macula at the center of the retina is damaged, resulting in loss of central vision, but not in total blindness
macul
means spot
diplopia
perception of two images of a single object
dipl
means double
-opia
means vision
hemianopia
blindness in one-half of the visual field
hemi-
means half
an-
means without
monochromatism
inability to distinguish colors
mon/o
means one
chromat
means color
-ism
means condition
nyctalopia
condition in which an individual with normal daytime vision has difficulty seeing at night
nyctal
means night
presbyopia
condition of common changes in the eyes that occur with aging (hard to see things close)
presby
means old age
strabismus
disorder in which the eyes point in different directions or aren't aligned correctly because eye muscles are unable to focus together
esotropia
strabismus characterized by an inward deviation of one or both eyes
eso-
means inward
exotropia
strabismus characterized by the outward deviation of one eye relative to the other
exo-
means outward
refractive disorder
a focusing problem that occurs when the lens and cornea do not bend light so that it focuses properly on retina
ametropia
any error of refraction in which images do not focus properly on the retina
ametr
means out of proportion
astigmatism
condition in which the eye doesn't focus properly because of uneven curvatures of the cornea
hyperopia
(farsightedness) defect in which light rays focus beyond the retina
myopia
(nearsightedness) defect in which light rays focus in front of the retina
blindness
inability to see
amblyopia
dimness of vision or the partial loss of sight, especially in one eye, without detectable disease of the eye
ambly
means dim or dull
scotoma
an abnormal area of absent or depressed vision surrounded by an area of normal vision
Snellen chart
used to measure visual acuity. Results recorded as a fraction (ie: 20/20) first # = standard distance from chart, second # = deviation from the norm based on ability to read progressively smaller lines of letters on the chart
refraction
examination procedure to determine an eye's refractive error so that the best corrective lenses to be prescribed
diopter
unit of measurement of a lens' refractive power
ophthalmoscopy
visual examination of the fundus (back part) of the eye with an ophthalmoscope
mydriatic drops
medicated drops placed into the eyes that produce temporary paralysis which forces pupils to remain dilated even in bright light
slit-lamp ophthalmoscopy
a diagnostic procedure in which a narrow beam of light is focused into parts of the eye to permit the ophthalmologist to examine the structures at the front of the eye including cornea, iris, and lens
tonometry
measurement of intraocular pressure
ton/o
means tension
-metry
means to measure
fluorescein staining
the application of fluorescent dye to the surface of the eye. Dye causes a corneal abrasion to appear bright green
fluorescein angiography
radiographic study of the blood vessels in the retina of the eye following the intravenous injection of a fluorescein dye as a contrast medium
visual field testing
performed to determine losses in peripheral vision
orbitotomy
surgical incision into the orbit
-otomy
means surgical incision
tarsorrhaphy
partial, or complete, suturing together of the upper and lower eyelids
-rrhaphy
means surgical suturing
conjunctivoplasty
the surgical repair of the conjunctiva
corneal transplant
surgical replacement of a scarred or diseased cornea with clear corneal tissue from a donor
iridectomy
surgical removal of a portion of the tissue of the iris
-ectomy
means surgical removal
ocular prosthesis
may be fitted to wear over a malformed eye or replace an eyeball that is missing or been surgically removed
radial keratotomy
surgical procedure to treat myopia. Incisions are made in cornea to cause it to flatten, which brings focal point closer to retina and improves distance vision
vitrectomy
removal of the vitreous fluid and its replacement with a clear solution
vitr
means vitreous fluid
lensectomy
surgical removal of a cataract-clouded lens
lens
means lens
phacoemulsification
use of ultrasonic vibration to shatter and remove the lens clouded by a cataract
intraocular lens
surgically implanted replacement for a natural lens that has been removed
pseudophakia
eye in which the natural lens has been replaced with an intraocular lens
laser iridotomy
uses a focused beam of light to create a hole in the iris of the eye. Treats closed-angle glaucoma
laser trabeculoplasty
used to treat open-angle glaucoma by creating openings in trabecular meshwork to allow fluid to drain properly
Laser-Assisted in SItu Keratomileusis
LASIK stands for:
-mileusis
means carving
LASIK
used to treat vision conditions caused by shape of cornea
photocoagulation
use of lasers to treat some forms of wet macular degeneration by sealing leaking or damaged blood vessels
Retinopexy
used to reattach the detached area in a retinal detachment
-pexy
means surgical fixation
auditory
means pertaining to the sense of hearing
audit
means hearing or sound
-tic
means pertaining to
AD
means right hear
AS
means left ear
AU
means each ear or both ears
OD
means right eye
OS
means left eye
OU
means each eye or both eyes
pinna
the external portion of the ear. Catches sound waves and transmits them into the external auditory canal
external auditory canal
transmits sound waves from the pinna to the tympanic membrane of the middle ear
Cerumen
secreted by ceruminous glands that line the auditory canal. Sticky yellow-brown substance has protective functions because it traps small insects, dust, debris, and bacteria
middle ear
located between the outer ear and the inner ear. Transmits sound across this space
tympanic membrane
(eardrum) located between the outer and middle ear
mastoid bone cells
surround middle ear. Hollow air spaces located in the mastoid process of temporal bone
auditory ossicles
three small bones found in the middle ear that transmit the sound waves from the eardrum to the inner ear by vibration
malleus
auditory ossicle known as the hammer
incus
auditory ossicle known as the anvil
stapes
auditory ossicle known as the stirrup
eustachian tubes
narrow tubes that lead from the middle ear to the nasal cavity and throat. Equalize the air pressure in the middle ear with that of outside atmosphere
inner ear
contains sensory receptors for hearing and balance
oval window
located under the base of the stapes. Membrane that separates the middle ear from the inner ear. Vibrations enter through this
cochlea
snail-shaped, fluid-filled structure that forms the inner ear
cochlear duct
fluid filled cavity within cochlea that vibrates when sound waves strike it
organ of Corti
receives vibrations from cochlear duct and relays them to auditory nerve fibers, which transmit them to auditory center of brain's cerebral cortex
semicircular canals
contain liquid endolymph and sensitive hair-like cells. Bending of these in response to movments of head sets up impulses in nerve fibers to help maintain equilibrium
acoustic nerves
transmits info to brain, and brain sends messages to muscles in all parts of body to ensure that equilibrium is maintained
air conduction
process by which sound waves enter the ear through the pinna, then travel down external auditory canal and strike tympanic membrane
bone conduction
occurs as eardrum vibrates and moves auditory ossicles. Conduct sound waves through middle ear to oval window
sensorineural conduction
occurs when sound vibrations reach inner ear, which relays them to auditory nerve for transmission to brain
audiologist
specializes in measurement of hearing function and in rehabilitation of persons with hearing impairments
impacted cerumen
accumulation of earwax that forms a solid mass by adhering to walls of external auditory canal
otalgia
pain in the ear
otitis
means any inflammation of the ear
otomycosis
fungal infection of the external auditory canal (swimmers ear)
myc
means fungus
otopyorrhea
the flow of pus from the ear
py/o
means pus
otorrhagia
bleeding from the ear
-rrhagia
means bleeding
barotrauma
pressure-related ear discomfort that can be caused by pressure changes when flying, driving in mountains, scuba diving, or when eustachian tube is blocked
bar/o
means pressure
-trauma
means injury
eustachitis
inflammation of the eustachian tube
eustach
means eustachian tube
mastoiditis
inflammation of any part of the mastoid bone cells
mastoid
means mastoid process
infectious myringitis
contagious inflammation that causes painful blisters on the eardrum
otosclerosis
the ankylosis of the bones of the middle ear, resulting in conductive hearing loss
patulous eustachian tube
distention of the eustachian tube
otitis media
inflammation of the middle ear
acute otitis media
usually associated with upper respiratory infection and usually seen in children. Ruptured eardrum due to buildup of pus or fluid in middle ear
serous otitis media
fluid buildup in the middle ear that can follow acute otitis media or can be caused by obstruction of eustachian tube
acute purulent otitis media
buildup of pus within the middle ear due to infection
labyrinthitis
inflammation of the labyrinth that can result in vertigo and deafness
vertigo
sense of whirling, dizziness, and loss of balance, often nausea and vomiting also.
Meniere's syndrome
rare chronic disease in which amount of fluid in inner ear increases intermittently, producing attacks of vertigo, fluctuating hearing loss, and tinnitus
tinnitus
ringing, buzzing, or roaring sound in one or both ears
deafness
complete or partial loss of the ability to hear
presbycusis
gradual loss of sensorineural hearing that occurs as the body ages
-cusis
means hearing
conductive hearing loss
occurs when sound waves are prevented from passing the air to the fluid-filled inner ear
sensorineural hearing loss
develops when the auditory nerve or hair cells in the inner ear are damaged
noise-induced hearing loss
type of nerve deafness caused by repeated exposure to extremely loud noises or moderately loud noise that continues for long periods of time
audiological evaluation
measurement of the ability to hear and understand speech sounds based on their pitch and loudness
audiometry
use of an audiometer to measure hearing acuity
hertz
a measure of sound frequency that determines how high or low a pitch is
decibel
commonly used as the measurement of the loudness of sound
monaural testing
involves one ear
binauraltesting
involves both ears
tympanometry
use of air pressure in the ear canal to test for disorders of the middle ear
otoplasty
surgical repair of the pinna of the ear
mastoidectomy
surgical removal of mastoid cells. Used to treat a mastoiditis that can't be controlled w/ antibiotics
myringotomy
surgical incision in the eardrum to create an opening for the placement of tympanostomy tubes
tympanostomy tubes
tiny ventilating tubes placed through eardrum to provide ongoing drainage for fluids and to relieve pressure that can build up after childhood ear infections
tympanoplasty
surgical correction of a damaged middle ear, either to cure chronic inflammation or restore function
stapedectomy
surgical removal of top portion of stapes bone and insertion of small prosthetic
fenestration
surgical procedure in which a new opening is created in labyrinth to restore hearing
fenestra
means window
-tion
means process
hearing aid
external electronic device that uses a microphone to detect sounds
labyrinthectomy
surgical removal of all or portion of labyrinth. Performed to relieve vertigo
labyrinthotomy
surgical incision between two of the fluid chambers of the labyrinth to allow pressure to equalize.
cochlear implant
an implanted electronic device that can give a deaf person a useful auditory understanding of the environment and/or hearing and help them to understand speech