15 terms

Conceptual Physics: Chapter 3: Newton's First Law of Motion- Inertia

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Aristotle
Greek scientist that studied motion and divided it into two types: natural motion and violent motion
Natural motion
Motion on Earth that was thought to be either straight up or straight down, and circular motion
Violent motion
Motion that was the result of forces that pushed or pulled, and had an external cause
Copernicus
reasoned that the simplest way to interpret astronomical observations was to assume that Earth and the other planets move around the sun
Galileo
demolished notion that a force is necessary to keep an object moving
Friction
the force that acts between materials that touch as they move past each other
Galileo
argued that only when friction is present-- as it usually is-- is a force need to keep an object moving
Inertia
the property of a body to resist changes to its state of motion
Newton's first law (law of inertia)
states that every object continues in a state of rest, or of uniform speed in a straight line, unless acted on by a nonzero net force and states that objects in motion remain in motion if no unbalanced forces act on them
the relationship between mass and inertia
The more mass an object has, the greater its inertia and the more force it takes to change its state of motion.
Volume
measure of space and is measured in units such as cubic centimeters, cubic meters, and liters
Kilograms
a unit of mass; equal to 10N
Mass
the quantity of matter in an object; measure of inertia or "laziness" that an object exhibits in response to any effort to change its state of motion
Weight
the force of gravity on an object
Newton
the SI unit of force; equal to .1kg