40 terms

Anesthesia

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Anesthesia
General loss of unconsciousness
General anesthesia
Impacts brain directly by shutting off perception and response systems
Local anesthesia
Numbs sensory nerves so no message can be sent to the brain
Analgesia
Reduction of pain without loss or consciousness
Sedation
Arousable sleep with feeling of calm
Tranquilization
Induce mood change by numbing the mind
Sensory nerves
Stimuli send messages to brain
Integrative
Analysis of message in brain and reaction
Cerebrospinal fluid
Protects brain/spinal cord
Sympathetic
Fight or flight
Parasympathetic
Rest and repose
Does practice act standard of care include analgesics?
Yes
Acepromazine
Calm and relax animal. NO ANALGESIA effects. Used to place catheters prior to general anesthesia. Be careful with problem patients
Valium
AKA Diazepam. Used if animal has a history of seizures, head injury, heart problems, highly anxious/agitated
Narcotics
Has a calming effect and analgesia. Controlled subs! Causes excitement in cats
Controlled substances
Morphine (Class 2) Butorphanol (Class 4) Hydromorphine (Class 2) Fentanyl
Atropine
NOT a narcotic! Not an anesthetic. Maintains HR (DOES NOT ELEVATE)
Induction agents
Used to render the patient lightly unconscious for intubation by LVT/DVM (can be used as a stand alone anesthesia for minor procedures)
Xyalizine
Pre-med, general anesthesia. WILL cause vomiting in cats (50% of dogs too).
Xylazine reversible drug
Yohimbine
Dexdomitor
AKA Dexmedetomidine. Used for induction or outpatient non-sterile procedures. Quick action. Can stop seizure cycles.
Dexdomitor (dexmedetomidine) reversal
Antisedan
Ketamine Hcl
A dissociative. Class 3 controlled sub. Causes catalepsy (involuntary muscle rigidity), amnesia, loss of responsiveness, loss of skeletal reflexes, profound analgesia. Laryngeal reflex maintained. Suppressed HR & RR. Used for sedation, induction, short term anesthesia. NOT for major surgery.
Two drugs often combined?
Diazepam (Valium) and Ketamine Hcl
Propofol
Milk of amnesia. Produces unconsciousness for 5-10 minutes. Rapid recovery. Very useful for intubation.
Respiratory arrest
What happens if you give propofol too fast?
Cardiac arrest
What happens if you give too much propofol?
Propofol
Which drug contains egg whites therefor should be dated and refrigerated (and thrown away after each use
Pinna reflex
Ear twitch
Palpebral reflex
Eyes
Pedal reflex
In between back limbs toes (pinch, not too hard)
Halothane
Inhalant anesthetic. Very rare now! Difficult to control amount & anesthetic depth. Depresses most body systems. Long induction & recovery time.
Nitrous oxide (laughing gas)
NOT an anesthetic. Used as an aid during induction. Can be dangerous because it works without oxygen. Mild analgesic. Mild anesthetic action. No muscle relaxation. MUST be used with oxygen
Side effects of nitrous oxide
Increase or HR & breathing (tidal volume). Doesn't decrease body functions, increases
Isoflurane
Most common. Cheap & dependable. Very safe. Increases tidal volume. Mild to no respiratory & cardiac depression. Maintain animal 2-3% (maybe even 1 1/2%)
Sevoflurane
Used for geriatric or problem patients. (Neonates, adolescents, dystocia cases, long Sx's). Maintain animal at 3-3.5%. EXPENSIVE! Newest, very safe. Easiest on all body systems. SMOOTHEST INDUCTION & FASTEST RECOVERY!
Nervous system drugs
Cholinergics, anticholinergic, adrenergics, adrenergic blockers
Pre-anesthetic drugs
Acepromazine, Valium (diazepam), narcotics, atropine
Induction agents
Xylazine, dexdomitor (dexmedetemidine), ketamine Hcl, propofol
Inhalant anesthetics
Halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane. (Nitrous oxide too?)