Biology 121 Chapter 11
Terms in this set (174)
Animal bodies can be organized into a what?
An important principle is that form correlates with is what?
The study of the structure of an organism's body parts (its form)
The study of the functions of an organism's body parts
Consists of similar cells that work together to perform a specific function
Type of tissue that supports, connects, or binds different parts of the body
-consists of cells scattered throughout an extracellular matrix
-includes bones, cartilage, and blood
The skin and nervous system is made of what?
Type of tissue that covers the whole surface of the body, including your digestive tract
Epithelial Tissue (epithelium)
Type of tissue that communicates signals between your brain and the rest of the body
What are the tree types of muscle tissue?
1. Smooth Muscle (found in blood vessels and the digestive tract)
2. Cardiac Muscle (found in heart tissue)
3. Skeletal Muscle (attaches to your bones)
Muscle tissues consists of bundles of long cells, each of which contains specialized proteins that allow it to contract (shorten). What are these cells called?
An animal's internal environment remains relatively what?
A form on regulation in which the result of a process inhibits that very process
Every organism exchanges what two components with its surroundings?
Chemicals and Energy
What is one of the characteristics that distinguishes living organisms from nonliving matter?
Its' abiliity to detect and react to environmental stimuli
The tendency to maintain a constant internal environment is called what?
What is an example of a breakdown in homeostasis?
-maintaining blood glucose levels and internal temperature
Diabetes (glucose regulation)
In a person with this form of diabetes, the body fails to produce enough insulin (type 1) or target cells that do not respond normally (type 2)?
-diabetes kills over 3 million people worldwide
What body system includes organs such as skin, hair, and nails that protect the body against physical harm?
-interacts most directly with the environment
Your "gut" is called what gland?
-starts at your mouth
-deals with the processing of food
-consists of a long tube dealing with the human digestive system
The site of ingestion
-also called the oral cavity
At this part of the body during the digestion process, the epiglottis moves to cover the entrance to the trachea, directing food down the esophagus
Food moves through the esophagus to the stomach via muscle contractions called what?
what part of the body has elastic folds and can stretch out?
Cells lining the stomach secrete what?
-an acidic fluid containing enzymes, such as pepsin, that help digest proteins and other molecules
Chemical digestion is completed where?
-primary site of nutrient absorption
The main portion of the large intestine where water is absorbed
Remaining waste is formed into feces and stored where?
Two sphincter muscles, one voluntary and the other not, regulate the opening of what?
What happens when the voluntary sphincter muscle is relaxed?
Feces are expelled.
Type of organ that secrete specific digestive chemicals into the alimentary canal via ducts
-digestive system contains a series of these which include liver, gallbladder, salivary glands, and pancreas
Epithelial tissue lining the inside of the small intestine is extensively folded into tiny finger-like extensions called what
What are the four stages for food processing?
1. Ingestion (eating)
2. Digestion (mechanical and chemical)
3. Absorption (primarily by cells lining the small intestine)
The use of physical processes to break down food into smaller pieces
The use of enzymes to perform hydrolysis, chemical reactions that use water to break bonds within large molecules
The uptake of the small nutrient molecules, primarily by the cells that line extensive folds of the small intestine
The disposal of undigested matter from the body
Proper nutrition provides what two components?
Energy and building materials
Type of nutrient that cannot be produced by the body itself
The potential energy in food is held in molecules like what?
The USDA Dietary guidelines are used to remind individuals what?
To make healthy food choices
What are the four categories of essential nutrients?
3. Fatty Acids
4. Amino Acids
Type of essential nutrient that are inorganic chemical elements required to maintain health
Type of essential nutrient that is an organic (carbon-containing) nutrient required in your diet, but only in very small amounts
Type of essential nutrient that is required to build several important lipid-based molecules
Type of essential nutrient that is required to build proteins
Why is there tremendous surface area in one's lungs?
The branching of airways
The alternation of inhalation (O2) and exhalation (CO2) of air from one's lungs
What type of system conveys oxygen from the lungs to body cells
-This system transports materials throughout the body
The exchange of gases occurs between what two structures in your lungs?
Blood capillaries and alveoli (tiny air sacs)
Type of respiratory condition that is often caused by long-term exposure to tobacco smoke or air pollution
Type of respiratory condition that is most commonly caused by a viral infection of the bronchioles
Type of respiratory condition that can be caused by either viruses or bacteria
Upper Respiratory Infections (URIs)
Type of respiratory condition that is a long-term inflammation of the airway
The heart pumps blood through a series of what?
Carries nutrients and wastes and contains self-sealing substances that respond to injury
Heart and blood vessels working together is what type of system?
What are three types of blood vessels that make up the "plumbing" of the circulatory system?
Carries blood AWAY from the heart
Arteries branch into smaller tubes called what?
Carries blood TO the heart
Tiny blood vessels that join the arterioles to venules
-provides the site for exchange of materials between the blood and the body's cells
As blood exits capillaries, it enters small tubes called what?
The human cardiovascular system can be organized into what two circuits?
Pulmonary and Systemic Circuit
Type of circuit that shuttles blood from the HEART to the LUNGS
Type of circuit that shuttles blood from the HEART to the REST of the BODY
Type of cardiovascular condition that increases the risk of heart attack, heart disease, and stroke
-high blood pressure
Type of cardiovascular condition that often results from fatty deposits blocking the arteries and is the most common cause of death among Americans
Type of cardiovascular condition that occurs when the blood doesn't carry enough oxygen
Blood enters the heart where? From this part, it pumps a short distance to the ventricles
*The ventricles then pump it out of the heart to the rest of the body
Conveys blood from the heart to the lungs and back, then to the rest of the body and back
Double circulation system
A rhythmic contraction and relaxation of the heart
Place where the heart muscles RELAX
Place where the heart muscles CONTRACTS
Nervous tissue that times heartbeats
-causes atria to contract and send the signal to the ATRIOVENTRICULAR node to signal the ventricles to contract
Sinoatrial Node (SA)
What would happen to heart muscle cells if coronary arteries were blocked?
Heart Muscles cells would die
What are the four chambers of the heart?
Right and Left Ventricle
Right and Left Atrium
Chamber of the heart that collects blood and returns to the heart through veins
Chamber of the heart that is thick and muscular and pumps the blood out of the heart to the rest of the body organs through arteries
Blocking of coronary arteries results in what?
-labeled as a myocardial infraction
Blood consists of many small molecules and several types of cells dissolved in a liquid called what?
Type of cell that transports oxygen using hemoglobin
Red Blood cells
Type of cell that only fights infectons
In the lungs, O2 binds to a protein in your red blood cells called what?
Blood is red because some type of mineral is bound to the heme group in the protein hemoglobin. What is this mineral?
Conveys oxygen from the lungs to body cells and carbon dioxide back to the lungs
-contains a heart that pumps blood through a series of blood vessels
Where are gases exchanged between the body and the environment?
Alveoli of the lungs
The fluid of the human circulatory system that is half of water
Cellular fragments that aid in blood clotting
-almost immediately after damage, they can form a sticky plug that can seal a minor break
Platelets release molecules that convert a blood protein called fibrinogen into a thread-like form called this.
-molecules would cross-link to form a clot, which, if on your scin, is called a scab
The body's system of protection against infectious diseases
Disease-causing viruses and microorganisms
Type of external barrier that sweeps particles outward until they can be expelled from the immune system
Hairs and Cilia
Type of external barrier that secretes mucus, a sticky fluid that traps particles
Type of external barrier that kills most of the bacteria you swallow
Type of external barrier that forms a protective outer layer that most viruses and bacteria cannot penetrate
Cell damage triggers the inflammatory response, and these type of white blood cells engulf and destroy the bacteria from a cut
The lymphatic system is a branching network filled with what type of fluid?
-the system kicks into high gear when your body fights an infection
Invading microbes are swept into lymph nodes, where they are attacked by white blood cells that reside in the lymphatic system called what?
Must first be primed by exposure to an antigen, a molecule that elicits an immune response
-only occurs when external defenses fail and infection occurs
Lymphocytes have surface receptors that bind to one kind of what?
Binding an antigen activates the lymphocyte, and one it is activated, what type of cell secretes the antibodies?
Proteins that circulate in the blood that are specific for a similar antigen
Antigen exposure will stimulate rapid multiplication of lymphocytes in a process known as what?
What must happen when antigens are recognized?
They must be DESTROYED.
A type of lymphocyte that can recognize antigens and then stimulate the production of several types of immune cells to take on invaders
Helper T Cells
Once exposed to have an infectious disease, a person may have what?
-Memory Cells live for decades
A lifetime immunity
Occurs when the immune system's self-recognition breaks down and it turns against its own cells and molecules
Type 1 Diabetes
Results when one or more components of the immune system are missing or defective
Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID)
Involves purposefully exposing the immune system to an antigen, which stimulates the production of memory cells
(Ex. The flu)
-also called immunization
Chemical signals produced by the endocrine tissue that are transported by the bloodstream and affect target cells throughout the body
Important player of the endocrine system that regulates blood glucose levels through the secretion of hormones
The urinary system rids the the body of what type of waste?
The control of the gain or loss of water and dissolved ions
(needed for human and animal survival)
Type of system that disposes of wastes and helps regulate the concentration of water and dissolved substances within the body
What is the central hub (pair) for the urinary system?
-they continually filter your blood and produces urine
Important player of the urinary system that performs the blood supply to and from the kidneys
Renal Artery and Vein
Important player of the urinary system that is a tube through which urine is expelled
The filtering of the blood takes place within the kidney's what?
Water and solutes are reclaimed and returned to the blood during the urinary process via what?
At the same time, unneeded substances are moved from the blood to the kidneys forming what?
The filtration of the blood by a machine that mimics the action of a kidney
The organs that produce gametes
1. A pair of gonads
2. A system of ducts that store and deliver gametes
3. Structures that facilitate sexual intercourse
Similarities of Sexes between Female and Male
The penis contains what type of tissue that when filled with blood, produces an erection
The male gonad is the what?
The external sac of a male that holds the testes and keeps them slightly cooler than body temperature
Within the testes, diploid cells divide via meiosis to produce haploid sperm cells; this process is called what?
The female gonad where eggs are produced and released
The site of pregnancy where an embryo develops into a baby
The birth canal where sperm enters and a baby exits
The site where the egg meets the sperm; where fertilization occurs
Oviduct (fallopian tube)
The collective name for all of the external female reproductive structures
Within the ovary, during this process, a mature haploid egg called an ovum develops into what?
The release of an egg cell from the ovaries, occurs around day 14, what is this called?
Haploid cells are produced by diploid cells within what structure of the male and female system?
By day 9 after fertilization, the embryo forms a what?
-it has defined layers that will develop into specific organs and tissues
By day 21, the embryo is attached to the wall of the uterus by what?
By just after week 8, the embryo has developed into a 2-inch-long what?
Which trimester is marked by organ formation?
Which trimester is time for growth of the baby?
Which trimester is preparing for birth?
Childbirth is brought about by a series of uterine muscle contractions
Contains synthetic hormones to prevent the formation of gametes
Birth control or patches
What prevents the joining of the egg and sperm?
Diaphragm and Tubal Ligation
Male contraception methods include what two subjects?
Condoms and vasectomy
What is the hub of the human nervous system?
-Central Nervous System
-Peripheral Nervous System
The CNS is protected by a layer of connective tissue called what?
The central communication conduit between the brain and body (part of CNS)
Both the brain and the spinal cord contain spaces filled with what?
-it cushions and supplies nutrients, hormones, and white blood cells
Why are some disorders of the nervous system difficult to diagnose and treat?
Ex. Depression, Alzheimer's disease, paralysis, and spinal infections
Because of the complexity of the system
Type of system that forms a communication and coordination network
-consists of brain, spinal cord, and nerves
What type of networks enable us to move, perceive our surroundings, learn, and remember
Nerve cells that carry electrical signals from one part of the body to another
1. Pain receptors
4. Electromagnetic receptors
The several categories of sensory receptors
Type of system that provides support, protects vital organs, and anchors your internal structure
Skeletal system (206 bones)
Like all vertebrates, we have a bony skeleton located inside our body called what?
Type of skeleton that supports the axis, or trunk, of body
Type of skeleton which is the rest of your bones
Provides flexibility and cushioning in skeletal system
living organs containing several kinds of tissue that is part of the skeletal system
strong fibrous connective tissue that hold bones together at joints
what are the several type of joints that permit movement?
1. shoulder (ball and socket)
2. elbow (hinge)
3. skull (suture joints)
broken bones that result from forces that exceed a bone's ability to flex
an inflammation of the joints due to aging, immune system, disorders, injury, or infection
characterized by a low bone mineral density; bones are thinner so they are easily broken
these organisms move from an interplay of the nervous, skeletal, and muscular systems
type of muscle that produces movement when they contract (shorten) and exert a force against the stationary skeleton
each skeletal muscle consists of a bundle of fibers called what?
parallel muscle fibers
type of fiber that is a single, long cylindrical cell with many nuclei
most of a muscle cell consists of bundles of proteins called what
each myofibril consists of a long series of these cells that are arranged from end to end
-functional unit of contraction in a skeletal muscle
body movements are produced by the contraction of what within muscle fibers?
these allow for complex skeletal movements