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Adrenal glands

located next to each kidney; the cortex secretes steroid hormones and the medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine; aka suprarenal glands

Steroid hormones

regulate carbohydrate metabolism and salt and water balance; some effect on sexual characteristics; include glucocorticoids, mineral corticosteroids, and androgens

Epinephrine & Norepinephrine

affect sympathetic nervous system in stress response


located one on each side of the uterus in the female pelvis, functioning to secrete estrogen and progesterone

Estrogen & progesterone

responsible for the development of female secondary sex characteristics and the regulation of reproduction


located behind the stomach in front of the first and second lumbar vertebrae, functioning to secrete insulin and glucagon

Insulin & glucagon

regulate carbohydrate/sugar metabolism

Parathyroid glands

located on the posterior aspect of the thyroid gland in the neck, functioning to secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH)

Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

regulates calcium and phosphorus metabolism

Pineal gland

located in the center of the brain, functioning to secrete melatonin and serotonin


exact function unknown; affects onset of puberty


a neurotransmitter that serves as the precursor to melatonin

Pituitary gland

located at the base of the brain, the anterior portion secretes thyroid-stimulation hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, growth hormone, and prolactin; the posterior portion releases antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin


located one on each side within the scrotum in the male, functioning to secrete testosterone


affects masculinization and reproduction

Thyroid gland

located in front of the neck, functioning to secrete triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and calcitonin


protrusion of one or both eyeballs, often because of thyroid dysfunction or a tumor behind the eyeball


glucose (sugar) in the urine


shaggy; an excessive growth of hair especially in unusual places (e.g. a woman with a beard)


an abnormally high level of calcium in the blood


low blood sugar


an abnormally high level of potassium in the blood


low level of sodium ions in the blood


abnormally increased secretion

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)

presence of an abnormal amount of ketone bodies (acetone, beta-hydroxbutyric acid, and acetoacetic acid) in the blood and urine indicating an abnormal utilization of carbohydrates seen in uncontrolled diabetes


all chemical processes in the body that result in growth, generation of energy, elimination of waste, and other body functions


excessive thirst


excessive urination

Cushing syndrome

collection of signs and symptoms caused by an excessive level of cortisol hormone from any cause, such as a result of excessive production by the adrenal gland (often caused by a tumor), or more commonly as a side effect of treatment with glucocorticoid (steroid) hormones such as prednisone for asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, or other inflammatory diseases; symptoms include upper body obesity, facial puffiness (moon-shaped appearance), hyperglycemia, weakness, thin and easily bruised skin with stria (stretch marks), hypertension, and osteoporosis

Type 1 diabetes mellitus

diabetes in which there is no beta cell production of insulin - the patient is dependent on insulin for survival

Type 2 diabetes mellitus

diabetes in which the body produces insulin, but not enough, or there is insulin resistance (a defective use of the insulin that is produced) - the patient usually is not dependent on insulin for survival


condition resulting from an excessive amount of insulin in the blood that draws sugar out of the bloodstream, resulting in hypoglycemia, fainting, and convulsions; often caused by an overdose of insulin or by a tumor of the pancreas


inflammation of the pancreas


hypersecretion of the parathyroid glands, usually caused by a tumor


disease characterized by enlarged features, especially the face and hands, caused by hypersecretion of the pituitary hormone after puberty, when normal bone growth has stopped; most often caused by a pituitary tumor


enlargement of the thyroid gland caused by thyroid dysfunction, tumor, lack of iodine in the diet, or inflammation


condition of hypersecretion of the thyroid gland characterized by exophthalmia, tachycardia, goiter, and tumor; aka Grave's disease

Grave's disease

condition of hypersecretion of the thyroid gland characterized by exophthalmia, tachycardia, goiter, and tumor; aka hyperthyroidism


condition of hyposecretion of the thyroid gland causing low thyroid levels in the blood that result in sluggishness, slow pulse, and often obesity


advanced hypothyroidism in adults characterized by sluggishness, slow pulse, puffiness in the hands and face, and dry skin

Blood sugar (BS)

measurement of the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood; aka blood glucose

Fasting blood sugar (FBS)

measurement of blood sugar level after a fast of 12 hours

Postprandial blood sugar (PPBS)

measurement of blood sugar level after a meal, commonly after 2 hours

Glucose tolerance test (GTT)

measurement of the body's ability to metabolize carbohydrates by administering a prescribed amount of glucose after a fasting period, then measuring blood and urine glucose levels every hour thereafter - usually for 4 to 6 hours


drug that raises blood sugar

Antithyroid drug

agent that blocks the production of the thyroid hormones; used to treat hyperthyroidism

Hormone replacement

drug that replaces a hormone deficiency (e.g. estrogen, testosterone, thyroid)


aka antihyperglycemic; drug that lowers blood glucose (e.g. insulin)

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