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Chapter 25 - Fluid and Electrolytes
Terms in this set (60)
Which are electrolytes?
H3PO4, CaCl2, NaCl
pH is inversely related to the concentration of ____ ions in a solution
Which can serve as a protein buffer system?
Hemoglobin in RBCs, Intracellular proteins, Plasma proteins
Match the components of the phosphate buffering system:
Weak acid - dihydrogen phosphate
Weak base - hydrogen phosphate
After K+, what is the second most abundant cation in the ICF?
Which of the following are ways in which we lose fluid from the body?
sweating, breathing, urinating
All are correct statements about Cl-
Cl- is the most abundant anion in the ECF, Most Cl- is obtained in the diet
Match the components of the bicarbonate buffer system
Weak acid - H2CO3
Weak base - HCO3
The region of the brain that contains the thirst center is the:
Fluid imbalances can be organized into five categories including which of the following?
volume depletion, volume excess, hypotonic hydration, fluid sequestration, dehydration
Most calcium comes from the diet and is lost in ____, ___, and _____
urine, feces, sweat
The concentration of Na+ is highest in the ____
ECF (99%). Only 1% in ICF
____ is the most abundant electrolyte in bones and teeth
Which are common electrolytes found in body fluids?
Na+, Cl-, K+
Match each chemical buffer system with its location
Protein - within cells and blood
Phosphate - within cells
bicarbonate - within the blood
Acid-base balance is also called ___ balance
The ECF has higher concentration than the ICF of which of the following ions?
Na+, Cl-, Ca2+
Metabolic acids which are derived from metabolic wastes are more commonly referred to as ____
The condition in which there is a fluid imbalance in one part of the body even though the total body fluid is normal is called fluid ____
Hormones that play a major role in homeostatic regulation of both electrolytes and fluids include:
angiotensin II, aldosterone, ADH
ECF includes ____ fluid and ___ ___
interstitial, blood plasma
Solutes can be divided into two categories:
electrolytes and nonelectrolytes
The most abundant anion in the ICF is _____
On average, the human body is composed of about how much fluid?
The water in the body produced from aerobic cellular respiration is referred to as ___________ water.
Carbonic acid is formed by which two reactants?
H2O and CO2
____ buffering systems work much more quickly than the kidneys or respiratory system and have molecules that can bind and release H+ to prevent pH changes
Fluid balance exists when fluid loss is equal to fluid ____
Elevated levels of PCO2 results in respiratory ____
This anion is a common buffer in urine and an important intracellular buffer against pH changes.
Imbalances in K+ levels in the plasma can lead to neuromuscular changes which can lead to ___ and respiratory arrest and death of the organism.
Chemical buffering systems of the body include which of the following buffer systems?
protein, phosphate, bicarbonate
The percentage of fluid in the body is dependent on the age of the individual and the relative amounts of ____ connective tissue and ___ muscle tissue
______ occurs when bicarbonate ion levels are above normal
An acid-base imbalance below 7.0 or above 7.7 will result in:
death within a few hours
Fluid sequestration differs from other fluid imbalances because the total body fluid may be normal but it is distributed _______________.
In a protein buffer system an amine group acts as a weak ___, while the carboxylic acid group acts as weak ____
Which of the following are examples of ways that fluid imbalances with changes in osmolarity can occur?
profuse sweating, water intoxication
Angiotensin II causes which of the effects?
increased thirst, vasoconstriction, increased ADH secretion
The greater the difference in the number of solutes between two compartments the greater the ___ pressure
Metabolic acidosis occurs when arterial blood levels of:
bicarbonate ion fall below normal
If an acid-base disturbance has occurred, which buffering systems are no longer capable of compensating for pH changes in the body?
If your arterial blood pH drops below 7.35, you are said to be in a state of physiological _____________.
K+ imbalances are the most lethal of the electrolyte imbalances
Dietary sources of magnesium include which of the following?
beans, leafy green vegetables
ADH exerts its effects by which of the following?
increasing thirst in the hypothalamus, increasing water reabsorption in the kidney
Which of the following are sources of fixed acids in the body?
metabolic production of lactic acid, metabolism of lipids, absorption from the GI tract
Levels of carbonic acid in the body are regulated by
changing the respiratory rate
Respiratory alkalosis occurs when PCO2 levels are ___ than normal
in response to increased blood osmolarity, the osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus are stimulated to release more ____ hormone
In order to account for the difference in osmotic pressure, electrolytes are expressed as ____
An increase in blood pressure inhibits renal secretion of the hormone ____ which in turn inhibits thirst
Which of the following options results in volume depletion?
diarrhea, severe burns, hemorrhage, chronic vomiting, or hyposecretion of aldosterone (a hormone that stimulates both Na+ and water reabsorption in the kidney)
Which would cause metabolic alkalosis ?
vomiting, increased loss of acids by kidneys with overuse of diuretics, increased alkaline input from consuming large amounts of antacids
only the ____ form of calcium is physiologically active
Your two year old brother throws a temper tantrum and holds his breath. this eventually will cause CO2 levels to ___ and his blood pH to ____
ADH levels increase due to nerve stimulation from what type of receptors in the carotid arteries?
Sodium above normal levels is:
high levels of K+
An increase in aldosterone levels results in the increase reabsorption of what ion
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