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Skeletal System - Study Guide
For Conyers Period 3 Anatomy and Physiology
Terms in this set (95)
Connective tissue that connects BONE to BONE
Connective tissue that connects BONE to MUSCLE
Lubricates fluid found between BONES to reduce stress
Fluid-filled sac that cushions JOINT
Cartilaginous pads of tissue between the TIBIA and the FEMUR
Describe FIBROUS JOINTS
Generally immovable; Fibrous connective tissue join BONE to BONE; Ex.) Cranium
Describe CARTILAGINOUS JOINTS
Immovable or slightly movable; Fibrocartilage found between bones; Ex.) Sternum / Ribs, Vertebrae, Pelvis
Describe SYNOVIAL JOINTS
Freely movable joints; Bones do NOT come into contact with each other; 6 types; Pivot, Saddle, Ball & Socket, Hinge, Condyloid, Gliding
What are the 5 functions of the Skeletal System?
Support, Protection, Movement, Storage, Blood cell formation
Describe COMPACT BONE
Hard outer layer of the bone
Describe SPONGY BONE
Less dense, small needle-like pieces of bone (Trabecula); Many open
Describe BONE MARROW
Soft tissue inside bone that produces blood cells
Bones are classified according to .....?
Describe LONG BONES
Typically longer than wide; Have a shaft with heads at both ends, Contain mostly compact bone; Ex.) Femur, humerus
Describe SHORT BONES
Generally cube-shaped; Contain mostly spongy bone; Ex.) Carpals, tarsals
Describe FLAT BONES
Thin and flattened; Usually curved; Thin layers of compact bone around a layer of spongy bone; Ex.) Skull, ribs, sternum
Describe IRREGULAR BONES
Irregular shape; Do not fit into other bone classification categories; Ex.) Vertebrae, hip
Describe the EPIPHYSIS
Ends of the bone; Composed mostly of SPONGY bone; location of BLOOD FORMATION (red marrow)
Describe the DIAPHYSIS
Shaft of the bone; Composed of COMPACT bone; location of LIPID STORAGE (yellow marrow)
Describe the PERIOSTEUM
Outside cover of the DIAPHYSIS; Fibrous connective tissue membrane
Describe the ARTERIES
Supply bone cell with nutrients
Describe ARTICULAR CARTILAGE
Covers the external surface of the EPIPHYSES; Made of Hyaline cartilage; Decreases friction at joint surfaces
Describe HYALINE CARTILAGE
provides support, flexibility, and resilience, and is the most abundant type of cartilage
Describe MEDULLARY CAVITY
Cavity of the shaft; Contains YELLOW MARROW in adults; Mostly RED MARROW in infants
Osteons are a unit of bone; Cylindrical tubes that protect vitals
Describe CENTRAL (Haversian) CANALS
Opening in the center of an Osteon; Carries blood vessels and nerves
Describe the LACUNAE
Cavities containing blood cells (Osteocytes); arranged in concentric rings
Rings around the central canal; Sites of Lacunae
Tiny canals; Radiate from the central canal to the lacunae; Form a transport system
Describe INTRAMEMBRANOUS OSSIFICATION
Bone growth within a membrane; a bone develops from a fibrous membrane; osteoblast differentiate within mesenchymal or fibrous CT, usually in deep layers of dermis
What do EPIPHYSEAL PLATES do?
Allow for growth of long bones during childhood; New cartilage is continuously formed and the older cartilage becomes OSSIFIED (or changed to bone); Cartilage is broken down and replaced by bone
Describe the role of OSTEOCYTES
They mature bone cells
Describe the role of OSTEOBLASTS
Bone-forming cells for bone growth
Describe the role of OSTEOCLASTS
Bone-destroying cells; Break down bone matrix for remodeling and release of calcium
Describe BONE FRACTURES
They are a break in the bone; There are 2 types of bone fractures
Describe CLOSED (Simple) FRACTURE
Break that does not penetrate the skin
Describe OPEN (Compound) FRACTURE
Broken bone that penetrates through the skin
How are Bone fractures treated?
Reduction and Immobilization; Realignment
Describe COMMINUTED fracture
Bone breaks into many fragments; More common in older people with brittle bones
Describe COMPRESSION fracture
Bone is crushed; Common in porous bones
Describe DEPRESSION fracture
Broken bone portion is pressed inward
Describe IMPACTED fracture
Broken bone ends are forced into each other; Commonly occurs when one attempts to break a fall with outstretched arms
Describe SPIRAL fracture
Ragged break occurs when excessive twisting forces are applied to a bone; Common sports fracture
Describe GREENSTICK fracture
Bone breaks incompletely, much in the way a green twig breaks. Only one side of the shaft breaks; the other side bends. Common in children, whose bones have relatively more organic matrix and are more flexible than those of adults.
Describe the process of BONE REPAIR
Hematoma (blood-filled swelling) is formed; Break is splinted (immobilized) by fibrocartilage to form a callus; Fibrocartilage callus is replaced by a bony callus; Bony callus is remodeled to form a permanent patch
How many bones are in the adult body?
The AXIAL skeleton comprises what bones / cavities?
The Skull, Vertebral column, Rib cage
The APPENDICULAR skeleton comprises what bones / cavities?
Bones of arms and legs, Bones of shoulder, Pelvis
The SKULL is composed of what 2 set of bones?
Cranium and Facial bones joined by sutures; Only the mandible is attached by a freely movable joint
The # of bones the Frontal, Parietal, Occipital, Temporal, Sphenoid, and Ethmoid contain is....
1 Frontal bone, 2 Parietal, 1 Occipital, 2 Temporal, 1 Sphenoid, 1 Ethmoid
What is the Foramen Magnum?
The area where the spinal cord joins the brain; Opening in Occipital bone
What are FONTANELLES?
Fibrous membranes connecting the cranial bones; allow the brain to grow; Converts to bone within 24 months after birth
Where and what is the MAXILLA?
The 2 bones that form the upper jaw
Where and what is the MANDIBLE?
The lower jaw; Only movable bone of the skull; Contains tooth sockets for 16 teeth
What is ZYGOMATIC BONE?
The 2 cheek bones
The vertebrae is separated by ...?
Intervertebral discs (Fibrocartilage pads)
The Spine has how many normal curvatures?
The meaning of "C" in regard to its location on the SPINAL CORD means...?
The meaning of "T" in regard to its location on the SPINAL CORD means...?
The meaning of the "L" in regard to its location on the SPINAL CORD means...?
What does the VERTEBRAL COLUMN do?
Protect spinal cord, supports the rib cage, attaches to pelvis
How many RIBS connect to the vertebrae?
Describe TRUE RIBS
Ribs connect DIRECTLY to the sternum
Describe FALSE RIBS
Ribs that attach to STERNUM by a common cartilage
Describe FLOATING RIBS
Ribs that do not attach to the sternum
What are the 3 bones that make up the STERNUM, and what type of bone is the STERNUM?
Manubrium, body, Xiphoid process; the Sternum is a flat bone
What is the XIPHOID PROCESS?
Inferior and smallest portion of sternum; Attachment site for diaphragm
How many vertebrae make up the THORACIC VERTEBRAE?
What does the PECTORAL (Shoulder) GIRLDES ALLOW FOR?
Truly free movement
Describe the four bones that make up the PECTORAL GIRDLES
2 Clavicles - collarbone; Slender and S-shaped
2 Scapulas - Shoulder blade; triangular shape
What are the bones of the UPPER LIMB?
Humerus, Radius and Ulna, Carpals, Metacarpals, Phalanges,
Describe the 2 bones that make up the PELVIC GIRDLE
2 Coxal bones (Hipbones); the Sacrum and the Coccyx
What organs do the PELVIS protect?
Reproductive, urinary bladder, parts of large intestine
Describe the bones of the COXAL bone?
llium - Largest part of the coxal bone
Ischium - Most inferior part of the coxal bone
Pubis - Anterior part of the coxal bone
Where do the 2 pubic bones meet?
The Pubic Symphysis
Describe the MALE pelvis
Funnel shaped; Heavy and large; pubic arch is more narrow
Describe the FEMALE pelvis
Wider pelvis with broader hips; pelvic cavity is shallow; bones are lighter / thinner; pubic arch is wider
Describe the FEMUR
It's the thigh bone; Strongest and longest bone in the body
Describe the PATELLA
Triangular bone that protects the knee joint
Describe the TIBIA
Shinbone; Medial to the Fibula; Thick and bears the weight of the femur
Describe the FIBULA
Lateral to the midline of the Tibia; Stabilizes ankle
Describe the TARSAL BONES
Ankle; Supports weight of body
Describe the METATARSALS
Sole or instep
Describe the PHALANGES
What are JOINTS?
The articulations of bones; hold bones together; allow for mobility
Describe a TORN MENISCUS and how it may be treated
The menisci absorb shock and are attached to the tibia so it may pivot freely; tear due to age and occur when the knee joint is bent and then the knee is twisted; treated by surgery
Describe a TORN ACL
ACL provides stability to the joint; Occurs when the knee is locked with the foot planted and then the knee is twisted quickly
Most common bone disease; 1 in 5 women will get it; Men over 70 are at risk; Body stops making new bones due to lack of calcium
Inflammation of one or more joints; Breakdown of cartilage; There are many different types
Most common type of Arthritis; Caused by 'wear and tear'; Cartilage breaks down and bony spurts may develop; Genetic
Describe RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS
Autoimmune disease; Body mistakenly attacks healthy tissue; Common in middle-aged people' Women get RA more than men
Type of Arthritis that occurs when acid builds up in the blood, causing crystals to form in the joint; Leads to MAJOR inflammation; Common in men and those who drink alcohol
Uncommon; Caused by a lack of Vitamin D, Calcium, Phosphate and leads to a weakening or deformation of bones;
What can cause VITAMIN D deficiency?
Can be caused by a lack of sunlight exposure or rare genetic X-linked dominant trait
Flip for a link to a quiz on the wrist and hand bones
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