Academic Decathlon 2018-2019 Music
Terms in this set (204)
What musical was the Kennedy administration associated with?
Camelot by Alan Jay Ferner and Fredeick Loewe
What introduced new audiences to music through the 60s?
one who opposes established beliefs, customs, and institutions
Who created The Sound of Music?
Richard Rogers and Oscar Hammerstein
Who created Bye Bye Birdie?
Charles Strauss and Lee Adams
Why was Bye Bye Birdie important?
It served as an entry point into the 60s
Avant-garde composer, seemed to remove composer control, philosopher, challenged rules of how music should sound, used graphic notation
The compositional manipulation and arrangement of pre-recorded sounds from everyday life
Composed more traditional music
West Side Story/Young People's Concerts
Polish musician, composed Threnody For the Victims of Hiroshima
Threnody for the Victims of Hiroshima
1960, song of lamentation for the victims of the Hiroshima bombing, has experimental composition, no traditional pitch notation, graphic notation, strange string techniques, dissonant, 70 sections, no repetitive form, microtonality, 24 violins, 10 violas, 10 cellos and 8 basses, each player has an individual part
When did jazz musicians begin experimenting with new styles of jazz?
Jazz musician, Giant Steps (1959), used complex chord changes with fast series of notes and improvisation
Dave Brubeck Quartet
Time Out and Take Five, expanded boundaries of jazz with meter changes and five beat measures
Kind of Blue, modal jazz
Scale-like series of notes provides note choices for the whole piece
Group of seven notes that is the same as a natural minor scale except there is a whole step between notes 5 and 6
Groundbreaking jazz piece, introduced new use of 32-bar format, opened up new pathways for jazz music
Third stream music
Jazz improvisation with classical music materials and orchestration
Fables of Faubus, civil rights and segregation, inspired other musicians to write political pieces
What was the goal of Ornette Coleman's music?
Linear music that was not danced to
What is free jazz?
Music free of harmonic and rhythmic constraints
1960, two jazz quartets, spontaneous improvisation, 38 minuets long, focuses on freedom of musical expression
Who were the players of Free Jazz?
Ornette Coleman, Charlie Haden, Scott LaFaro, Freddie Hobart, Don Cherry, Ed Blackwell, Billy Higgins
What was the primary medium for new music in the 50s?
Bribery of radio DJs to play songs o they would rise to the top of the charts
Why was Bernard Herman 's 1960 Psycho film score so influential?
It was the first film score to create a psychological mood
Gloria, 1961, one of the most influential choral works of the 20th century
Known for symphonies
Momente, 1962, expands spectrum of sound, each performance is a new piece
What was Benjamin Britten commissioned to write in 1958?
A piece for the dedication ceremony for the new Coventry Cathedral
Set of texts used for Roman Catholic workshop services
Mass for the dead
Poetic comments on mass texts
1963, 9 Wilfred Owen poems highlights pacifist beliefs, juxtaposition between sacred and secular texts and between different vocalists, complex organizational structure, several complex techniques used in a new way, depicts the horrors of war and loss
What was the goal of 60s jazz musicians?
To create music that was more meaningful
Who simplified harmonies so John Coltrane could focus on expression?
Brings in other musical styles, syncopated, simple harmonies, a steady beat
At the forefront of Latin jazz
Used Latin rhythms and harmonies and popularized Brazilian samba music
John Coltrane, organize freedom of Free Jazz, used pedal tone to add structure, tells story of Alabama KKK bombing victims
Breakfast at Tiffany's, Days of Wine, The Pink Panther
Dr. No, jazz and rock elements
Wrote lyrics for West Side Story, Gyosy, and A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum
What innovation in 1963 causes artists to our more emphasis on the order of the song in an album?
The cassette tape
When did the Marshall Amplifier come out?
What brought Motown to national attention?
The Miracles led by Smokey Robinson hitting the charts with Shop Around
Who ran the Motown label?
What was the first number one hit for Motown?
Please Me. postman by the Marvelettes
What was H-D-H?
A music trio consisting of Eddie Holland who wrote the lyrics, Lamont Dozier who did the instrumentation, and a Brian Holland who did the structure that made several hits
Went against typical Motown process, used Kurt's of improvisation, later became known as Stevie Wonder
The center of much popular songwriting activity in NYC from 1959 to 1963,
Wall is Sound, unique sound that uses added effects to create a "wall of sound"
What kind of music was popular in the early 60s?
Who were the biggest artists in Surf Rock?
Jan and Dean and The Beach Boys
Who were the members of The Beach Boys?
Carl Wilson, Brian Wilson, Dennis Wilson, Mike Love p, and Alan Jordine
Folk musician heavily influenced by Woodie Guthrie and the Greenwich Village folk scene, later became known as a Bob Dylan
Socially conscious lyrics with new folk style
Who were the members of the Beatles?
John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison, and Ringo Starr
Changed the sound of rock and roll, ushered in the British Invasion
When did the Beatles make their first recording and release their first singles?
When did the Beatles first release music in the US?
Discussed race and changing times in his music
When did pop music start to drastically change?
When did the Beatles perform on the Ed Sullivan Show?
February 9, 1964
Bright a new look to British bands, blues influenced rock, opened the door for The Rolling Stones
"Bad boy" pop rock, banned from touring in the US
The Rolling Stones
Contrast to the Beatles, R&B influenced, formed in 1962
When did the time of creativity in classical music occur?
Electronic music, Philomel- groundbreaking choral piece using electronic sounds with live performance
Music focused in texture and density, chromatic and polyphonic music, his music appeared in 2001: A Space Odyssey
St. Luke Passion
1965 piece by Krzysztof Penderecki to commemorate the anniversary of the cathedral, 80 minutes, 3 solo voices, a narrator, 4 choirs, and an orchestra, uses both graphic and traditional notation
Tonal centers, timbre, incorporating odd sounds, Echoes of Time and the River, uses odd sounds and instructs players to move around the stage
Interested in trance-like music and drugs, experimented with tape-loop music and recording layering, wrote In C
Where and when was In C premiered?
1964 at the San Francisco Tape Center
53 shirt fragments of music each made up of a few notes from the C major scale, no pre recorded sound, no specific instrumentation, polyrhythmic, performance varied widely due to the control the players had over arrangement and repetition of fragments, hypnotic, trance-like, started minimalist classical music movement
Fascinated by jazz improvisation before moving to tape manipulation, created It's Gonna Rain, interested in percussion
Who did Steve Reich study under?
Darius Milhaud and Luciano Berio
When and where were the sounds for It's Gonna Rain recorded and what was recorded?
1964 in San Francisco Union Square a Pentecostal preacher named Brother Walter preaching that Rain was going to destroy the earth was recorded
How was It's Gonna Rain produced?
The recordings were manipulated using several techniques
What is the meaning behind It's Gonna Rain?
It explores speech rhythms and patterns and comments on the impending doom felt at the time
What is the composition of It's Gonna Rain?
It is split into two parts with the first part emphasizing phrasing causing an echo effect and the second part contains different words from the preacher
What was Steve Reich's other influential tape manipulation piece?
Come Out which uses sounds from legal defense of 6 African American police brutality victims specifically the words of one of victims Daniel Hamm
Why were Steve Reich's tape manipulation pieces influential?
They were significant in the later practice of sampling
Live electronic group, instrumental rock and roll
Leonard Bernstein, avoided avant-garde techniques and instead used Hebrew psalm texts
What were Broadway musicals like in the 60s?
What were the successful Broadway musicals of the 60s?
Hello Dolly!, Fiddler on the Roof, Man of La Mancha, Cabaret, Hair
Musical inspired by counterculture, sexual revolution, drugs, and hippies, used rock and roll instrumentation and vocals, very controversial for use of taboo topics, obscene language, and nudity
What band covered Aquarius and brought Hair more attention?
Opening number of Hair, sets the tone for the whole musical, uses an ABA format, non-metered intro, slight extension at the end of the refrain
Popular jazz musician, What a Wonderful World, Hello Dolly! jazz interpretation
Blues, soul, and gospel influenced musician
What happened or John Coltrane in the 1950s?
He underwent a spiritual transformation
Who were the members of John Coltrane's quartet?
McCoy Tyler on piano, Jimmy Garrison in bass, and Elvis Jones on drums
What are the four movements of A Love Supreme?
Acknowledgement, Resolution, Pursuance, and Psalm
What is the composition of Acknowledgement in A Love Supreme?
It has unmetered introductory improv, an ambitious key, no moving chords, and a four note theme
What is the composition of Psalm in A Love Supreme?
It is free improv over a static harmony with splashes of color from the rhythm section and musical recitation of a prayer
Why was A Love Supreme influential?
It was made at a time of hope in the US and it extended free jazz
Why was Mary Poppins important?
It was the first musical movie with music written specifically for the movie
Why was The Graduate important?
Mike Nicholas used all rock background music
What did Simon and Garfunkel do for pop music and film?
They strengthened the relationship between the two
A Hard Day's Night
The first Beatles movie, comedic staged documentary about the life of the Beatles
The second Beatles movie, it coincided with their US tour and was a spoof of popular spy movies
The third Beatles movie, it was animated
A film that a documents a concert or an aspect of life of a rock band
Dont Look Back
1967 rockumentary on Bob Dylan's 1965 UK tour, painted him in a negative light
Inorganic TV band meant to mirror the Beatles
Dick Clark, national rock and roll show that featured both white and black performers
The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour
Showcased new and different artists and widened generational barriers
P. F. Sloan
Wrote Eve of Destruction which was performed by Barry McGuire, influenced by Bob Dylan, talks about generational gap and growing racial divide
Formed in 1964, brought folk-rock to the music world, Lee by Jim McGuinn and David Crosby
What song did The Byrd's cover that made them popular?
Bob Dylan's Mr. Tambourine Man
Mr. Tambourine Man
Close relationship between the chorus and the verse which creates unity but also makes the song repetitive, each verse has a different form, the chords are simple and repetitive
What are the differences between Bob Dylan's version of Mr. Tambourine Man and the Byrds' version?
Bob Dylan's version is 6 minutes while the Byrds' is only 3, the Byrds use a chorus, verse, chorus form while Dylan does not and the Byrds' version was much more popular
What happened when Bob Dylan first tried to bring rock into folk music?
He was met with unhappiness from fans
Who were the people behind the song Like a Rolling Stone?
Bob Dylan, Michael Bloomfield on guitar, Al Kooper on keyboard, Paul Griffin on piano, Bobby Gregg on drums, Joe Macho Jr, on bass and Bruce Langhorne on percussion and guitar
Why was Like a Rolling Stone so important?
It was one of the first very successful rock songs with folk lyrics
What influential song did The Rolling Stones release in 1965?
The Village Voice
A newspaper launched by Norman Mailer in 1955 that defined what was popular
A magazine established in 1967 that provided music criticism
Huge name in soul music, changed labels and released a cover of Otis Redding's song Respect in 1967 which launched her into fame, she won multiple Grammys and placed in the top ten several times
"Godfather of Soul", very successful soul musician
Joined Motown in 1961, became the most successful female group and most successful Motown artist at that time, smooth sound, good backing, and good songs, Diana Ross was the lead singer, they has 12 #1 hits and appeared on the Ed Sullivan Show 16 times
Stop! In the Name of Love
Very successful, written by H-D-H, famous in part due to the choreography, staccato, moments of word painting
Album by The Beach Boys, creative project of Brian Wilson, was an album with a theme, introduces new instruments and new sounds, groundbreaking
Song by The Beach Boys, sold over one million copies, had new and interesting instrumentation, harmonically complex and unusual form
What was the difference between AM and FM radio that sparked creativity?
AM radio could only play two minute songs while FM radio could play songs of any length which inspired creativity
Rock that favors musical interest of the artist over making hits, extremely experimental, influenced by avant-garde classical music
Cross between speaking and singing created by Arnold Schoenberg
Popular art rock group
Progressive musical group with songs related to drugs and death
The Grateful Dead
Counterculture group influenced by rock and folk
A short-lived musical group formed in 1967 that was made up of Eric Clapton, Ginger Baker and Jack Bruce
Musical group that represented London counterculture with psychedelic music using electronic instruments
1965 Beatles song that was a new but not groundbreaking #1 hit
1965 Beatles album using innovative sounds and instruments
What controversy did John Lennon spark in 1966?
He said that the Beatles were more popular than Jesus
1966 Beatles album, each song brought new sounds with lots of studio production
What is the Beatles start doing that caused them to tour less?
They created short lip sync videos for songs that couldn't be performed live
What were some of the psychedelic rock bands in San Francisco?
The Grateful Dead, Big Brother and the Holding Company (Janis Joplin), The Jefferson Airplane (Grace Slick)
When did the career-changing Monterey festival start to be planned?
When did the Monterey Pop Festival happen?
June 16-18, 1967
What happened at the Monterey Pop Festival?
The Who destroyed peace, The Grateful Dead had an unsuccessful performance, Jimi Hendrix was launched into fame because of his innovative performance, Otis Redding was a hit with his covers, and many careers were changed
Who was Otis Redding influenced by?
Little Richard and Sam Cooke
When was Otis Redding's cover of Satisfaction released?
What were the differences between oTis Redding's version of Satisfaction and The Rolling Stones' version?
Redding's version was more bluesy, more rhythmic, and had more specific pitches
When did The Beatles release Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band?
What was Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band and why was it so important?
It was a role play album where every sing was different that included simulated live performances inc,using new instrumentation it is considered one of the best albums of all time because of how popular do innovative it was
Who designed the cover art for Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band?
Peter Blake and Jann Haworth
When the Beatles start to function, solely, as a studio band?
After their 1966 touring stint
Music For Prague
Karen Husa, 1968, expresses solidarity, one of the most influential concert band pieces ever, 20+ minutes, atonic, aleatoric, uses Czech resistance hymn
2001: A Space Odyssey
Stanley Kubrick, 1968, movie about technology taking over humans the score inspired more traditional orchestral music
Luciano Berio, homage to Martin Luther King Jr, uses a mezzo-soprano and five instruments, uses tape techniques, added to Sinfonia for Eight Voices
Sinfonia Mvt.III, "In Ruhig Flessender Bewegung"
Luciano Berio, very complex and experimental, uses framework or Gustafson Mahler's Symphony No. 2, uses texts from Samuel Beckett, uses English, French, and German words and phrases, the piece references water
Ran a cult called "the family", predicted a race war called "Helter Skelter", murdered seven people with his cult and tried to make the murders look racially motivated
Who did the Beatles study meditation with?
Maharishi Mahesh Yogi
What Movement was George Harrison associated with?
The Krishna movement
What was John Lennon associated with?
Peace and nonviolence, and his wife, conceptual artist, Yoko Ono
What events started to mark the end of 60s music culture?
The Manson murders, the rise of minimalist classical music, the deaths of Otis Redding and John Coltrane, the end of the Monterey Pop Festival, and the disintegration of counterculture
Who created the synthesizer?
Robert Moog and Wendy Carlos
When did Leonard Bernstein retire from conducting the New York Philharmonic?
What was Leonard Bernstein commissioned to do and by who?
He was commissioned by Jackie Kennedy to write a piece for the opening of The Kennedy Center in 1971
Who worked on the song In a Silent Way?
Miles Davis, John McLaughlin, Chick Correa, Herbie Hancock, Joe Zawinul, Wayne Shorter, Dave Holland, and Tony Williams
In a Silent Way
Jazz fusion piece, open form sections, dream-like, ABA form, 20 minutes, opened up jazz to jazz fusion
Jesus Christ Superstar
Rock opera by Andrew Lloyd Weber and Tim Rice, frost released as a double album
The Who, rock opera, 1969, important concept album
What happened after H-D-H sued Berry Gordy?
Berry Gordy moved Motown headquarters to Los Angeles
When did Diana Ross leave the Supremes?
Motown group, endorsed and promoted by Diana Ross, beginning of Michael Jackson's career
When did The Bee Gees make their US debut?
Blood Sweat and Tears
Al Kooper and David Clayton Thomas, very successful band
Chicago Transit Authority
James Guerica, very successful band
Who formed Led Zeppelin?
Heavy metal band with music on movie film tracks
Ian Anderson, heavy metal band that used the flute, popular in the 70s
Who were the members of Crosby, Stills, Nash, and Young?
David Crosby of the Byrds, Stephen Stills of Buffalo Springfield, Graham Nash of The Hollies, and Neil Young of Buffalo Springfield
When did the Beatles launch Apple Records and what music did they release on the label?
1968 and the White Album and Hey Jude
When did the Monterey Pop film come out?
Isle of Wight
Star-studded music festival in England
Newport Jazz Festival
1969,important rock, soul, and jazz artists
Newport 1969 Pop Festival
Similar lineup to Newport Jazz, bad crowd control
When did the Woodstock Music and Arts Fair occur?
August 15-17, 1969
Who played at the Woodstock Music and Arts Fair?
Folk and work music musicians on day one, Latin rock musicians and The Grateful Dead on day two, and acid rock artists like Jefferson Airplane on day three
What was the name of the farmer who's land was used for Woodstock?
Who closed Woodstock and with what?
Jimi Hendrix with Gypsy Sun and Rainbows and his version of the Star Spangled Banner
When was the Woodstock film released?
Who was White Rabbit composed by?
What is the meaning of White Rabbit?
It is about parents who read their children books with drug references
What is the composition of White Rabbit?
It has a bolero-like pattern, Spanish flavor, vocal ornamentation, and increasing intensity
What album is White Rabbit from?
Surrealist Pillow (1967)
The Rolling Stones' free concert
What were the problems with Altamont?
There was lots of violence in part due to the Hell's Angels security, there were four deaths and multiple injuries
What was the movie for Altamont called?
The End of Aquarius
An article declaring the end of the peace and love era
When did the Beatles release the Let It Be album and movie?
Who arranged the Let It Be album?
When and how did John Lennon die?
He was assassinated in 1980
When and how did George Harrison die?
He died of cancer in 2001
When did the Beatles break up?
What did the breaking up of the Beatles signify?
The end of the 60s musical era