Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Baylor Dr. English CSS 1302 Exam 2
Terms in this set (65)
Why study delivery? (1/5)
Because it makes a difference on the way an audince receives a communication.
Why study delivery? (2/5)
Because it allows us to better understand accidental communication.
Why study delivery? (3/5)
Because it impacts the audiences attitude toward the subject.
Why study delivery? (4/5)
Because it impacts the audiences understanding.
Why study delivery? (5/5)
Because it enhances the speakers Ethos.
Discuss the impact delivery has on the change of audience attitude.
Delivery does not CHANGE audience attitude but it can have an impact on the change. It is not a 1:1 ratio.
Bad Delivery + Bad content = Not effective
Bad Delivery + Good content = Not most effective
Good delivery + bad content = Not most effective
Good delivery + Good content = Most effective and gives best chance to impact the audience attitude.
Describe the nature of good delivery (1/2)
The speakers naturalness- be yourself there is no need to act any different as long as it is not distracting.
Describe the nature of good delivery (2/2)
Good conversational quality- whether talking to 1 or 10000 act like you are just having a conversation.
Eye contact- don't stare at a notecard of you can help it.
Enthusiasm- Act like you are genuinely excited to communicate, if you aren't excited neither will the audience
Wording at the moment of utterance- DO NOT MEMORIZE, the words need flow naturally like a normal conversation.
Elements of good delivery (1/4)
EYE CONTACT- the speaker has to look at the audience when they are speaking.
Elements of good delivery (2/4)
EFFECTIVE USE OF THE VOICE- The voice is what enables us to communicate. 6 things- volume, rate, pitch, articulation, fluency, pause. AVOID THE EXTREMES
Elements of good delivery (3/4)
EFFECTIVE BODILY ACTIONS- hand gestures, facial expression, posture, and movement can be an effective way to communicate.
Elements of good delivery (4/4)
VARIETY- change in all other elements of delivery will keep the audience engaged and interested.
What is the primary element in establishing good delivery?
ATTITUDE- in order to get attitude change the speaker has cannot have a self centered attitude. The speaker has to stop thinking about themselves and start focusing on the audience and how to influence them.
William James' theory of persuasion PREMISES
That which controls attention determines action. Control the audiences action in order to get them to change their attitude.
William James' points of persuasion (1/6)
Show the significance of your issue- It needs to be as important to the audience as it is to the speaker. Make it a big deal
William James' points of persuasion (2/6)
Shock the audience- as humans when we are surprised we will pay more attention.
William James' points of persuasion (3/6)
Embrace conflict- there is conflict surrounding every issue use it to your advantage to tell both side of the argument then tell why your side is better. If there is no conflict there is no point to persuade.
William James' points of persuasion (4/6)
Arouse curiosity- as humans when we are curious we will hone hour senses to satisfy our curiosity.
i.e.: when giving an award tell about all the amazing things the person did before telling their name to make the audience wait to in suspense.
William James' points of persuasion (5/6)
Make the speech easy to follow- make the speech well organized and uninterrupted.
William James' points of persuasion (6/6)
Use variety in the type of support material- change up the type of evidence that is used.
8 tests for evidence validity. (1/8)
Quantity question- Is there enough evidence to support your claim? Depends on the nature of the controversy and how much the audience agrees with the speaker.
More controversy = more evidence
Less audience agreement= more evidence
8 tests for evidence validity. (2/8)
Clarity question- is the evidence clear and easy for your audience to understand? If the audience has less understanding use more evidence.
8 tests for evidence validity. (3/8)
Reliability question- is the source of the evidence reliable?
Never trust an oral source (the game telephone)
Some print sources are more reliable that others. Look for print sources that are "refereed."
8 tests for evidence validity. (4/8)
Competence question- is the source of the evidence competent?
is the source well educated in that field
8 tests for evidence validity. (5/8)
Prejudice question- does the source of the evidence attack certain group, or was the outcome of the study swayed by a certain belief?
Avoid sources that are know to be highly prejudice.
8 tests for evidence validity. (6/8)
Statistically sound question- is the evidence statistically sound? Relates only to the statistics. Stats don't lie, the people that conduct the studies do. We can determine if it is sound only if we know the methodology of the study.
i.e.: unemployment rising or falling in a certain period of time. Stats can prove different things depending on who selects the timeframe of the study.
8 tests for evidence validity. (7/8)
Index question- is the evidence submitted an index of what we want to know? Does it prove the claim that we want to prove?
8 tests for evidence validity. (8/8)
Time frame question- in the evidence the most recent that is available to us? Depends on the subject of the speech and how quickly that subject can chance.
i.e.: Aristotle's modes of proof have not change in that last 2000 years so there is no need to use a more recent source.
Nothing more than inferring conclusions from premises.
2 types of reasoning- Inductive and deductive.
Also known as a syllogism. Systematic arrangement of arguments that consists of 1)a major premises- statement of generalization 2)a minor premises- statement of specific instance that is related to the generalization 3)conclusion- must follow.
i.e.: all men are mortal, Sam is a man, therefore Sam is mortal.
Also know as deductive reasoning. Systematic arrangement of arguments that consists of 1)a major premises- statement of generalization 2)a minor premises- statement of specific instance that is related to the generalization 3)conclusion- must follow.
emptemy- a syllogism which is often truncated and deals in probability rather than certainty
Begins with a specific instance and moves to a generalization. 4 types of inductive reasoning: reasoning by example, reasoning by cause, reasoning by analogy, reasoning by sign.
Reasoning by Example
Type of inductive reasoning. Speaker selects group of specific cases (examples), presents them, they all have something in common and that commonality becomes the conclusion.
i.e.: Sam, John, and Mary are Baylor students and they are smart. Therefore all Baylor students are smart.
Tests for Reasoning by Example. (1/4)
Are there enough examples?
More controversy= more examples
audience disagrees= more examples
ONE example is never enough
Tests for Reasoning by Example. (2/4)
Are the example typical?
Tests for Reasoning by Example. (3/4)
Are the negative examples non-critical?
There will always be examples opposite of what you are trying to prove but do these negatives greatly weaken your argument?
Tests for Reasoning by Example. (4/4)
Do the examples cover the crucial period of time?
If the conclusion is current the examples must be current.
if the conclusion is historical the examples need to be historical.
Type of inductive reasoning. A certain factor (a cause) is a force which is capable of producing something else (effect).
i.e.: Im sick (cause) therefore I got a bad grade on the exam (effect)
Tests for causal reasoning. (1/4)
Is the alleged cause capable of producing the effect?
i.e.: because I have a raincoat I like grass. This would not be causal reasoning because raincoats and grass are not related.
Tests for causal reasoning. (2/4)
Is this a distinguishing causal factor? If this the major cause is eliminated will the effect be limited? Is this the major or most important cause?
Tests for causal reasoning. (3/4)
Is it probable that there will be no undesirable effects? There will always be multiple effects but we don't that the other effects to be bad.
Tests for causal reasoning. (4/4)
Is there a counter acting cause? Is there another cause that is capable of destroying a normal cause + effect?
Reasoning by analogy
(Inductive) 2 cases are presented argued that what is true in 1 case will also be true in another case.
Been there done that.
Reasoning by sign
(Inductive) Inferring relationships or correlations between 2 variables.
So related that if one is present the other will be present.
If one is absent the other will be absent.
Occurs when the speakers tone of voice and/or bodily action does not match the content of the message.
Delivery doesn't match the content.
Delivery shouldn't matter but it does.
Most people will interpret the communication based on the delivery not on the actual content.
i.e.: Invite a girl on a date and at the end she says "yeah see ya later." Depending on her tone it can mean i don't wanna see you in a dismissive way or could mean she would like to see me later.
Logical proof. Nothing more that the use of evidence and reasoning to convince the audience to accept our conclusion. (least used)
Emotional proof- appealing to the dominant motives and beliefs of the audience. Trying to get the audience to emotionally identify with our conclusion.
Ethical proof- Audience's PERCEPTION of the speakers character, not necessarily the speakers actual character. Does not mean good or bad. (most used)
Three sources of Ethos. (1/3)
Tangible attainments or known reputation of the speaker PRIOR to the speech.
Three sources of Ethos. (2/3)
Character and personality that the speaker reveals during the presentation.
Three sources of Ethos. (3/3)
How closely the speakers proposals conclude with the audiences belief of that controversy.
What are the 3 COMPONENTS of Ethos?
Competence, Integrity, and Goodwill
Hold in higher esteem those people who we think know more about the subject.
How honest the speaker is or how honest the speaker is perceived to be.
If people think highly of a speaker they will hold the speaker in higher esteem. Typically done in the Intro
What are the 3 CONCEPTS of Ethos?
Perception, Choice, and Change
How the audience views the character of the speaker.
Has nothing to do with the speakers actual character, just how the audience views the speakers character.
Choices the speaker makes during the presentation gives the audience information about the speaker perceived character.
Audience uses info to determine speakers character.
The perception of the speakers character changes. The speaker wants it to change for the better in the audiences mind.
Anything which generates proof in the mind of the audience. (support material)
Aristotle's definition- 1) the faculty of discovering the available means of persuasion 2) and picking among the available means of persuasion those that will be the most effective with a given audience at any giving time.
Written by Aristotle, it was the first full and complete study of communication. Witten over 2000 years ago. Concepts still have not changed. Most important book ever written on the subject of communication.
7 categories of audience analysis
1) Education level
2) Religious affiliation
5) Professional aspirations/ profession they're in
6) Location of country they're from
7) socio economic status
8 kinds of support material
3) Factual data
5) Expert Testimony
Sets with similar terms
Css 1301 test 2
Baylor Dr. English Speech Exam 2 backup
Dr. English Speech Test 2
CSS Exam 2, shelby
Other sets by this creator
Ent test 1 Scheaf
ENT 3320 Test 1 - David Scheaf Baylor
Baylor His 2366 - Exam 2 - David Smith
History Final David Smith
Other Quizlet sets
PSY 1200: Module 27 Vocabulary
Body worn Cameras