Strayer, Ways of the World for the AP® Course, 4e, Chapter 6
Terms in this set (18)
City in southern Nubia that was the center of Nubian civilization between 300 b.c.e. and 100 c.e.; had a reputation for great riches and was culturally distinct from Egypt. (pron. MER-oh-ee)
Second-wave era kingdom of East Africa in presentday Eritrea and northern Ethiopia with a highly productive plow-based farming system; an early adopter of Christianity. (pron. AX-uhm)
Niger Valley civilization
Distinctive city-based civilization that flourished from about 300 b.c.e. to about 900 c.e. in the floodplain of the middle Niger and that included major cities like Jenne-jeno; the Niger Valley civilization is particularly noteworthy for its apparent lack of centralized state structures, having been organized instead in clusters of economically specialized settlements.
Control of a variety of ecological zones (and thus a variety of crops and animals) in areas with diverse climates and competing cities, chiefdoms, and states; common in Mesoamerican and Andean civilizations.
A major civilization of Mesoamerica known for the most elaborate writing system in the Americas and other intellectual and artistic achievements; flourished from 250 to 900 c.e.
The largest city of pre-Columbian America, with a population between 125,000 and 150,000; seemingly built to a plan in the Valley of Mexico, Teotihuacán flourished between 300 and 600 c.e., during which time it governed or influenced much of the surrounding region. The name Teotihuacán is an Aztec term meaning "city of the gods." (pron. tay-uh-tee-wah-KAHN)
An Andean town strategically located between the western coast and eastern rain forests that was the center of a large Peruvian religious movement from around 900 to 200 b.c.e. (pron. cha-BEEN)
An important regional civilization of northern Peru, governed by warrior-priests; flourished from around 100 to 800 c.e. (pron. MOH-chee)
Wari and Tiwanaku
Two states that flourished between 400 and 1000 c.e. in the interior highlands of the Andean region. At their height, they possessed urban capitals with populations in the tens of thousands and productive agricultural systems. (pron. wah-ree)
Gradual movement of Bantu-speaking peoples, beginning in ca. 3000 b.c.e., from their homeland in what is now southern Nigeria and the Cameroons into most of eastern and southern Africa by ca. 400 c.e. The agricultural techniques and ironworking technology of Bantu-speaking farmers gave them an advantage over the gathering and hunting peoples they encountered.
Name given to a major process of settlement and societal organization that occurred in the period 860-1130 c.e. among the peoples of Chaco canyon, in what is now northwestern New Mexico; the society formed is notable for its settlement in large pueblos and for the building of hundreds of miles of roads, the purpose of which is not known.
Members of a number of cultures that developed east of the Mississippi River in what is now the United States and that are distinguished by their large earthen mounds; most widespread between 200 b.c.e. and 1250 c.e.
A common name for the Mississippi valley mound-building culture, after an archeological site in Ohio. Significant for the wide variety of artifacts found in elaborate burial mounds.
The dominant center of an important Mississippi valley mound-building culture, located near present-day St. Louis, Missouri; flourished from about 900 to 1250 c.e.
Micronesian island dubbed the "Venice of the Pacific" where a complex urban construction made of coral and stone served as the ceremonial, administrative, and burial center.
Polynesian state with a central royal court, specialized craftsmen, and widespread military and commercial influence in the central Pacific.
mana and tapu
Religious concepts in Oceania; people or objects became sacred through a spiritual energy or power (mana) that was kept pure with ritual restrictions (tapu), which came into English as "taboo."
An island in western Micronesia that developed ceremonial tributary relationships with surrounding islands based in part on fear of Yapese sorcery.
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