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Chapter 14 Study Guide
Terms in this set (38)
What are the functions of the cardiovascular system?
transport of materials to and from all parts of the body
what materials are transported by the cardiovascular system
Nutrients, water, and gases
materials that move from cell-to-cell
wastes that cells eliminate
Review the anatomy of the cardiovascular system.
blood vessels, blood, and heart
What is the purpose of the heart valves?
prevent back flow of blood
What are the heart valves (names)?
Atrioventricular valves and semilunar valves
Guards the opening between atrium and its ventricles
tricuspid and bicuspid valve
separate the ventricles from the major arteries
Aortic valve and pulmonary valve
3 cuplike leaflets
What is coronary circulation?
The major coronary arteries run across the surface of the heart in shallows grooves, branching into the smaller and smaller arteries until the arteriole dive deeper into the myocardium
What type of cardiac cell makes up the majority of the myocardium?
What does "myogenic" mean?
heartbeat originates within heart
heart cells that spontaneously depolarizing the membrane potential generating action potential
rapidly conduct action potentials initiated by pacemaker cells to myocardium
What are the autorhymic cells?
specialized myocardial cells that are smaller with few contractile fibers
produces action potential
What is the purpose for the intercalated disks?
What does "autorhythmicity" means.
the ability to generate own rhythm
What is a pacemaker potential? What channels are responsible for the pacemaker potential?
-caused by opening funny channels for Na+ and K+ then Ca^2+
Review the electrical activity of the pacemaker cells (pay attention to the channels)
RMP potential: -60 mv
• Hyperpolarization: Funny
• Threshold: Ca2+ channels open
• When Ca2+ channels open:
• myocardial contraction
• Open of K+ channels ->
What are the phase of the action potential in a cardiac contractile cell?
Phase 4: resting membrane potential (-90mV)
• Phase 0: depolarization. Wave of depolarization moves into a contractile cell via gap junctions, the membrane potential becomes more positive. Voltage gated Na+ channels open and sodium rapidly enters and depolarizers it
• Phase 1: initial repolarization. Na+ channels close, K+ open and K+ leaves through open channels.
• Phase 2: The plateau. The AP flattens into a plateau due to a decrease
in K+ permeability and an increase in Ca2+ permeability.
• Phase 3: rapid repolarization. Calcium channels close and potassium
permeability increases again
Know the heart's electrical conduction system.
Sinoatrial node (SA node): pacemaker
• Internodal pathway
• Atrioventricular node (AV node)
• Purkinje Fibers: specialized conducting cells of the ventricles
• Atrioventricular bundle (AV bundle)
• Left and right bundle branches
• Smaller Purkinje fibers
Which part of the conduction system depolarizes the fastest? the slowest?
What is heart block?
a disruption of the conduction of electrical
signals from the atria to the ventricles
What are the electrical connections between muscle cells and why are they important?
Review how an action potential spreads though the heart.
What is the cardiac cycle?
a single contraction- relaxation cycle
What are the two main phases of the cardiac cycle?
Diastole and systole
the time during which cardiac muscle relaxes
the time during which the cardiac muscle contracts
Know the 5 phases/events of the cardiac cycle.
1. Late diastole: both sets of chambers are relaxed and ventricles are passively filling
2. Atrial systole: atrial contraction forces the last small additional amount of
blood into ventricles
3. Isovolumetic ventricular contraction: AV valves shut as soon as ventricular contraction starts. As contraction continues, pressure in the ventricle increases.
4. Ventricular Ejection: when the pressure in the Ventricle exceeds the
pressure in the arteries, the semilunar valves open and the blood is ejected
5. Isovolumetric ventricular relaxation: Ventricles relax, pressure drops. Blood flows back into the cusps of the semilunar valves and they snap
What is end-diastolic volume?
The volume of blood in the
ventricles at the end of atrial systole
What is end-systolic volume?
the volume of blood left in the ventricle at the end of contraction
What is stroke volume?
The volume of blood pumped by one ventricle during one contraction (ml/beat)
What is ejection fraction?
the % of EDV ejected with one contraction (stroke volume / EDV)
How can cardiac performance be measured?
How can cardiac output be calculated?
co= Heart Rate x Stroke Volume
How does sympathetic stimulation, parasympathetic stimulation and epinephrine influence the heart rate?
-Sympathetic stimulation increases heart rate
-Parasympathetic stimulation decreases heart rate
-Epinephrine traveling through the blood
What factors affect the force of contraction?
-The length of muscle fibers at the beginning of
-The contractility of the heart
What is an "inotropic effect"
chemicals that alter contractility
What factors influence stroke volume?
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