Strayer, Ways of the World for the AP® Course, 4e, Chapter 1
Terms in this set (19)
The "new stone age," referring to the introduction of agriculture in societies that had long survived with a gathering and hunting economy.
The long period during which human societies sustained themselves through gathering, hunting, and fishing without the practice of agriculture. Such ways of living persisted well after the advent of agriculture in many places.
Paleolithic carvings of the female form, often with exaggerated breasts, buttocks, hips, and stomachs.
A complex worldview of Australia's Aboriginal people that held that living humans exist in a vibration or echo of ancestral happenings.
The earliest widespread and distinctive culture of North America, dating to about 13,000 years ago; named for a particular kind of projectile point, initially found near the city of Clovis, New Mexico.
The dying out of a number of large animal species, including the mammoth and several species of horses and camel. Occurred around 11,000 years ago, at the end of the Ice Age in North America. The extinction may have been caused by excessive hunting or by the changing climate of the era.
The last phase of the great human migration that established a human presence in every habitable region of the earth. Austronesianspeaking people settled the Pacific islands and Madagascar in a series of seaborne migrations that began around 3,500 years ago.
"the original affluent society"
Term coined to describe Paleolithic societies, which are regarded as affluent not because they had so much but because they wanted or needed so little.
Persons believed to be especially skilled at dealing with the spirit world, often by means of trances induced by psychoactive drugs.
A ceremonial site in southeastern Turkey comprising twenty circles made up of large carved limestone pillars. The site, which dates to almost 12,000 years ago, was built by gatherers and hunters who lived at least part of the year in settled villages. (pron. goh-BEHK-lee TEH-peh)
Paleolithic settling down
The process by which some Paleolithic peoples moved toward permanent settlement in the wake of the last Ice Age. Settlement was marked by increasing storage of food and accumulation of goods, as well as growing inequalities in society.
Region sometimes known as Southwest Asia that includes the modern states of Iraq, Syria, Israel/ Palestine, Jordan, and southern Turkey; the earliest home of agriculture and some of the first civilizations.
An ancient version of corn, first domesticated in southern Mexico by 4000 to 3000 b.c.e. This ancestor of corn was a mountain grass that looks nothing like today's corn or maize. Selective adaptation of this plant over thousands of years allowed for the development of sustainable agriculture in Mesoamerica and elsewhere.
Gradual movement of Bantu-speaking peoples, beginning in ca. 3000 b.c.e., from their homeland in what is now southern Nigeria and the Cameroons into most of eastern and southern Africa by ca. 400 c.e. The agricultural techniques and ironworking technology of Bantu-speaking farmers gave them an advantage over the gathering and hunting peoples they encountered.
An early agricultural village in northern China dating to around 6,000 years ago. It consisted of approximately 45 thatched buildings that housed an estimated 500 people. Archeological evidence suggests millet, pigs, and dogs had been domesticated, and diets were supplemented with wild plants, animals, and fish.
secondary products revolution
The series of technological changes that began ca. 4000 b.c.e. as people in the Eastern Hemisphere began to use their domesticated animals in new ways, such as for their milk, wool, and manure. Also involved learning to ride horses and camels and using animals to pull carts, plows, and chariots.
Based on an alternative kind of food-producing economy focused on the raising of livestock, pastoral societies emerged in the Afro-Eurasian world where settled agriculture was difficult or impossible. Pastoral peoples often led their animals to seasonal grazing grounds rather than settling permanently in a single location.
An early agricultural village and archeological site in what is now Turkey; flourished between 7400 and 6000 b.c.e. With a settled population of several thousand people, the village displayed few signs of class or gender inequality. (pron. cha-TAHL-hoo-YOOK)
A societal grouping governed by a chief who typically relies on generosity, ritual status, or charisma rather than force to win obedience from the people.
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