Like this study set? Create a free account to save it.

Sign up for an account

Already have a Quizlet account? .

Create an account


the actions that we devise and undertake to influence relationships with particular publics.


the process of accomplishing tactics


show our true values and our knowledge of the public's values


can influence a relationship and are considered tactics. Must flow through channels our targeted receivers prefer


a tactic designed to deliver a message and influence the relationship. Becomes the message.

Three kinds of tactics (channels)

Special Events, Controlled Media, Uncontrolled Media

Special Events

Actions speak louder than words. Shows individuals that you care and wish to cultivate the relationship. Weave together the message and the channel.

Pseudo Events

AKA publicity stunt. PR practitioners create a special event designed to attract the attention of news media. Ex: brittany and madonna's kiss, the boston tea party

Controlled Media

PR practitioners control the media through the use of advertising, employee newsletters, speeches, podcasts, brochures, and websites

Uncontrolled Media

media that is out of the PR practitioner's hands. Television, newspapers, radio stations, bloggers, magazines, and other news media and news providers. Can initiate a story against your wishes or that is bad for your reputation.

Third Party Endorsement

Implicitly offers independent verification of a story's newsworthiness. Offers credibility. Opinion leaders become involved.

Pros and Cons of CONTROLLED media

Pro: ensures precise messages. Con: expensive.

Pros and Cons of UNCONTROLLED media

Pro: less expensive, stronger credibility. Con: ultimate control of message rests with others.

Successful PR tactics

part of a written PR plan that is tied to the values based mission. targets one public at a time. is based on research. sends a clear message that targets the public's interests. both the sender and receiver benefit. are specific. are evaluated constantly.


Most important public. Communication must be frequent and come in many different forms such as face to face, magazines, newsletters, videos, bulletin records, speeches, intranets, email, instant messaging, and special events.

Good Employee Relations

When the communication is FACE TO FACE and there is much interaction between employees and company management.

News Media

Intervening public that serves as a go between to carry messages to other important publics.

News Release

one of the most important yet most misused documents. An objective, straightforward and unbiased news story that a PR practitioner writes and distributes to appropriate news media.

News Release

Gatekeepers trash over 90% of these because they hold no local interest, are too promotional, or lack objectivity.

Media Kit

Used to publicize complex stories that have many newsworthy elements. packages at least one news release with other supporting documents such as fact sheets and backgrounders.

Fact Sheet

who what when where why breakdown of a news release


supplement to a news release, contains useful background info on a person or organization

Media Advisories

reminds news media about events they may want to cover. Lists necessary info about who what when where why and how. used when stories arise so quickly that there is no time to write and distribute a news release. usually faxed or emailed.


(tweets), reach the news media and their audiences. Replaces news releases. Persuasive message to a journalist using a letter, email, or phone call to describe and interesting story that may not be timely, important news, but only a softer, human interest story. Targets one news medium at a time.

Video News Release (VNR)

targeted to broadcasters. Designed to look like a TV news story.


Part of a VNR, contains unedited footage of a news story.


sound bites for radio stations and websites with catchy quotes. accompany news releases.

News Conferences

a scheduled meeting between and organization's representatives and the news media. used only as a last resort if: 1. highly newsworthy breaking story 2. advantageous to meet with reporters as a group 3. journalists will be glad they came.

News Conference Guidelines

invite news media with media advisories and make follow up phone calls. schedule strategically- usually mid morning. rehearse. have few presenters. use an easily accessible location with lots of electrical outlets. have a prepared statement and make copies available. accept questions. don't be longer than one hour. distribute media kits. film and record the conference.

Public Service Announcements (PSA)

advertisements created by nonprofit organizations to publicize their services. Targets broadcast media, print media, and websites.


represent a source of capitalization for an organization by purchasing stock, technically own the organization. individual stockholders, investors, investment analysts, mutual find managers, financial news media.

Ways to communicate with investors

web sites, newsletters, magazines, letters, annual meetings, annual reports, live webcasts, facility tours, conference calls, email updates, news releases.

Community Groups

churches, schools, professional organizations, clubs, chambers of commerce, and other local groups whose values somehow intersect with an organization

Ways to communicate with community groups

volunteering, donations, sponsorships, cause marketing, speeches, open houses, tours, face to face meetings


actions can profoundly affect an organization at federal, state, county, or local levels.


special interest group that openly attempts to influence government actions, especially federal and legislative processes.


someone who, acting on behalf of a special interest group, tries to influence various forms of government regulation

Grassroots Lobbying

informal, infrequent, unprofessional lobbying. Don't need to register.

Political Action Committees

PACs, donate money to candidates of political parties

Soft Money

money donated to political parties to be spent on non-candidate projects. Congress passed legislation in 2002 to stop this.


area of relations where PR overlaps with marketing, which is the process of getting a customer to buy your product or service.

Ways to communicate with customers

Product-oriented news releases and media kits, special events, open houses and tours, responses to customer contact, text messaging

Ways to communicate with governments

lobbies, lobbyists, grassroots lobbying, political action committees, soft money, disclosure documents


(Voters) PR practitioners influence the legislative process by building relationships with eligible voters.


may have needed resources for your organization. companies must build relationships with these in order to part take in b2b communication.

Ways to communicate with businesses

extranets, magazines, stories in trade magazines.

Six factors to execute tactics

1. Delegation 2. Deadlines 3. Quality Control 4. Communication within the team 5. Communication with clients and supervisors 6. Constant evaluation


may be addressed to many types of real-time, specialized audiences.

What good news releases, VNR's, and Speeches have in common

They are simple, have local interest, are not too promotional, and show objectivity. They align with the organization's values based mission.

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions and try again


Reload the page to try again!


Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

Voice Recording