Introduction to Research Methods & Design
Chapter 9 - Vocabulary
manipulate variables with instructions and stimulus presentations.(verbal, written, video, computer)
staged events that occur during the experiment in order to manipulate the independent variable successfully.
a person posing as a participant in an experiment who is actually part of the experiment
stronger the better. Maximize differences between the two groups increases the chances that the independent variable will have a statistically significant effect on the dependent variable. (important in early stages of experiment)
measure completed by participant to report on self judgments, attitudes and many other aspects of human thought and behaviour.
direct observations of behaviours
recordings of the responses of the body. (GSR, EMG, EEG)
galvanic skin response
(GSR) the electrical conductance of the skin, which changes when sweating occurs.
(EMG) a measure of the electrical activity of muscles, including muscle tension
(EEG) a measure of the electrical activity of the brain
provides image of brain structure of individual
magnetic resonance imaging uses a magnet to obtain scans of structures of the brain. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides information on the amount of activity in different brain structures
the ability of a measure to detect differences between groups (confounded by measure being too easy/hard)
failure of a measure to detect a different because it was too easy (also see floor effect)
failure of a measure to detect a difference because it was too difficult
cues that inform the subject how he or she is expected to behave
items included in a questionnaire measure to help disguise the true purpose of the measure
in drug research, a group given an inert substance to assess the psychological effect of receiving a treatment
balanced placebo design
involves 4 conditions: (1) Expect treatment & receive treatment (2) Expect treatment & receive no treatment (3) Expect no treatment & receive no treatment (4) Expect no treatment & receive treatment
expectancy effects (experimenter bias)
any intentional or unintentional influence that the experimenter exerts on subjects to confirm the hypothesis under investigation
Participant is unaware of which condition (placebo or treatment) is received.
neither the participants nor the researcher knows which conditions are treatment or placebo
a small-scale study conducted prior to conducting an actual experiment; designed to test and refine procedures
a measure used to determine whether the manipulation of the independent variable has had its intended effect on a subject
explanation of the purposes of the research that is given to participants following their participation in the research