Latin for "to or against the person," this fallacy involves switching the argument from the issue at hand to the character of the other speaker
Ad Populum (bandwagon appeal)
This fallacy occurs when evidence boils down to "everybody's doing it, so it must be a good thing to do."
The device of using character and/or story elements symbolically to represent an abstraction in addition to the literal meaning
A direct or indirect reference to something that is commonly known. Allusions can be historical, literary, religious, or mythical.
The multiple meanings of a word, phrase, sentence, or passage.
A similarity or relationship between two things. An analogy can explain something unfamiliar by associating it with something more familiar.
The word, phrase, or clause referred to by a pronoun
A figure of speech that involves an opposition, or contrast, of ideas or words in a parallel construction.
Appeal to False Authority
This fallacy occurs when someone who has no expertise on a subject is cited as an authority.
A figure of speech that directly addresses an absent or imaginary person or personified abstraction.
Old-fashioned or outdated choice of words
Omission of conjunctions between coordinate phrases, clauses, or words.
A writer's position or emotion regarding the subject of the writing.
A representation in which the subject's features are deliberately exaggerated to produce a comic or grotesque effect.
An acknowledgement that an opposing argument may be true or reasonable.
Meanings or associations that readers have with a word beyond its dictionary definition. Connotations are positive or negative.
The circumstances, atmosphere, attitudes, and events surrounding a text.
An opposing argument to the one a writer is putting forward
A figure of speech based on inverted parallelism. It is a rhetorical figure in which two clauses are related to each other through a reversal of terms.
Repetition of words in reverse order. Antimetabole is a type of chiasmus, but not all chiasmus are a type of antimetabole.
Slang or informality in speech or writing
Also called an assertion or a proposition, a claim states the argument's main idea or position. A claim differs from a topic or subject in that a claim has to be arguable.
Claim of Fact
A claim of fact asserts that something is true or not true. Ex. Test scores accurately measure a student's success!
Claim of Value
A claim of value argues that something is good or bad, right or wrong. Ex. Video games are corrupting today's youth.
Claim of Policy
A claim of policy proposes a change. Ex. Legalize marijuana!
A closed thesis is a statement of the main idea of the argument that also previews major points the writer intends to make. Ex. The three-dimensional characters, exciting plot, and complex themes of the Harry Potter series makes them legendary children's books.
A fanciful expression, usually in the form of an extended metaphor or a surprising analogy between two dissimilar objects.
Specific details, facts, or examples used to support the main idea of a text.
The strict, literal, dictionary definition of a word.
related to style, diction refers to the writer's word choices. Examples of diction include, formal or informal, ornate or plain.
didactic works have the primary aim of teaching or instructing, especially teaching moral or ethical principals
A speaker's expertise, knowledge, experience, sincerity, and common purpose with the audience are examples of how a speaker demonstrates they are credible and trustworthy.
a more agreeable or less offensive substitute for generally unpleasant words or concepts
a metaphor developed at great length
This term literally means, "sermon," but more informally, it can include any serious talk, speech, or lecture involving moral or spiritual advice.
a figure of speech using deliberate exaggeration or overstatement
the sensory details or figurative language used to describe, arouse emotion, or represent abstractions
to draw a reasonable conclusion from the information presented. Inferences are not directly stated.
the contrast between what is stated explicitly and what is really meant; the difference between what appears to be and what is actually true.
placing dissimilar items, descriptions, or ideas closely together or side by side, especially for comparison or contrast.
A mistake in verbal reasoning. The reasoning must be potentially deceptive.
A figure of speech using implied comparison of unlike things. Metaphorical language makes writing more vivid, imaginative, thought-provoking, and meaningful.
mode of discourse: exposition
writing that intends to inform and demonstrate a point
mode of discourse: narration
writing that tells a story or relates a series of events
mode of discourse: description
writing that creates sensory images, often evoking a mood or atmosphere
mode of discourse: argumentation
writing that takes a stand on an issue and supports it with evidence and logical reasoning
a figure of speech in which natural sounds are imitated in the sound of words