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25 terms

PSYO270-CH9: Conducting Experiments

Psychology 270 Introduction to Research Methods & Design Chapter 9 - Vocabulary
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straightforward manipulation
manipulate variables with instructions and stimulus presentations.(verbal, written, video, computer)
staged manipulation
staged events that occur during the experiment in order to manipulate the independent variable successfully.
confederate
a person posing as a participant in an experiment who is actually part of the experiment
manipulation strength
stronger the better. Maximize differences between the two groups increases the chances that the independent variable will have a statistically significant effect on the dependent variable. (important in early stages of experiment)
self-report measure
measure completed by participant to report on self judgments, attitudes and many other aspects of human thought and behaviour.
behavioural measure
direct observations of behaviours
physiological measure
recordings of the responses of the body. (GSR, EMG, EEG)
galvanic skin response
(GSR) the electrical conductance of the skin, which changes when sweating occurs.
electromyogram
(EMG) a measure of the electrical activity of muscles, including muscle tension
electroencephalogram
(EEG) a measure of the electrical activity of the brain
MRI
provides image of brain structure of individual
functional MRI
magnetic resonance imaging uses a magnet to obtain scans of structures of the brain. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides information on the amount of activity in different brain structures
sensitivity
the ability of a measure to detect differences between groups (confounded by measure being too easy/hard)
ceiling effect
failure of a measure to detect a different because it was too easy (also see floor effect)
floor effect
failure of a measure to detect a difference because it was too difficult
demand characteristics
cues that inform the subject how he or she is expected to behave
filler items
items included in a questionnaire measure to help disguise the true purpose of the measure
placebo group
in drug research, a group given an inert substance to assess the psychological effect of receiving a treatment
balanced placebo design
involves 4 conditions: (1) Expect treatment & receive treatment (2) Expect treatment & receive no treatment (3) Expect no treatment & receive no treatment (4) Expect no treatment & receive treatment
expectancy effects (experimenter bias)
any intentional or unintentional influence that the experimenter exerts on subjects to confirm the hypothesis under investigation
single-blind procedure
Participant is unaware of which condition (placebo or treatment) is received.
double-blind procedure
neither the participants nor the researcher knows which conditions are treatment or placebo
pilot study
a small-scale study conducted prior to conducting an actual experiment; designed to test and refine procedures
manipulation check
a measure used to determine whether the manipulation of the independent variable has had its intended effect on a subject
debriefing
explanation of the purposes of the research that is given to participants following their participation in the research