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48 terms

Endocrine Med Terms

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Adrenal glands
located next to each kidney; the cortex secretes steroid hormones and the medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine; aka suprarenal glands
Steroid hormones
regulate carbohydrate metabolism and salt and water balance; some effect on sexual characteristics; include glucocorticoids, mineral corticosteroids, and androgens
Epinephrine & Norepinephrine
affect sympathetic nervous system in stress response
Ovaries
located one on each side of the uterus in the female pelvis, functioning to secrete estrogen and progesterone
Estrogen & progesterone
responsible for the development of female secondary sex characteristics and the regulation of reproduction
Pancreas
located behind the stomach in front of the first and second lumbar vertebrae, functioning to secrete insulin and glucagon
Insulin & glucagon
regulate carbohydrate/sugar metabolism
Parathyroid glands
located on the posterior aspect of the thyroid gland in the neck, functioning to secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
regulates calcium and phosphorus metabolism
Pineal gland
located in the center of the brain, functioning to secrete melatonin and serotonin
Melatonin
exact function unknown; affects onset of puberty
Serotonin
a neurotransmitter that serves as the precursor to melatonin
Pituitary gland
located at the base of the brain, the anterior portion secretes thyroid-stimulation hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, growth hormone, and prolactin; the posterior portion releases antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin
Testes
located one on each side within the scrotum in the male, functioning to secrete testosterone
Testosterone
affects masculinization and reproduction
Thyroid gland
located in front of the neck, functioning to secrete triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and calcitonin
Exophthalmos
protrusion of one or both eyeballs, often because of thyroid dysfunction or a tumor behind the eyeball
Glucosuria
glucose (sugar) in the urine
Hirsutism
shaggy; an excessive growth of hair especially in unusual places (e.g. a woman with a beard)
Hypercalcemia
an abnormally high level of calcium in the blood
Hypoglycemia
low blood sugar
Hyperkalemia
an abnormally high level of potassium in the blood
Hyponatremia
low level of sodium ions in the blood
Hypersecretion
abnormally increased secretion
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
presence of an abnormal amount of ketone bodies (acetone, beta-hydroxbutyric acid, and acetoacetic acid) in the blood and urine indicating an abnormal utilization of carbohydrates seen in uncontrolled diabetes
Metabolism
all chemical processes in the body that result in growth, generation of energy, elimination of waste, and other body functions
Polydipsia
excessive thirst
Polyuria
excessive urination
Cushing syndrome
collection of signs and symptoms caused by an excessive level of cortisol hormone from any cause, such as a result of excessive production by the adrenal gland (often caused by a tumor), or more commonly as a side effect of treatment with glucocorticoid (steroid) hormones such as prednisone for asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, or other inflammatory diseases; symptoms include upper body obesity, facial puffiness (moon-shaped appearance), hyperglycemia, weakness, thin and easily bruised skin with stria (stretch marks), hypertension, and osteoporosis
Type 1 diabetes mellitus
diabetes in which there is no beta cell production of insulin - the patient is dependent on insulin for survival
Type 2 diabetes mellitus
diabetes in which the body produces insulin, but not enough, or there is insulin resistance (a defective use of the insulin that is produced) - the patient usually is not dependent on insulin for survival
Hyperinsulinism
condition resulting from an excessive amount of insulin in the blood that draws sugar out of the bloodstream, resulting in hypoglycemia, fainting, and convulsions; often caused by an overdose of insulin or by a tumor of the pancreas
Pancreatitis
inflammation of the pancreas
Hyperparathyroidism
hypersecretion of the parathyroid glands, usually caused by a tumor
Acromegaly
disease characterized by enlarged features, especially the face and hands, caused by hypersecretion of the pituitary hormone after puberty, when normal bone growth has stopped; most often caused by a pituitary tumor
Goiter
enlargement of the thyroid gland caused by thyroid dysfunction, tumor, lack of iodine in the diet, or inflammation
Hyperthyroidism
condition of hypersecretion of the thyroid gland characterized by exophthalmia, tachycardia, goiter, and tumor; aka Grave's disease
Grave's disease
condition of hypersecretion of the thyroid gland characterized by exophthalmia, tachycardia, goiter, and tumor; aka hyperthyroidism
Hypothyroidism
condition of hyposecretion of the thyroid gland causing low thyroid levels in the blood that result in sluggishness, slow pulse, and often obesity
Myxedema
advanced hypothyroidism in adults characterized by sluggishness, slow pulse, puffiness in the hands and face, and dry skin
Blood sugar (BS)
measurement of the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood; aka blood glucose
Fasting blood sugar (FBS)
measurement of blood sugar level after a fast of 12 hours
Postprandial blood sugar (PPBS)
measurement of blood sugar level after a meal, commonly after 2 hours
Glucose tolerance test (GTT)
measurement of the body's ability to metabolize carbohydrates by administering a prescribed amount of glucose after a fasting period, then measuring blood and urine glucose levels every hour thereafter - usually for 4 to 6 hours
Antihypoglycemic
drug that raises blood sugar
Antithyroid drug
agent that blocks the production of the thyroid hormones; used to treat hyperthyroidism
Hormone replacement
drug that replaces a hormone deficiency (e.g. estrogen, testosterone, thyroid)
Hypoglycemic
aka antihyperglycemic; drug that lowers blood glucose (e.g. insulin)