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opt/i, opt/o

Means eyes/sight (1)


Means pertaining to the eyes (2)


Means eyes (3)

Ir/i, ir/o

Means iris (1)


Means iris (2)


Means iris (3)


Receptor organs for the sense of sight

Phac/o, phak/o

Means lens


clear, flexible, curved structure that focuses rays of light (images) on retina


Means retina


Converts light images into electrical impulses and transmits them to the brain. Sensitive innermost layer that lines the posterior segment of the eye


means lacrimal apparatus (1)


means lacrimal apparatus (2)

lacrimal apparatus

consists of accessory structures of the eyes that produce, store, and remove tears

acous/o, acoust/o

means ears (1)

audi/o, audit/o

means ears (2)


means ears (3)


receptor organs for the sense of hearing; helps maintain balance


means outer ear

outer ear

transmits sound waves to the middle ear


means middle ear (1)


means middle ear (2)

middle ear

transmits sound waves to the inner ear


means inner ear/ labyrinth

inner ear

receives sound vibrations and transmits them to the brain

adnexa of the eyes

structures outside the eyeball, including: orbit, eye muscles, eyelids, eyelashes, conjunctiva, and lacrimal apparatus


means appendages or accessory structures of an organ


bony cavity of the skull that contains and protects eyeball and its associated muscles, blood vessels, and nerves

eye muscles

6 major ones that come in 3 pairs and are attached to the eye

binocular vision

musces of both eyes work together in coordinated movement to enable this


means two


means eye


means pertaining to

upper and lower eyelids

________________ of each eye help protect the eyeball from foreign matter, excessive light, and injuries due to other causes


where the eyelids meet nearest the nose


a vertical fold of skin on either side of the nose

outer canthus

where the eyelids meet farthest from the nose


framework within the upper and lower eyelids that provides necessary stiffness and shape


means (edge of) eyelid


singular noun ending

eyebrows and eyelashes

prevent foreign matter from reaching the eyes.


eyelashes consist of small hairs known as _________


transparent mucous membrane that lines the underside of each eyelid & continues to form a protective covering over the exposed surface of the eyeball

lacrimal glands

secrete lacrimal fluid; located on the underside of the upper eyelid just above the outer corner of each eye

lacrimal fluid

function of this is to maintain moisture on the anterior surface of the eyeball. Blinking distributes this

lacrimal canal

consists of a duct at the inner corner of each eye. These ducts collect tears and empty them into the lacrimal sacs

lacrimal sac

an enlargement of the upper portion of the lacrimal duct

lacrimal duct

the passageway that drains excess tears into the nose


a 1" sphere with only about 1/6 of its surface visible


means pertaining to the eye


means outside the eyeball


means outside


means within the eyeball


means within


maintains shape of the eye and protects delicate inner layers of tissue. Tough, fibrous tissue that forms the outer later of the eye, except for part covered by cornea. White of the eye


means white of the eye


opaque middle layer of eyeball that contains many blood vessels and provides blood supply for entire eye

anterior segment

makes up the front one-third of the eyeball; divided into anterior and posterior chambers

anterior chamber

located behind the cornea and in front of the iris

posterior chamber

located behind the iris and in front of the ligaments holding the lens in place

aqueous fluid

fills anterior and posterior chambers. Helps eye maintain shape and nourishes intraocular structures

trabecular meshwork

constantly filters and drains aqueous fluid, above canal of Schlemm

canal of Schlemm

constantly filters and drains aqueous fluid, below trabecular meshwork

intraocular pressure

measurement of the fluid pressure inside the eye; rate at which aqueous fluid enters and leaves the eye regulates this pressure

posterior segment

makes up the remaining two-thirds of the eye; lined with retina and filled with vitreous gel

vitreous gel

soft, clear, jelly-like mass that contains millions of fine fibers that helps maintain shape of eye

rods and cones

in retina, receive images that have passed through lens of eye and converted into nerve impulses and transmitted to the brain via optic nerve


clearly defined yellow area in the center of the retina; area of sharpest central vision

fovea centralis

a pit in the middle of the macula; color vision is best in this area because it contains high concentration of cones and no rods

optic disk

small region in the eye where nerve endings of the retina enter the optic nerve. Doesn't contain any rods or cones

optic nerve

transmits these nerve impulses from retina to brain

uveal tract

pigmented layer of eye, has rich blood supply and consists of choroid, ciliary body, and iris

ciliary body

located within the choroid, set of muscles and suspensory ligaments that adjust the thickness of the lens to refine the focus of light rays on the retina
-produces aqueous fluid that fills anterior segment of eye
-thickens to focus on nearby object
-thins to focus on distant objects


colorful muscular layer of the eye that surrounds pupil and controls the amount of light allowed to enter through the pupil


transparent outer surface of the eye covering the iris and pupil. Primary structure focusing light rays entering the eye


black circular opening in the center of the iris that permits light to enter eye


process whereby the eyes make adjustments for seeing objects at various distances. Adjustments include contraction and dilation of pupil, movement of eyes, and changes in shape of lens


simultaneous inward movement of the eyes toward each other. Occurs in effort to maintain single binocular vision as an object comes nearer


normal relationship between refractive power of the eye and the shape of the eye that enables light rays to focus correctly on the retina


means in proper measure


means vision condition


ability of lens to bend light rays so they focus on the retina

visual acuity

ability to distinguish object details and shape at a distance


physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the eyes and vision


means specialist


holds a Doctor of Optometry degree and specializes in measuring the accuracy of vision to determine whether corrective lenses are needed


means one who measures


drooping of the upper eyelid that is usually due to paralysis


means eyelid


means dropping or sagging


localized swelling inside the eyelid resulting from obstruction a sebaceous gland


the eversion (turning outward) of the edge of the eyelid, usually affects lower lid


means out


means turn


means condition


inversion (turning inward) of the edge of an eyelid, usually effects lower lid


means in


pus-filled lesion on the eyelid resulting from an infection in a sebaceous gland

periorbital edema

swelling surrounding the eye or eyes that can cause eyes to be partially closed


means eyeball/ bony socket


an inflammation of the conjunctiva that is usually caused by an infection or allergy


means conjuctiva


an inflammation of the lacrimal gland that can be caused by a bacterial, viral, or fungal infection. Symptoms include sudden severe pain, redness, and pressure in orbit of eye


means tear


means gland

subconjunctival hemorrhage

bleeding between the conjunctiva and sclera, creates red area over white of eye


drying of eye surfaces including the conjunctiva


means dry


means abnormal condition


inflammation of the uveal tract affecting primarily structures in the front of the eye

corneal abrasion

an injury, such as a scratch or irritation, to the outer layers of the cornea

corneal ulcer

a pitting of the cornea caused by an infection or injury


inflammation of the cornea, can be due to


means cornea (also means hard)


a benign growth on the cornea that can become large enough to distort vision


an inflammation of the sclera


means white of eye


an adhesion that binds the iris to an adjacent structure such as the lens or cornea


condition in which the pupils are unequal in size


means unequal


means pupil


the loss of transparency of the lens that causes a progressive loss of visual clarity; usually associated with age

Pupils are Equal, Round, Responsive to Light and Accommodation

PERRLA stands for:

retinal detachment

retina is pulled away from its attachment to the choroid in the back of the eye


particles of cellular debris that float in the vitreous fluid and cast shadows on the retina. Occur normally with aging


an involuntary, constant, rhythmic movement of the eyeball that can be congenital or caused by a neurological injury or drug use


swelling and inflammation of the optic nerve at the point of entrance into the eye through the optic disk


means nipple-like


means swelling

retinal tear

occurs when a hole develops in the retina as it is pulled away from its normal position

retinitis pigmentosa

progressive degeneration of the retina that affects night and peripheral vision; detected by presence of dark pigmented spots in retina

vitreous detachment

occurs as aging causes the vitreous gel to slowly shrink. This shrinkage causes fine fibers within the gel pull on the retinal surface. Fibers usually break, allowing vitreous to separate and shrink


group of diseases characterized by an increased intraocular pressure that cause damage to the retinal nerve fibers and the optic nerve. Pressure is caused by a blockage in the flow of fluid out of the eye. If untreated can cause loss in peripheral vision and eventually blindness.

open-angle glaucoma

trabecular meshwork gradually becomes blocked, which causes buildup of pressure. Symptoms aren't noticed by patient until optic nerve has been damaged

closed-angle glaucoma

opening between the cornea and iris narrows so that fluid cannot reach the trabecular meshwork. Narrowing causes sudden increase in intraocular pressure that produces severe pain, nausea, redness, and blurred vision

macular degeneration

gradually progressive condition in which the macula at the center of the retina is damaged, resulting in loss of central vision, but not in total blindness


means spot


perception of two images of a single object


means double


means vision


blindness in one-half of the visual field


means half


means without


inability to distinguish colors


means one


means color


means condition


condition in which an individual with normal daytime vision has difficulty seeing at night


means night

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