Chemistry Unit Test- Gately 18-19

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chemical bonding
the combining of atoms to form molecules or ionic compound
chemical bond
an interaction that holds atoms or ions together
valence electrons
an electron that is found in the outermost shell of an atom and that determines the atom's chemical properties
ionic bond
the attractive force between oppositely charged ions, which form when electrons are transferred from one atom to another
ion
a charged particle that forms when an atom or group of atoms gains or loses one or more electrons
crystal lattice
the regular pattern in which a crystal is arranged
covalent bond
a bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
molecule
a group of atoms that are held together by chemical forces; a molecule is the smallest unit of matter that can exist by itself and retain all of a substance's chemical properties
metallic bond
a bond formed by the attraction between positively charged metal ions and the electrons around them
chemical reaction
the process by which one or more substances change to produce one or more different substances
precipitate
a solid that is produced as a result of a chemical reaction in solution
chemical formula
a combination of chemical symbols and numbers to represent a substance
chemical equations
a representation of a chemical reaction that uses symbols to show the relationship between the reactants and the products
mono-
1
di- or bi-
2
tri-
3
tetra-
4
penta-
5
hexa-
6
hepta-
7
octa-
8
nona-
9
deca-
10
reactant
a substance or molecule that participates in a chemical reaction
product
a substance that forms in a chemical reaction
law of conservation of mass
the law that states that mass cannot be created or destroyed in ordinary chemical and physical changes
synthesis reaction
a reaction in which two or more substances combine to form one new compound
decomposition reaction
a reaction in which a single compound breaks down to form two or more simpler substances
single-displacement reaction
a reaction in which an element replaces another element that is part of a compound; products of single-displacement reactions are a new compound and a different element
double-displacement reaction
a reaction in which ions from two compounds exchange places; one of the products of this type of reaction is often a gas or a precipitate
activation energy
the minimum amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction
inhibitor
a substance that slows down or stops a chemical reaction
catalyst
a substance that changes the rate of a chemical reaction without being used up or changed very much
ionic compound
a compound made of oppositely charged ions
covalent compound
a chemical compound that is formed by the sharing of electrons
organic compound
a covalently bonded compound that contains carbon
mixture
a combination of two or more substances that are not chemically combined
solution
mixture that appears to be a single substance
solute
the substance dissolved
solvent
the substance in which the solute is dissolved
concentration
measure of the amount of solute dissolved in a solvent
solubility
the ability of the solute to dissolve in a solvent
suspension
a mixture in which particles of a material are dispersed throughout a liquid or gas but are large enough that they settle out
colloid
a mixture in which the particles are dispersed throughout but are not heavy enough to settle out
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