How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

357 terms


a condition that results when microorganisms cause injury to a host.
a condition in which microorganinisms are present, but does not manifest any signs or symptoms of infection.
Infection control precautions
physical measures designed to curtain the spread of infectious dieases.
Name 2 types of infection control precautions.
Standard precaution and Transmission-Based Precautions.
Stardards (universal) Precautions
are measures for reducing the risk for microorganism transmission from both recognized and unrecognized sources of infection.
When do you follow standard precautions?
whenever there is the potential for contact with the following: blood, all body fluids, except sweat, nonintact skin, mucous membranes
Transmission-Based Precautions
measure for controlling the spread of infection with highly transmissible or epidemiologically important pathogens, also called isolation precautions.
Three types of transmission based precautions.
Airborne, droplet and contact precautions.
Airborne precautions
are measure that reduce the risk for transmitting airborne infectious agents. The block pathogen 5 microns or smaller that are present in droplet that remain in the air.
Droplet Precautions
measures that block pathogens within moist droplets larger than 5 microns. thery are used to reduce pathogens transmission from close contact ( usually 3 feet or lest) between and infected person or a person who is a carrier of a droplet-spread microorganism and others
Contact Precautions
measures used to block the transmission of pathogens by direct or indeirec contact
Infection control Measures
involves the use of personal protective equipment, garments that block the transfer of pathogen form one perso, place, or object to oneself or others
When removing personal protective equipment
the nurse should remove the most contaminated item first.
Washing hands
is the most important nursing action that be perform before leaving the client's room and before touching another client, personnel, environmental surgace or clients's items?
nosocomial infection
an infection acquired during hospitalization.
Saftey and Health hazards
OSHA was created to regulate and enforce
a transmission mechanism in which the infectious agent is transferred directly into the body via touching or biting or kissing or sexual intercourse or by droplets entering the eye or nose or mouth
a transmission mechanism in which the infectious agent is transferred to the person by a fomite of vector
acquired immune deficiency
is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and suppresses the immune systemor
requiring oxygen
airborne precautions
procedures used to prevent the spread of airborne pathogens
living or active in the absence of free oxygen
the process of inhibiting the growth and multiplication of microorganisms
absence of contaminated materials
a device for heating substances above their boiling point
(microbiology) single-celled or noncellular spherical or spiral or rod-shaped organisms lacking chlorophyll that reproduce by fission
causative agent
pathogen, such as a bacterium or virus
The cleaning process employed in an ultrasonic unit; bubbles explode to drive cleaning solution onto article being cleaned
chain of infection
Infectious agent, reservoir, portal of exit, means of transmission, portal of entry and susceptible host.
chemical disinfection
A process that destroys or kills pathogenic organisms.
free from sepsis or infection
communicable disease
a disease that can be communicated from one person to another
contact precautions
practices used to prevent spread of disease by direct or indirect contact
contaminated with infecting organisms
treatment to destroy harmful microorganisms
droplet precautions
used when the disease-causing microorganism does not stay suspended in the air and travels only short distances after being expelled.
the infection or disease originates within the body
infection or disease originating outside of or external to the body
any substance or object that adheres to and transmits infectious material
group of simple, plantlike animals that live on dead organic matter
hepatitis b
inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV), which is transmitted sexually or by exposure to contaminated blood or body fluids
hepatitis c
inflammation of th eliver caused by the HCV, transmitted by exposure to infected blood (rarely contracted sexually)
Living creatures that are too small to see with the naked eye
mode of transmission
way in which it can be transmitted to another reservoir or host where it can live
a microorganism that is not capable of causing a disease
Infection acquired in a hospital
infectoins that occur when the body's defenses are weak
Microbes that cause disease
personal protective equipment
items such as gloves, gowns, masks, protective eyewear, and hair coverings are used to protect the nurse from infectious organisms
portal of entry
way the causative agent to enter a new reservoir or host
portal of exit
a way for the causative agent to escape form the reservoir in which it has been growing
protective isolation
technique used to provide care to patients requiring protection from organisms in the environment
single celled organisms with the ability to move independently
anything (a person or animal or plant or substance) in which an infectious agent normally lives and multiplies
Parasitic microorganisms that live on other living organisms
standard precautions
measures to prevent exposure to blood or body fluids that may spread disease
free from germs
sterile field
A work area free of all pathogens and non-pathogens (including spores)
the procedure of making some object free of live bacteria or other microorganisms (usually by heat or chemical means)
susceptible host
person likely to get an infection or disease ually because body defense are weak
transmission- based isolation precautions
method of caring for patients who have communicable diseases
related to a frequency of sound vibrations beyond the normal hearing range; high in frequency
one of a large group of very small microorganisms, many of which cause disease
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
Disorder of the immune system caused by a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a retrovirus that destroys the body's ability to fight infection. As the disease progresses, the individual becomes overcome by disorders, including cancers and opportunistic infections. There is no known cure.
Antiviral drug used in some herpes infections.
Airborne Transmission
Spread of disease-causing microorganisms over long distances through the air.
Amoebic Dysentery
Infectious intestinal disease caused by amoebas and characterized by inflammation of the mucous membrane of the colon.
Specific chemical produced by B cells of the immune system in response to an antigen.
Protecting against the infection caused by pathogenic microorganisms.
Obstacle that exists to protect an individual from contact with blood or other potentially infected materials. Called personal protective equipment (PPE), they include gloves, masks, face shields, laboratory coats, protective eyewear, and gowns.
Bloodborne Pathogen
Microorganism capable of causing diseases found in blood or components of blood.
Person who harbors a pathogenic organism and who is capable of transmitting the organism to others.
Corrosive and burning, destructive to living tissue.
Cell-Mediated Immunity
The regulatory activities of T cells during the specific immune response.
Contagious. Capable of being transmitted from one person to another either directly or indirectly.
Contact Transmission
Spread of disease causing microorganism by directly or indirectly touching the source of the infection or by touching an object or environmental surface.
Acquiring an infection from pathogens.
Acute inflammation of the membranes of the nose accompanied by profuse drainage.
Cough Etiquette
Coughing/sneezing into a tissue to prevent microorganisms from spreading to others. Includes properly disposing of tissue into waste receptacle and washing hands as soon as possible.
Remains of broken down or damaged cells or tissues.
Declination Form
Written formal refusal.
Droplet Transmission
Method of spreading disease from respiratory secretion through the air. Spread is usually confined to within 3 feet of the infected patient.
An infectious disease that attacks many persons at the same time in the same location.
Field of science that studies the history, cause, and patterns of infectious diseases.
Abrasion of the epidermis by trauma, chemicals, burns or other causes.
Waste matter. The elimination of waste products from the body.
Act of coughing up material from airways that lead to the lungs.
Substance that absorbs and transmits infectious material; ie: contaminated items such as equipment.
Gross Contamination
Highly infectious material present.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
Virus causing AIDS; it is a retrovirus that ultimately destroys the immune system cells.
Humoral Immunity
Immunity mediated by antibodies in body fluids such as plasma and lymph.
Immune System
Body's strong line of defense against invading microorganism. The body recognizes foreign substances as microorganisms and produces substances to fight them off. Antibodies, white blood cells, digestive enzymes, and resistance of the skin are examples.
Family of proteins capable of acting as antibodies, thereby protecting individuals from pathogenic microorganisms; also, antibodies produced by the cells of the immune response system.
A substance that has the ability to change immune responses.
Referring to a patient whose immune system is unhealthy because of a disease, medication, and genetics; these patients can be particularly susceptible to attack by microorganisms.
Infection Control
Methods to eliminate or reduce the transmission of infectious microorganisms.
Infectious Agent
Pathogen responsible for a specific infectious disease.
Inflammatory Response
Body's defense against the threat of infection or trauma. Characterized by redness, pain, heat, and swelling.
Separating a patient with certain infections or communicable diseases from other individuals.
Isolation Categories
System of seven categories developed by the CDC that isolates patients according to known infections. These categories have been condensed into three Transmission-Based Precautions based on air, contact, and droplet routes of transmission.
Jet Injection
An injection given under the skin without a needle, using the force of the liquid under pressure to pierce the skin.
Injury or wound. A circumscribed area of issue that has been altered pathologically.
A disease of the lymph nodes.
Pertaining to a discoloration of a patch of skin, neither elevated nor depressed, of various colors, sizes, and shapes.
Discomfort, uneasiness, or indisposition, often indicative of infection.
Acute infectious disease caused by the presence of protozoan parasites within the red blood cells; usually comes from the bite of a female mosquito.
Medical Asepsis
Clean and free from infection.
Microscopic living creatures capable of transmission and reproduction in specific circumstances.
Number of cases of disease in specific population.
The ratio of the number of death to a given population.
Normal Flora
Microorganisms that are normally present in a specific site.
Infection acquired in a health care setting (hospital, nursing home, clinic).
Opportunistic Infections
An infection that results from a defective immune system that cannot defend itself from pathogens normally found in the environment.
Measures taken to relieve symptoms of disease.
Pertaining to a small, red, elevated area of the skin, solid, and circumscribed.
Injection of a liquid substance into the body via a route other than the alimentary canal.
Disease-producing microorganism.
Regulated Waste
Any waste that contains infectious material that would pose a threat due to possible transmission of pathogenic microorganisms.
Ability of the immune system to resist or withstand an infectious disease.
Infectious skin disease caused by the itch mite (Sarcoptes scabiei), which is transmitted by direct contact with infection people.
Scoop Technique
A one-handed technique used to scoop up and cover a used needle only if a sharp's container is not immediately available, the covering (cap) over the needle is not manipulated in any way; it is then disposed of in the nearest sharps container.
Substance produced by the cells of glandular organs from materials in the blood.
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
A viral outbreak of a respiratory illness first reported in Asia in 2003; spread by close person-to-person contact and characterized by fever and respiratory symptoms.
Needles or scalpels or other sharp instruments that are capable of causing a penetrating or puncture wound of the skin.
Producing a solution, dissolving.
Spill Kit
Commercially packaged materials containing supplies and equipment needed to clean up a spill of biohazardous substance.
Substance from the respiratory tract expelled by coughing.
Standard Precautions
Precautions developed in 1996 by the CDC that augment universal precautions and body substance isolation practices. They provide a wider range of protection and are used by time there is contact with blood, or non-intact skin. They are designed to protect all health care providers, patients, and visitors.
Transmission-Based Precautions
Second tier of CDC guidelines that applies to specific categories of patients and that include air, contact, and droplet precautions. Used in addition to Standard Precautions.
Infestation with Trichomonas parasite, which may be transmitted through sexual intercourse.
Ultrasonic Cleaner
Machine that uses the energy of high-frequency sound waves that agitate to sanitize instruments before sterilization.
Universal Precautions
Guidelines established by the CDC for the protection of health care workers from infectious diseases.
Pharmacologic agent capable of producing artificial active immunity.
A carrier of disease, usually an insect, that is the causative organism of disease from infected to non-infected individuals.
Characterized by the presence of vesicles. Vesicles are blisters or other elevations on the skin.
An organism's relative power and degree of pathogenicity.
anything that is harmful or potentiatly harmful to humans, other species, or the environment
the term describing any infectious microorganisms present in blood and/or other body fluids and tissues. It is most commonly applied to the hep b virus and the human immunodeficiency virus.
a human or animal that is a resevior for microbes but does not have signs and symptons of infection
the organism responsible for causing an infection
a series of related events that lead to an infection
the use of a drug or chemical to prevent a disease (e.g. the taking of an appropriate medicine to prevent malaria)
the federal agency that regulates and monitors the inventory, storage, usage, techniques, and disposal of harmful substances to the environment
can be any inanimate object, material, or substance that acts as a transport agent for a microbe (towels, telephone, contaminated tissue)
a blood borne pathogen that causes a serve acute infection and may progess to chronic infection and liver damage. A double strand dna virus
a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficieny sydrome (AIDS)
the presence and growth of a microorganism that produces tissue damage
a procedure that requires penetrating intact skin or mucous membranes
in the chain of infection,airborne,contact,droplet,vector,vehicle
mouth, nose, throat, ears, eyes, intestinal tracts, urinary tract, and open wounds
a unicelluar or small mutlicelluar microscopic
a microscopic living body not perceivable by the naked eye
a microbe which nondisease producing
hospital acquired infection
any organism that causes disease
capable of producing disease
items such as gloves, gowns, masks, protective eyewear, and hair coverings are used to protect the nurse from infectious organisms
is one that becomes infected by the pathogen and also serves as a source of transfer of the pathogen. examples include animals and people.
contamination caused by pathogens being transported throught a wet barrier from a nonsterile area to a sterile area
person likely to get an infection or disease ually because body defense are weak
Being free of disease-producing microbes.
biohazardous waste
Items contaminated with blood, body fluids, secretions, or excretions; bio means life, hazardous means dangerous or harmful.
A human or animal that is a reservoir for microbes but does not have the signs and symptoms of infection.
clean technique
Medical asepsis.
communicable disease
A disease caused by pathogens that spread easily; a contagious disease.
contagious disease
communicable disease.
The process of becoming unclean.
The process of destroying pathogens.
A disinfectant applied to the skin, tissues, or non-living objects.
healthcare-associated infection (HAI)
An infection aquired in a health care agency.
Protection against a certain disease.
A disease state resulting from the invasion and growth of microbes in the body.
infection control
Practice and procedures that prevent the spread of infection.
medical asepsis
Practices used to remove or destroy pathogens and to prevent their spread from person or place to another person or place; clean technique.
A small (micro) living plant or animal (organism) seen only with a microscope; a microbe.
A microbe that does not usually cause an infection.
normal flora
Microbes that live and grow in a certain area.
A microbe that is harmful and can cause an infection.
The environment in which a microbe lives and grows; host.
A bacterium protected by a hard shell.
The absence of all microbes.
sterile filed
a work area free of all pathogens and non pathogens (including spores)
sterile technique
Surgical asepsis.
The process of destroying all microbes.
surgical asepsis
The practices that keeps items free of all microbes; sterile technique.
Giving a vaccine to produce immunity against an infectious disease.
A preparation containing dead or weakened microbes.
number of cases of disease in a specific population
the ratio of the number of deaths to a given population
infectious agent
pathogen responsible for a specific infectious disease
who created the small pox vaccine
Edward Jenner
Edward Jenner is accredited with what
eradicated small pox worldwide
field of science that studies the history, cause and patterns of infectious diseases
infectious disease
severe acute respiratory sundrome
seen only with a microscope
normal flora
microorganisms that do not cause disease/illness
normal flora aka
non pathogens
name 2 groups of microorganisms
pathogen and non-pathogen
pathogens require what to grow
food, warmth, moisture, darkness neutral pH, and oxygen or lack of oxygen
portal of entry
any opening of body including broken skin
name some reservoirs
people, animals, equipment, food, water
microorganisms must be of what types if a pathogen
parasite, bacteria, virus, fungus, ricketts
parasites example
tape worm
bacteria example
fungus example
yeast, mushrooms and molds
rickettsiae example
lymes or Rocky Mt. Spotted Fever
describe parasites
they live on or in their host, they can be single celled or multi cellular
describe bacteria
identified by shape, round, rod or spiral
describe virus
need single living cell, intracellular parasites, antibiodics don't work, and we have one vaccine
describe rickettsiae
it is larger than a virus, but like them other then that, some antiboidics do work
natural barrier example
physical barrier example
eyelashes, mucos
chemical barrier example
tears, sweat
cellular barrier example
golden rule you can have inflammation without _______
Golden rule; you can never have infection without _____
invasion of pathogenic bacteria into the bloodstream
substance that absorbs and transmits infectious material
live vaccines are
mmr and chicken pox
vaccine that is pathogenic toxin
vaccine that is killed pathogen
polio, rabies
incubation period is when
exposed to
prodromal stage is when
a feeling of malaise
acute stage is when
I want my mommy phase, feeling your worse
declining stage is when
s/s reduced
convalescent stage is when
you are 100% better
material data safety sheet
skin can never be
disinfection is the use of _____________ on inanimate objects
sanitization is
cleaning with soap and water
medical asepsis includes ___________
4 methods of sterilization are
gas, dry heat, chemical and steam
an autoclave uses what method
steam sterilization
what method of sterilization is used most often
steam sterilization needs temp increased to what
250 - 254 °
how long do you leave in steam if unwrapped
20 minutes
how long do you leave in steam if loosely wrapped
30 min
how long do you leave in steam if tightly packaged
40 minutes
what type of water must be used in autoclave or steam and why
distilled to prevent mineral build up
standard precautions are issued by
centers for disease control and prevention
the bloodborne pathogen standard is primarily concerned with
reducing the transmission of HIV, HBV and HCV infections
in the chain of infection the location of the infectious agent is known as the
the stage in infectiouis disease in which symptoms are vague and undifferentiated is called the
prodromal stage
for microorganisms to survive and thrive what must be available to them
a suitable environment
one goal of infection control is to limit the presence of ___________________
infectious agents
another goal of infection control is to create
barriers against transmission
another goal of infection control is to decrease the
risk to others for contracting infectious diseases
pathogens are microorganisms that
can cause infectious disease
all pathogens are capable of _______ ________ but not all ______ ________
causing disease, cause disease
infestation with a parasite, which may be transmitted through sexual intercourse
infectious skin disease caused by the itch mite which is transmitted by direct contract with infected person
a pharmacologic treatment agent for a viral infection is an example of an agent that relieves only symptoms of the disease
a pathogen responsible for a specific infectious disease
infectious agent
infectious intestinal disease characterized by inflammation of the mucous membrane of the colon
amebic dysentry
any microorganism capable of causing disease found in blood or components of blood
bloodborne pathogen
infectious disease caused by protozoan parasite within red blood cells; transmitted to humans by female mosquitoes
substances that absorb and transmit infectious material, that is, contaminated items such as equipment
any disease-producing microorganism
withstand an infectious disease
man-made agent
response to an antigen
protein antibiodis produced by the cells of the immune system
pathogen resistance
use of chemicals or boiling water
foriegn substance
itb handwashing
itb portal of exit
itb standard precautions
itb mode of transmission
itb rapid, accurate identification of organisms
itb infectious agent
itb aseptic technique
itb reservoir or source
itb recognition of hig-risk patients
itb susceptible host
itb mode of tranmission
itb isolation and food handling and airflow control
itb portal of exit
itb control of excretions and secretions, trash and waste disposal
itb reservoir
itb environmental sanitation
itb susceptible hose
itb treatment of underlying disease
the single most important action you can take to avoid acquiring communicable diseases is to
wash hands frequently
to sanitize something literally means to
wash it well
the difference between sterilizing and disinfecting is that sterilization gets rid of all microbes and their ____
disinfection gets rid of all surface _____, but not their spores
the word pathogen means
only those microorganisms that cause disease
form of; immune response that involves T cells and B cells to attack viruses, fungi, organ transplants or cancer cells
form of; immune response that produces antibodies to kill pathogens and recognize them in the future is call
form of; the immunity that follows the administration of vaccines is called
artificial, active
form of; the short-term immunity provided to a newborn that occurs when antibodies pass to a fetus from the mother is called
passive natural
form of; the immunity that results from contracting an infectious agent and experiencing either an acute or a subclinical infectious disease is call
active natural
form of; the immunity achieved through administration of ready-made antibodies, such as gamma-globulin is called
artificial passive
AIDS symptoms
opportunistic infections, lympadenopathy, fatigue, malaise, fever
tuberculosis symptoms
productive cough, fatigue, fever, weight loss (older adults behavior changes, anorexia, weight loss) night sweats
gastroenteritis symptoms
nausea, intestinal cramps, vomiting, diarrhea, dehydration, respiratory failure, death
hepatitis B symptoms
jaundice, liver tenderness and enlargement, fever, headache, fatigue, malaise and anorexia
chickenpox symtoms
sudden onset, fever, malaise, maculo-papular-vesicular skin rash
influenza symtoms
acute upper/lower respiratory infection, severe cough, fever, malaise, sore throat, coryza
susceptibility to an infectious microorganism depends on general physical conditon, duration of exposure to the pathogen, and number and specific types of pathogen but does not depend on
indirect contact
the body's natural way of responding when invaded by a pathogen is
the greatest natural barrier is
intact skin
specialized antibodies that can render a pathogen unable to reproduce or continue to grow are called
most of the breaks in ambulatory care occur in the _________ phase
cell-mediated immunity does not create
humoral immunity does
create antibodies
standard precautions might best be described as a set of rules to
reduce the risk of transmission
medical asepsis is decribed as the use of mechanisms to destroy pathogens after they
leave the body
the use of chemicals or the autoclave to destroy all microbes, including their spores is called
before instruments or other fomites are disinfected or sterilized, they must be scrubbed or cleaned in a process called
______________ involves specific techniques used inthe amublatory setting that are designed to destroy pathogens after they leave the body and to decrease the risk of spreading
medical asepsis
airborne precautions
used for patients known or suspected to be infected with pathogens transmitted by airborne droplet nuclei, small particles of evaporated droplets taht contain microorganisms and remain suspended in the air or on dust particles
protein in blood plasma that attaches to a particular antigen, any of a large variety of proteins normally present in the body or produced in response to an antigen which it neutralizes, thus producing an immune response
any substance (as a toxin or enzyme) that stimulates the production of antibodies
the process of inhibiting the growth and multiplication of microorganisms
aseptic technique
all the steps taken to protect surgery sites and other sterile areas from contamination by microorganisms
having no symptoms of illness or disease
a human reservoir. the person carries and spreads the disease with out necessarily having symptoms
ability of microorganism to remain at a particular site and multiply
communicable disease
a disease caused by pathogens that spread easily; a contagious disease
contact precautions
methods used to reduce exposure to infectious agents easily transmitted by direct client contact or by contact with items in the client's environment
treatment to destroy harmful microorganisms
droplet precautions
used when the disease-causing microorganism does not stay suspended in the air and travels only short distances after being expelled.
endogenous infection
an infection that comes from an organism that is normally present in the body (an opportunist)
plant life;plants of a particular region or period
Healthcare-associated infection
the state of not being susceptible
a condition that occurs when pathogens enter the body, multiply, and cause harm
a response of body tissues to injury or irritation
inflammatory response
nonspecific defense against infection, characterized by redness, heat, swelling, and pain
medical asepsis
practices used to remove or destroy pathogens and to prevent their spread from one person or place to another person or place; clean technique
Living creatures that are too small to see with the naked eye
dying tissue
ability to cause disease
Microbes that cause disease
anything (a person or animal or plant or substance) in which an infectious agent normally lives and multiplies
standard precaution
all patients have -- a protocol that treats all human blood and bodily fluids as potentially infectious for pathogens, such as the human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis
the procedure of making some object free of live bacteria or other microorganisms (usually by heat or chemical means)
new infection that appears during the course of tx for a primary infection; usually more difficult to treat
surgical asepsis
STERILE technique
Elimination of ALL microorganisms AND spores (i.e. herpes)
(rationale: spores are thick walled cells enabling the organism to live in unfavorable conditions such as without water, and are resistant to drying - can remain dormant until reconstituted)
typical or characteristic; being or concerned with a symptom of a disease
transmission based precautions
standard precautious, plus mask, limited movement of person, isolation preferred, change gloves if touch infect matter, wear gown entering & before leaving, double bag
extreme harmfulness (as the capacity of a microorganism to cause disease)
aerobic organisms
organisms that require oxygen for normal activity and respiration
anaerobic organisms
organism that does not need oxygen to survive (ej, on necrotic tissue)
indwelling device
foley catheter, central IV line, on ventilator -- biggest risk for infection.
the infection or disease originates within the body. You brought your own microbes with you, most HAIs are this.
medical asepsis
practices used to remove or destroy pathogens and to prevent their spread from one person or place to another person or place; clean technique. reduce pathogens.
skin integrity
very important in infection control
When to use hand-washing
start of shift; with obvious soiling; before eating; after using bathroom; if caring for a C-difficile patient (spore forming organism); after gloving.
when to use hand sanitizer
between cares; if moving from dirty activity to clean; before gloving
go on last when gowning etc for precautions.
modes of transmission
contact (on surfaces, hands etc); droplet (saliva example); airborn (organisms that float in air)
droplet PPE
loose fitting mask on standard
contact PPE
gloves; gowns; dedicate equipment
airborne PPE
respiratory mask PAPR ; negative air flow room.
low level disinfection
adequate for non critical items that may touch skin but not mucus membranes.. bp cuffs, stethoscope, etc.
high level disinfection
needed for any time that touches mucous mebranes - endoscopes, vaginal speculums etc. doesnt destroy spores, so not surgical
used on skin
used on objects
fights organisms systemically