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Ocean 101 Midterm 2: Study Guide & Reading Qs
Terms in this set (70)
When seawater absorbs solar radiation:
The absorbed energy results in an increase in the specific heat of the water molecules
Specific heat of water is__________ than that of copper.
Seawater with a salt content of 35PPT has a freezing point:
Above its temperature of maximum density.
What can Instruments used to measure the electrical conductivity of seawater produce?
Continuous readings of salinity with depth
Continuous readings of salinity with time at a fixed depth.
Cold seawater holds_______oxygen than warm seawater at the same pressure and salinity.
Surface Salinities at high latitudes tend to be ________ in summer than winter.
Sources of the oceans' salts:
-Earth's early atmosphere
The dissolving ability of water is related to:
Attraction between the water molecule's positive and negative charges and charges on other atoms.
Layering in the ocean occurs because:
-Surface processes form water layers of differing combinations of salinity and temperature
-Atmospheric processes control conditions at the surface
Shallow, well-mixed estuary.
Well Mixed Estuary
An estuary with strong tidal mixing and low river input
The annual range of temperatures will be_______closer to the ocean than at inland locations.
Oceans retain heat
In the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, a _____ pressure cell develops over the ocean in winter and a ____ pressure cell develops in summer.
What makes Air become Less dense and rise?
Water Vapor(moisture) increases
In the Northern Hemisphere, the water surface of the open ocean moves:
45 degrees to the right of wind direction
Ekman Spiral effect on Surface Water:
Wind driven surface water moves in a complex manner as a function of depth
Patches of plastic debris have been located in which of the major ocean basins?
All of them
What percentage of the seafloor is covered in plastic?
The Marine Plastic Pollution and Control Act
Prohibits dumping plastic debris everywhere in the oceans
Floating objects accidentally lost at sea
What influences the density of Mediterranean Intermediate Water the most?
(More then Temp)
Antarctic bottom water has:
-A very narrow range of both salinity and temperature
-Water is nearly homogeneous
A water mass at depth in the ocean has temperatures and salinities which are usually determined by:
The conditions that were present when the water mass was last at the sea surface
The water type occupying the greatest volume of the Atlantic Ocean is:
North Atlantic deep water
Water particle orbits of shallow water waves change only:
Vertical dimension with depth
Which moves faster, Short Period or Long Period Waves?
Long Period Waves
Wind Waves in the open sea have wavelengths and speeds that are defined by:
Does the period of a wave ever change?
Number of waves passing a point in a period of time
Water is the only substance that occurs on Earth naturally as:
Solid, Liquid, and gas
The dissolving ability of water is related to:
-Attraction between the water molecule's positive and negative charges and charges on other atoms
-Its ability to form hydrogen bonds with other molecules
Seawater percolating through the fractured crust along ridge systems acts to:
Both remove salts from and add salts to seawater
What is a major contributor of oxygen to the earth's atmosphere?
Salt Wedge Estuary
-Tidal currents are slight in an estuary but river flow is very large
-Occur when the mouth of a river flows directly into salt water
The influx of seawater at depth in an estuary:
-Supplies water to make up for net surface water outflow.
-Supplies salt to compensate for dilution by river water.
-A long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs
-Created by glacial erosion
Intense low pressure atmospheric storms in the Atlantic Ocean are called____
Why is the annual range of surface temperature greater on land than at sea?
The specific heat of water is greater than that of land.
Does Coriolis Force have any effect at the equator?
What is the: Wave Energy of Intermediate Neutral Ekman Range?
A surface Gyre system in the Southern Hemisphere
Retards upwelling and in creases surface elevation if rotating counterclockwise.
A south wind produces a _____ surface current in the Northern Hemisphere.
-45 degree from north
Why are Plastics in the sea a hazard to marine life?
- they are eaten by animals
- they ensnare animals
Oceanic and atmospheric system that moves across the central Pacific from Asia toward Peru
A cooling of the water in the equatorial Pacific that occurs at irregular intervals and is associated with widespread changes in weather patterns complementary to those of El Niño
Less extensive and damaging in their effects
The Pacific Decadal Oscillation affects:
Coastal surface temperatures from California to Alaska.
Under which conditions would you expect colder than normal conditions in Europe?
Small air pressure difference in the North Atlantic resulting in weaker-than-normal westerlies that push less warm water into the Norwegian Current.
According to Climate Models, What could impact the Rate of North Atlantic Deep Water Formation?
-Increased warming and precipitation at high latitudes including the North Atlantic.
-These changes will result in a DECREASE in density and INCREASE in water column stability
Water particle orbits for a Shallow water wave are:
Elliptical and flatten with depth
Water particle orbits for a Deep water wave are:
What is the Most common force generating force for water waves?
The fetch of a moving storm system _______ on the side of the storm where the wind is blowing in the _______ direction as the storm is moving
Layers where properties are changing rapidly with depth
Average time water stays in a particular basin before being mixed out
The vertical height between high and low tide
Velocity of the water due to the tides
Tidal Excursion Distance
Distance a parcel of water travels between low tide and high tide
Low Oxygen concentration
3 Sills in Puget Sound
Located at Admiralty, Hood Canal, South Sound
A lot of mixing in Puget Sound located at:
Sills, Narrow Rivers, Admiralty Inlet
Very little mixing in Puget Sound located at:
Whidbey Basin, Hood Canal, South Sound
-Found at Alki Point and West Point
Areas with Long Residence Time
Pollution does not leave quickly
Shallow Water Wave Speed Formula
g=Acceleration due to gravity (9.8m/s^2)
d=total water column depth
Faster Motor Speed, water particle orbits:
Celerity or "C"
One High, One Low Per Tidal Day
At increased depth, Water particle orbits start:
going side to side rather then in circles
Why are upwelling conditions favorable for phytoplankton growth?
Deep water that contains more nutrients and CO2 is brought to surface
Describe how the vertical structuring of the water column changes seasonally
-Polar region: Ice freezes in winter, makes surface water have higher salinity(density) and water column less stable(Convection)
-Equatorial Region: Summer increases evaporation, makes surface water have higher salinity and water column less stable (Convection)
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