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Chapters 7&8 Test Gov
Terms in this set (44)
- Process in which we develop our political attitudes, values, and beliefs. It is a process that continues through our lives. How people see the political world can change, but our core values rarely change
a consciousness of the nation-state and of belonging to it
- An individual's propensity to perceive, interpret, or act toward an object in a particular way. These attitudes can be positive or negative.
- Individuals choosing to access media they agree with or avoiding media that they disagree with
- Idea of coming together, listening to each other, exchanging ideas, learning to appreciate each other's differences, and defending their opinions.
- Value of social contracts, associations, and network individuals form which can foster trust, coordination, and cooperation
- Citizens who follow politics carefully
individuals participate less frequently than the attentive public but still follow politics to a degree.
Distribution of individuals preferences for or evaluations of a given issue, candidate, or institution within a specific population as measured through public opinion surveys.
proportion of population that holds a particular opinion, compared to people who have opposing opinions or no opinions at all.
- Every individual has a known and equal chance of being selected.
Margin of Error
- range of percentage points the sample accurately represents the population. Usually +/- 3% for sample of 1,000 people. Example: If poll has 47% - 45%, the actual vote percentage could be 3% greater or less for either side.
(population) group of people whose preferences we attempt to measure with sample. Sample of who is asked ?s in survey should be representative of survey.
- A measure of how strongly an individual holds a particular opinion. Typically measured people by how strongly they feel about an issue or about a politician (scale).
- When people hold political opinions that are held but not expressed. These are important because they can be aroused by leaders or events that motivate them. If realized become advantageous.
- Widely shared belief or view
- An individual's belief that an issue is important or relevant to him or her. Salience and intensity often correlated on same issue
- system designed to reduce voter fraud by limiting voting to those who are established as being eligible by proper documents (aka registering). Response to voting abuse.
- Voting early by mail.
- process in which districts are drawn to enhance party control and incumbent reelection.
- Elected office that is predictably run by one party so that the success of party's candidate is almost guaranteed. Many believe that because officeholders don't have to compete, elections do not work
- boost candidates get during an election because of popularity of candidates above them on ballot, especially President.
Winning pres. Candidates doesn't always provide boost (Ex. Republicans 1988)
- likeability of candidate including personal attributes, background, experience, and visibility.
- Inclination to focus on national issues, rather than local issues in election campaign.
- Incumbents better known than challengers and benefit from years of media on their generally positive efforts.
- Voters elect officeholders
- Voters determine party nominees.
- Voters replace members of the House of Representatives who have died or left office.
- Elections held in year when President on ballot.
- Elections held midway between presidential elections. Elect ⅓ of all members of the House of Representitives
- Elections held in odd numbered calendar years. Often for local elections that elect city council members and mayors in spring
- Proportion of the voting-age public that votes. Sometimes defined as # of registered voters that vote.
an informal and subjunctive affiliation with a political party, people usually acquire when they are kids.
Prospective Issue Voting
voting based on what a candidate pledges to do in the future about an issue if elected
Holding incumbents, usually the presidents party, responsible for their records on issues, such as the economy or foreign policy.
a meeting of local party members to choose party officials or candidates for public office and to decide the platform
National party convention
A national meeting of delegates elected in primaries, caucuses, or state conventions who assemble once every four years to nominate candidates for president and vice president ratify the party platform, elect officers, and adopt rules
Federal Election Commission
created in the 1974 amendments to the Federal Election Campaign Act to administer election reform laws and it consists of six commissioners appointed by the president and confirmed by the senate.
duties: overseeing disclosure of campaign finance information, public funding of presidential elections, and enforcing contribution limits.
Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act
an act that largely banned soft money, restored long-standing prohibition on corporations and labor unions for using general treasury finds for electoral purposes, and narrowed the definition of issue advocacy.
money raised in unlimited amounts by political parties for party building purposes, it is mostly illegal now.
political contributions given to a party, candidate, or interest group that are limited in amount and fully disclosed.
promoting a particular position or issue, and is paid for by interest groups or individuals, rather than candidates.
interest groups organized under section 527 of the Internal Revenue code that may advertise for or against candidates.
spent by individuals or groups not associated with candidates, in order to elect or defeat candidates for office.
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