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Psych Test 3 Chapters 10/11
Terms in this set (19)
What psychosocial crises related to adolescence and emerging adulthood?
Identity vs role confusion
What steps do adolescents take to develop an identity? What kinds of identity are developed?
- Sense of who one is and where one is headed
- Begins in adolescence
- Continues to be a work in progress in emerging adulthood
- Becomes differentiated (gender, religious, political, ethnic, vocational)
What are the four major identity statuses? Think of examples for each.
- Identity Achievement- Commitment Present, Exploration Present
- Moratorium- Commitment Absent, Exploration Present
- Foreclosure- Commitment Present, Exploration Absent
- Identity Diffusion- Commitment Absent, Exploration Absent
What problems can one encounter in developing an identity?
- Too many possible roles to adopt
- Too much parent or peer influence (external pressure)
How do parents influence psychosocial development of adolescents?
- Conflicts peak in early adolescence especially with mothers
- Parents think their children resent them more than they actually do and children think parents want to dominate them more than actually do
- By age 18- many teenagers appreciate their parents and parents adjust to their child's independence
What are the positive characteristics of peer influence?
- help with biological stresses like puberty
- social stresses of high school or breakups
- adolescents of minorities to achieve ethnic identity
- help withstand discrimination, criticism from parents
What are the negative characteristics of peer influence?
- Destructive behaviors= Drugs and alcohol
- Criminal activity = deviancy training
- Sexual activity
When is peer pressure most influential?
peer pressure is the greatest in early adolescence (11-14)
What are the roles of parents in adolescents' understanding of sex?
- often express cliches making child think they do not know about sex.
- Parents should be open and honest answering their children's questions
What are the roles of peers in adolescents' understanding of sex?
- are the most common confidants.
- Boys go to boys and girls go to girls.
- May not always have correct information.
What are the roles of schools in adolescents' understanding of sex?
provide sexual education should talk more openly about all aspects of sex not just focusing on the dire consequences
Describe the nature of adolescent suicide, including incidence and gender differences.
- Females are more likely to have thoughts about killing themselves
- Males still have incidences but less likely
- Girls are more likely to attempt suicide whereas boys are more likely to complete it
What factors doe crime data focus on with respect to adolescent delinquency?
- Rage and resistance
- Is it against the law for teenagers to do the things adults can do regularly
How can adolescent delinquency be prevented?
- Fewer high school dropouts (more education)
- Wiser judges (community service as option)
- Better policing
- Smaller families (able to watch all your kids)
- Better contraception and legal abortions
- Stricter drug laws
Why is vocational identity more complex for today's emerging adults?
- So many options
- College delays the vocational process
- Change career many times in lifetime
How and when do individuals develop a vocational, political, ethnic, gender, and religious identity?
- Begins in adolescence
- Continues through emerging adulthood
Compare and contrast intimacy vs. isolation.
Crisis arises from the powerful desire to share one's personal life with someone else
- Intimacy= urge for social connection
- Isolation= feeling alone
What are the gateways to attraction?
- Need for affiliation- need to be close, connect
- Our own affect- feeling positive=want relationship=more attracted
- Physical Attractiveness: Appear healthy and strong (evolutionary).
- Apparent Availability: Interested in spending time with you.
- Absence of Exclusion Criteria: Reasons for omitting certain people from consideration (religion, smoke).
- Frequent Exposure (proximity).
What factors lead to one person liking another person? Does the media reflect these factors?
Liking another person depends on whether the person
- Is pleasent
- Is cooperative
- Aggrees with us
- Likes us
- Praises us
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