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Strayer, Ways of the World for the AP® Course, 4e, Chapter 4
Terms in this set (21)
A Chinese philosophy distinguished by an adherence to clear laws with vigorous punishments.
The Chinese philosophy first enunciated by Confucius, advocating the moral example of superiors as the key element of social order.
A major female Confucian author of China (45-116 c.e.) whose works explore the implications of Confucian thinking for women. (pron. bahn jow)
A Chinese philosophy / popular religion that advocates a simple and unpretentious way of living and alignment with the natural world, founded by the legendary figure Laozi. (pron. dow-ism)
The earliest religious texts of India, a collection of ancient poems, hymns, and rituals that were transmitted orally before being written down ca. 600 b.c.e. (pron. VAY-duhs)
Indian mystical and philosophical works written between 800 and 400 b.c.e. (pron. oo-PAHN-ee-shahds)
Siddhartha Gautama (the Buddha)
The Indian prince whose exposure to human suffering led him to develop a path to Enlightenment, which became the basis for the emerging religious tradition of Buddhism; lived ca. 566-ca. 486 b.c.e. (pron. sidd-ARTH-uh gow-TAHM-uh)
"Teaching of the Elders," the early form of Buddhism according to which the Buddha was a wise teacher but not divine; emphasizes practices rather than beliefs. (pron. THAIR-ah-VAH-dah)
"Great Vehicle," the popular development of Buddhism in the early centuries of the Common Era, which gives a much greater role to supernatural beings and to compassion and proved to be more popular than original (Theravada) Buddhism.
A great Hindu epic text that conveyed the message that ordinary people could find spiritual fulfillment by selflessly performing the ordinary duties of their lives. (pron. BUH-guh-vahd GEE-tuh)
Meaning "worship," this Hindu movement began in south India and moved northward between 600 and 1000 c.e.; it involved the intense adoration of and identification with a particular deity through songs, prayers, and rituals. (pron. BAHK-tee)
Persian monotheistic religion founded by the prophet Zarathustra and emphasizing free will and the choice between good and evil. (pron. zohr-oh-ASStree-ahn-i'zm)
The monotheistic religion developed in the Middle East by the Hebrews, emphasizing a sole personal god (Yahweh) with concerns for social justice.
A secularizing system of scientific and philosophic thought that developed in classical Greece in the period 600 to 300 b.c.e.; it emphasized using human reason to understand the world in nonreligious terms.
The first great Greek philosopher (469-399 b.c.e.), whose constant questioning of conventional thinking led to his death sentence from an Athenian jury.
A Greek philosopher (429-348 b.c.e.) who famously sketched out a design for a good society in The Republic.
A Greek philosopher (384-322 b.c.e.); student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great.
Jesus of Nazareth
A peasant/artisan "wisdom teacher" and Jewish mystic (ca. 4 b.c.e.-29 c.e.) whose life, teachings, death, and alleged resurrection gave rise to the new religion of Christianity.
An early convert and missionary (ca. 6-67 c.e.) and the first great popularizer of Christianity, especially to Gentile (non-Jewish) communities.
Christian martyr (181-203 c.e.) from an upper-class Roman family in Carthage. Her refusal to renounce her faith made her an inspiration for other early Christians.
Church of the East
An early theologically and organizationally distinct Christian church based in Syria and Persia but with followers in southern India and Central Asia.
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