Academic Decathlon Social Science 2018-19
Terms in this set (229)
What did FDR enact in the 30s?
The New Deal
How did the federal government's role change after the New Deal?
They were more involved in people's advocacy
National Labor Relations Act
1935, established worker's unions
Fair Labor Standard Act
1938, outlawed child labor
Social Security Act
1935, assistance to the elderly and disabled
What was the New Deal Coalition?
A group who voted democrat
What political definitions changed around the time of the New Deal?
The definitions of democrat and republican
What drive the labor force during WWII?
Demand for war material
What did war bonds cause?
Pent up demand
What are FDRs four freedoms?
Speech, religion, freedom from want, freedom from fear
G.I. Bill of Rights
1944, assistance for post war veterans
What caused growth in suburban sunbelt states?
Pent up demand and the G.I. Bill
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
an organization that called for economic and educational equality for African Americans
Monetary and Financial Conference
Breton Woods, fixed US currency value
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
1947, opened trade
What grew substantially in the 50s?
The middle class
What were the effects of the suburbs?
Higher home and car ownership
Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956
Construction of motorways
When did the baby boom happen?
What was the American way of life in the 50s?
What was the political climate like in the 50s?
Uniform and anti communist
What is red baiting?
Accusing someone of being "soft on communism"
What was the role of women in the 50s?
Stay at home housewives
psychologist; studied human sexuality, first findings on sexual behavior
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 case that overturned Separate but Equal standard of discrimination in education.
When were Native American traditional rights dissolved?
How did the culture change in the 50s?
Music and entertainment violated adult norms, teenagers became an economic market, and college expanded
Who criticized 50s conformity?
What are braceros?
Mexican farm laborers
Who was Michael Harrington?
Author of The Other America (1962) that talked about poor Americans
When was Dwight D. Eisenhower elected president?
1947 - Stated that the U.S. would support any nation threatened by Communism.
When was Sputnik launched and why was it important?
October 4, 1957 and it was important because it made US citizens fearful among the Cold War and the space race
What was the missile gap?
The perceived gap between the US and the Soviet Union in the space race
Who did the US enter NATO under?
What were Eisenhower's policies?
Foreign aid, cultural ambassadors, propaganda, and nuclear deterrence
When was Kennedy elected as a representative?
When was Kennedy elected as a US senator?
What are Cold War Democrats?
Democrats who support public housing unions and registration of communists
Who was Nixon?
Eisenhower's Vice President and Kennedy's opposition in the presidential election
Who was Lyndon B Johnson?
Kennedy's vice president
What was a large factor in the Nixon v Kennedy election?
What did Kennedy represent for Americans?
A "New frontier", young America
When did US astronauts first land on the moon?
When did Nikita Khrushcheve meet with Kennedy?
When did the Berlin Wall start to be built?
August 13, 1961
1948 Policy that devoted $12 billion to rebuild Western Europe and strengthen its defenses
Bay of Pigs
April 17, 1961, failed Cuba invasion
When did the Soviet Union install missiles in Cuba?
When did the Soviet Union remove missiles from Cuba?
October 28, 1962
When was Khrushchev dismissed?
Federal program established to send volunteers to help developing nations created by Kennedy
Alliance for Progress
President Kennedy's program which gave economic aid to Latin America
Who were William Lederer and Eugene Burdick?
Authors of The Ugly American a book detailing US manipulation of developing nations
If one country falls to Communism all countries would fall to Communism.
Special force developed under JFK as a part of his flexible response policy
When did the Vietnam defeat the French and what occurred after that?
1954, and Vietnam split into North and South Vietnam at the Geneva Conference
When and where did the civil rights lunch counter protests begin?
February 1960 in North Carolina
Why were civil rights protests more successful at this time?
They were televised, Hitler made racial prejudice unacceptable, African Americans were now an economic market, and college expanded
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
students whose purpose was coordinate a nonviolent attack on segregation and other forms of racism
activists who challenged segregation in bus terminals in the South in 1961
When did the Interstate Commerce Commission enforce bus desegregation laws?
When and why was Martin Luther King Jr. arrested and by who?
1963 by Eugene Connor because of his involvement in the Alabama civil rights protests
When was Medgar Evers killed and by who?
June 12 1963 by a KKK member
When did the March for Jobs and Freedom occur?
August 28, 1963
Civil Rights Act of 1964
outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin
What were Kennedy's economic policies?
Federal funds go to housing, medical insurance, and education and he imposed tax cuts to ease unemployment
When was Kennedy assassinated and under what conditions?
November 22, 1963 on his way to a meeting to smooth southern relations he was shot by Lee Harvey Oswald
Who killed Lee Harvey Oswald?
What were Johnson's policies?
He was committed to welfare, civil rights reform, and the Vietnam War and he wanted to expand prosperity, give opportunities to the poor and uphold equality
When was Johnson elected as a representative?
When was Johnson elected as a senator and when did he become a senator majority leader?
He was elected in 1948 and became a leader in 1954
legendary ability to use personal persuasion to reach his goals and get senators to pass bills
1964 Revenue Act
Cut income tax rates, introduce minimum standards deduction and lowered cooorste taxes
When did the electoral map start to change?
Who included sex discrimination in the Civil Rights Act?
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
forbids discrimination in all areas of the employment relationship
When did Johnson run for re-election?
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party
party founded in Mississippi during the Freedom Summer of 1964
Fannie Lou Hamer
one of the leaders of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party
Johnson's vice president
Republican candidate for President in 1964, and initial leader of the conservative movement
The Great Society
Lyndon Johnson's program for poverty relief, healthcare, civil rights, etc. during his presidency.
When did the war on poverty start?
Office of Economic Opportunity
Federal agency that coordinated many programs of the War on Poverty between 1964 and 1975
program under President Johnson that offered work-training programs for unemployed youth
Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA)
Similar to Peace Corps but was to aid the quality of lives of people within the US
Elementary and Secondary Education Act
1965, provided education aid to states based on the number of children from low income homes, started closing black-white achievement gap
Housing and Urban Development Act of 1965
Established the Cabinet-level Department of Housing and Urban Development.
Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1965
Replaced immigration laws, transformed demographics and caused illegal immigration due to visa caps
Voting Rights Act of 1965
a policy designed to reduce the barriers to voting for those suffering discrimination.
How did the role of the Supreme Court shift during the 60s?
It stopped obstructing federal economic policy
Supreme Court of the 1960s under Chief Justice Earl Warren, whose decisions supported civil rights
New York Times v. Sullivan
1964, found New York Times not guilty for criticism of local leaders' racism
Loving v. Virginia
1967 court case that declared all laws against interracial marriage unconstitutional
Griswold v. Connecticut
1965 decision that the Constitution implicitily guarantees citizens' right to privacy and contraceptive freedom
Miranda v. Arizona
1966, establishes Miranda Warning
Baker v. Carr
1962, changed voting districts
Engle v. Vitale
1962 case in which the court rule that school prayer was unconstitutional
1964 effort to register African American voters in Mississippi by the SNCC and CORE
June 21, 1964
Andrew Goodman, Michael Schwerner and James Chaney are killed by KKK members
March 7 1965, SNCC leads a Selma to Montgomery march that is attacked
March 25, 1965
A Selma March that with the protection of the military added pressure to pass the Voting Rights Act
Black Muslim (NoI) spokesman who called for armed self-defense against white racism & violence
How did Malcolm X die?
He was killed by the Nation of Islam after leaving it in 1964
When did black urban migration begin?
What was the white flight?
White migration out of urban areas into suburbs
August 1965 protests regarding police brutality and racial profiling after the arrest of Marquette Frye
What Act did California repeal?
Rumford Equal Housing Act
Detailed racial discrimination in the US, called for investments in housing, education and job reform, prompted by Detroit riots
a social movement that called for African American power and independence
Black Panther Party for Self Defense
A group started by Bobby Seal and Huey Newton to protect African Americans. They openly carried guns for self defense.
What were the effects of the Black Panthers?
They promoted the start of California gun control, they created education and community programs but they also caused violence
Counter Intelligence Program
FBI frames and kills Black Panthers
emphasized the unity of Africans and people of African descent around the world
What were the movements inspired by the Black Panthers?
British Black Power Movement, London Black Panthers, and the Brown Berets
What were liberal views in the 60s?
Prosperous middle class, military preparedness, foreign policy intervention, and racial equality
What were conservative views in the 60s?
Against expanding federal government, anti communism
Problems with consumerism, stressed self expression, peace, and equality
Students for a Democratic Society
a group of college students who joined together to protest the war
What was the cause of the Berkeley Riots?
Political activists were arrested for protesting on campus
Young Americans for Freedom
conservative students. Campus organization. Devoted to anti- commy and protecting constitution, made the Sharon Statement in 1960
When did the FDA approve the birth control pill?
When did birth control become available to everyone regardless of marital status?
Roe v. Wade
1973 ruling that decriminalized abortion
Presidential Commission on the State of Women
Brought about the Equal Pay Act
American Feminist, writer of The Feminine Mystique, cofounded NOW
What happened August 2, 1964 in the Vietnam War?
North Vietnamese gunboats attaches a US surveillance vessel prompting expanded US military operations in Vietnam
Operation Rolling Thunder
intense bombing campaign against North Vietnam ordered by President Johnson
When did the first US troops arrive in Vietnam and under who?
March 8, 1965 under General William Westmoreland
What was the goal is the US in the Vietnam War?
Stop insurgence into South Vietnam and get North Vietnam to accept the South Vietnamese government
Special fortified villages in South Vietnam the villagers were forced into by the US
When did the draft end?
When was a lottery system set up for the draft?
1968 attack by Viet Cong and North Vietnamese forces throughout South Vietnam
My Lai Massacre
Unjust attack of Vietnamese village by US soldiers
Leader of My Lai invasion
When did Johnson send troops to the Dominican Republic?
When did Israel attack Egypt on control of the Sues Canal?
When did US troops withdraw from the Sinai Peninsula?
Six Day War
tension between Arabs and Israeli erupted into a brief war in June 1967
Basis for Soviet rationale
When did anti war protests begin to get more popular?
Protested US university involvement in the war
When did the International Tribune find the US guilty of war crimes?
When did draft card burning protests start?
When did the Fulbright Committee determine congress made a personal judgement in 1964?
Why was inflation so high in 1968 in the US?
The cost of the Vietnam War
Which protests caused Johnson to halt Vietnam bombings?
The March 31, 1968 protests
International Days Of Protest
October 1965 and March 1966
protest for democratic reforms in Soviet controlled Czechoslovakia in 1968
What was counterculture?
Youth movements that defied rules of dating, sexuality, and social standards through drug use and unconventional fashion and living situations
3 day rock concert in upstate N.Y. August 1969, exemplified the counterculture of the late 1960s
American environmental organization. Helped promote the protection of the environment and nature.
Death and Life of Great American Cities
• by Jane Jacobs
• blames urban planning policy for destroying city neighbourhoods
1962 book by Rachel Carson that started the environmental movement regarding harmful chemicals
Clean Air Act
1963, set emission standards for cars, and limits for release of air pollutants
The Population Bomb
1968 book by Paula don Ann Ehrlich, shows dangers of overpopulation and resource exploitation
When was Earth Day established?
Zoot Suit Riots
1943, creates Mexican American Political Association
La Raza Unida
A Latino political organization founded in 1970 by Jose Gutierrez
United Farm Workers
1968, a movement in support of rights and political power for American Indians.
When did a Native American group occupy Alcatraz?
When did American Indians occupy the Federal Bureau of Indian Affairs?
National Organization for Women
Equal pay, paid maternity leave, childcare, unrestricted birth control, legalized abortion
What was the goal of liberal feminists?
To eliminate workplace inequality
What was the goal of women's liberationists?
To eliminate personal inequality
When were the Miss American Pageant protests?
Radical feminists group
Equal Rights Amendment
proposal that equality of rights under the law not be denied on the account of sex.
an area of Manhattan where artists and writers settled.
a group of riots in new york by homosexuals after a brutal police raid in 1969, marked the beginning of the gay rights movement
When and by who was Martin Luther King Jr. assassinated?
April 4, 1968 in Memphis by white supremacist James Earl Ray
When and by who was Robert Kennedy assassinated?
June 5, 1968 by Sirhan Sirhan
Youth International Party
Group that opposed corrupt politicians and had leaders arrested on national television
-7 people that were arrested and convivted for starting a riot at the democratic national convention
What issues did Nixon present in his 1968 presidential campaign?
Punishing civil disobedience, urban crisis, law and order, and states' rights
Why did Eisenhower try to remove Nixon as his Vice President?
Nixon was involved in shady funding
Who was the democratic nominee in the 1968 presidential election?
Who was the third party candidate in the 1968 presidential election?
Nixon's plan to persuade conservative southern white voters away from the Democratic party
When did Nixon become president?
Nixon's plan to distribute a portion of federal power to state and local governments
Family Assistance Plan
guaranteed families a minimum income
National Environmental Policy Act
The law passed in 1969 that is the centerpiece of federal environmental policy in the United States
Environmental Protection Agency
An agency created in 1970 to administer all environmental legislation.
Endangered Species Act
a law passed in 1973 that is designed to protect endangered plant and animal species in the US
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
a government agency in the Department of Labor to maintain a safe and healthy work environment
Unsafe at Any Speed
Ralph Nader claims auto manufactures are reluctant to install safety systems in 1965
Consumer Product Safety Commission
a federal agency established to protect the health and safety of consumers in and around their homes
a more conservative Supreme Court under Warren Burger
Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education
1971 - Busing students to promote integration is constitutional.
One of Nixon's Supreme Court appointment, fought for women's equality
Title IX (1972)
Prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in any federally funded education program or activity
plan that required government contractors in Philadelphia to hire minority workers.
Why was the Philadelphia Plan abandoned?
1970 construction worker riots
a period of slow economic growth and high unemployment (stagnation) while prices rise (inflation)
Who took the US off the gold standard?
What were some causes of stagflation?
The US was importing more than exporting, rising oil prices, and US companies were manufacturing in foreign countries causing unemployment
How did Nixon intervene with 1968 Vietnam peace talks?
Henry Kissinger told him about peace talks and he told Nguyen Van Thieu to hold off until he was president
Nixon's plan to gradually have Vietnamese soldiers take over fighting
What country did Vietnam occupy parts of in 1970?
What was the impact of US intervention in Cambodia?
Khmer Rouge took over and turned the country communist
Massive demonstrations against the U.S. and Australian involvement in Vietnam 1969-70
Kent State Massacre
May 4, 1970; National Guards open fire on a group of demonstrators. Four were killed.
1971, government documents that showed the public had been lied to about the status of the war in Vietnam published in the New York Times by Daniel Ellsberg
War Powers Act
1973, limits the ability of the president to commit troops to combat.
Winter Soldier Investigation
Accounts is US war crimes in Vietnam
Operation Dewey Canyon III
April 1971, veterans protested the Vietnam War by tossing medals
Senator that voice opposition to the Vietnam War
1979, meeting where US and China agreed to "normalize" their relationship
Antiballistic Missile Treaty
treaty in which the US and Soviet Union agreed to limit the size of their ABM systems
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty
Treaty signed in 1972 by the United States and the Soviet Union to slow the nuclear arms race
French word meaning an easing of tensions between the world's superpowers during the Cold War
US will no longer give aid to countries touched by communism
1972, last big bombing in Vietnam
When did US involvement in the Vietnam War end?
White House Plumbers
A grouo meant to plug up leaks of confidential information thought illegal means
Result of break-in committed by Nixon's administration to find out democratic candidate strategy; goal was to cover attempted burglary
When were the White House Plumbers arrested?
June 17, 1972
Tried to cover up Plumbers connection to Watergate
The Special Prosecutor that was hired to investigate the Watergate Scandal
Saturday Night Massacre
Nixon fired Prosecutor Archibald Cox because he demanded the Watergate Tapes
What did Nixon do to the Watergate tapes?
He altered them
When did Nixon resign?
August 9, 1974
Who was elected in 1976?
Who pardoned Nixon?