This set of cards is for terms and concepts to learn prior to taking the PMI Agile Certified Practitioner (PMI-ACP) exam.
The Agile Manifesto values what over processes and tools?
Individuals and interactions.
The Agile Manifesto values what over comprehensive documentation?
The Agile Manifesto values what over contract negotiation?
The Agile Manifesto values what over following a plan?
Responding to change.
The Agile Manifesto values individuals and interactions over what?
Processes and tools.
The Agile Manifesto values working software over what?
The Agile Manifesto values responding to change over what?
Following a plan.
The Agile Manifesto values customer collaboration over what?
When was the Agile Manifesto first written?
February 11-13, 2001.
What happened on February 11-13, 2001?
The Agile Manifesto was written.
Name 3 disciplines that gave rise to the Agile Manifesto.
Extreme Programming, SCRUM, Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM), Adaptive Software Development, Crystal, Feature-Driven Development, Pragmatic Programming.
What is the Agile Manifesto's highest priority?
To satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery of valuable software.
According to the Agile Manifesto, at what point in development are changing requirements no longer welcome?
None. Changing requirements are welcome, even late in development.
According to the Agile Manifesto, Agile processes harness what for the customer's competitive advantage?
Agile processes harness change for the customer's competitive advantage.
According to the Agile Manifesto, Agile processes harness change for what?
Agile processes harness change for the customer's competitive advantage.
One of the Agile Manifesto's principles is to deliver working software _________________.
One of the Agile Manifesto's principles is to deliver working software frequently, from a couple of weeks to a couple of months, with a preference to the shorter timescale.
The Agile Manifesto says that who must work together, and how often?
Business people and developers must work together daily throughout the project.
According to the Agile Manifesto, how should projects be built?
Build projects around motivated individuals. Give them the environment and support they need, and trust them to get the job done.
The Agile Manifesto says that motivated individuals working on a project need what 3 things?
The 1., environment and 2., support they need, and 3., trust them to get the job done.
True or False: The Agile Manifesto says that the most efficient and effective method of conveying information to and within a development team is by thorough and rigorous project documentation.
False. The most efficient and effective method of conveying information to and within a development team is face-to-face conversation.
According to the Agile Manifesto, what is the primary measure of progress?
Working software is the primary measure of progress.
What does the Agile Manifesto say about sustainable development?
Agile processes promote sustainable development. The sponsors, developers, and users should be able to maintain a constant pace indefinitely.
According to the Agile Manifesto, paying continuous attention to what 2 things enhances agility?
Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design enhances agility.
How does the Agile Manifesto define "simplicity"?
Simplicity - the art of maximizing the amount of work not done - is essential.
According to the Agile Manifesto, the best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from what?
The best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from self-organizing teams.
According to the Agile Manifesto, what emerges from self-organizing teams?
The best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from self-organizing teams.
What does the Agile Manifesto say teams should do at regular intervals/
At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly.
According to Ken Schwaber, in Agile Project Management With SCRUM, what is likely to break down the more complex a system becomes?
The more complex the system, the more likely it is that central control systems will break down.
According to Ken Schwaber, in Agile Project Management With Scrum, what is a time-honored approach to dealing with complexity?
Relinquishing central control to independent agents.
Scrum moves control from central authority to what?
The individual teams doing the work.
Why are complete increments important?
Partial answers often fool us into thinking that an approach will work, when in reality, it does not work upon closer examination.
Scrum's philosophical underpinnings focus on what 2 things?
Empowering the development team and satisfying customers.
Scrum uses what kind of process control? Why does it use this?
Scrum uses empirical process control because of the complexity of intermediate activities makes defined process control far less effective.
What is "defined process control," and how does it related to Agile or Scrum?
Defined process control is laying out a process that repeatably will product acceptable quality output. Agile and Scrum take a very different approach called "empirical process control."
What are the three "legs" that hold up every implementation of empirical process control?
Visibility, inspection, and adaptation.
Describe what happens in a Scrum iteration.
Having looked at requirements, considered the available technology, evaluated its own skills and capabilities, the team collectively determines how to build the functionality, revising its approach daily as it encounters new complexities, difficulties, and surprises.
How many different roles are there in Scrum? Name them.
There are only 3 Scrum roles: Product Owner, Scrum Master, and Team.
What are the Scrum Product Owner's responsibilities?
The Product Owner is responsible for representing the interests of everyone with a stake in the project and its resulting system.
How does the Scrum Product Owner acheve initial and ongoing funding for a project?
By creating the project's initial overall requirements, return on investment (ROI) objectives, and release plans.
What is the list of prioritized requirements called in Scrum?
The Product Backlog.
Define "Product Backlog" in Scrum.
The Product Backlog is a list of functional and nonfunctional requirements that, when turned into functionality, will deliver the vision of the system to be developed.
What is the Product Owner responsible for doing with the Product Backlog?
The Product Owner is responsible for frequently prioritizing the Product Backlog to ensure that the most valuable functionality is produced first and built upon.
What is the role of the Team in Scrum?
The Team is responsible for figuring out how to turn the Product Backlog into an increment of functionality within an iteration, and managing their own work to do so.
What are the 3 main characteristics of a Scrum Team?
The Team is self-managing, self-organizing, and cross-functional.
What is the role of the Scrum Master?
The Scrum Master is responsible for the following:
- Removing barriers between development and the Product Owner so that the Product Owner directly drives development.
- Teach the Product Owner how to maximize ROI and meet the objectives through Scrum.
- Improve the Team's life by facilitating creativity and empowerment.
- Improve the Team's productivity in any way possible.
- Improve engineering practices and tools so that each increment of functionality is potentially shippable.
- Keep information about the team's progress up to date and visible to all parties.
A Scrum project starts with what?
A vision of the system to be developed.
What is the duration of a Sprint, as it is defined in Scrum?
A Sprint is an iteration of 30 consecutive calendar days.
In Scrum, what happens during the Sprint planning meeting?
In the Sprint Planning meeting, two things happen:
1. The Product Owner and Team discuss content, purpose, meaning, and intentions of the highest priority items in the Product Backlog.
2. The Team selects as much of the Product Backlog as it feels it can turn into an increment of potentially shippable functionality as it can deliver by the end of the Sprint.
According to Scrum, what is the maximum length that a Sprint planning meeting is allowed to be? Why this limit?
Sprint planning meetings cannot exceed 8 hours, to avoid too much hand-wringing about what is possible.
What happens during a Daily Scrum?
During the Daily Scrum, each Team member addresses 3 questions:
1. What have you done on this project since the last Daily Scrum?
2. What do you plan to do on this project between now and the next Daily Scrum?
3. What impediments stand in the way of meeting your commitments to this Sprint and to this project?
What is the maximum duration allowed for a Daily Scrum?
The Daily Scrum lasts 15 minutes.
What is the purpose of the Daily Scrum?
The purpose of the Daily Scrum is the following:
1. To synchronize the work of all Team members daily.
2. To identify any meetings that need to take place in order for the Team to keep progressing.
What happens during the Sprint Review?
During the Sprint Review,
1. The Team presents what they developed to the Product Owner and any Stakeholders who wish to attend.
2. Attendees collaboratively determine what the team should do next.
What is the maximum time box for the Sprint Review?
The Sprint Review is a 4-hour, time-boxed meeting.
When does the Sprint Retrospective take place?
The Sprint Retrospective takes place after the Sprint Review and before the next Sprint Planning Meeting.
Who leads the Sprint Retrospective?
The Scrum Master leads the Sprint Retrospective.
What is the purpose of the Sprint Retrospective?
In the Sprint Retrospective, the Scrum Master encourages the Team to revise, within the Scrum process and framework, its development process to make it more productive and enjoyable for the next Sprint.
What are the 4 main activities that constitute the empirical inspection and adaptation practices of Scrum?
Together, the Sprint Planning Meeting, the Daily Scrum, the Sprint Review, and the Sprint Retrospective constitute the empirical inspection and adaptation practices of Scrum.
Who is responsible for the contents, prioritization, and availability of the Product Backlog?
The Product Owner is responsible for the contents, prioritization, and availability of the Product Backlog.
True or False: Once the Product Backlog is identified in the project plan, it undergoes few or no changes.
False. The Product Backlog is never complete, and the Backlog used in the project plan is merely an initial estimate of the requirements.
What is a complexity factor?
A complexity factor increases the work estimate on a Product Backlog item due to project characteristics that reduce the productivity of the Team.
What does a Burndown Chart show?
A Burndown Chart shows the amount of work remaining across time. It visualizes the correlation between the amount of work remaining at any point in time and the progress of the Team in reducing this work.
A Burndown Chart assists with what decision?
The Burndown Chart shows "collision" of the work done and how fast it's being done with what's planned or hoped for. The Product Owner can then decide to add or remove a functionality from the release - to get a more acceptable release date or to extend the release date to include more functionality.
Describe the Sprint Backlog and the information it contains.
The Sprint Backlog contains the work that the Team defines for the part of the Product Backlog it selected for the Sprint into an increment of potentially shippable functionality.
A task in the Sprint Backlog should take, roughly, how many hours to finish?
A task in the Sprint Backlog should take, roughly, 4 to 16 hours to finish.
True or False: Only the Product Owner can change the Sprint Backlog.
False. Only the Team can change the Sprint Backlog.
What is the desired end-product of a Sprint?
The end product of a Sprint is an Increment of Potentially Shippable Product Functionality.
Because the Product Owner may decide to ship an increment of functionality at the conclusion of a Sprint, what must the team ensure has taken place during the Sprint?
The team must ensure that
1. The increment of functionality consists of thoroughly tested, well structured, well written code that has been built into an executable.
2. The user operation of the functionality is documented.
What is the Definition of Done for an increment of functionality, or Release?
The Definition of Done for an increment of functionality, or Release is the following:
1. The increment of functionality consists of thoroughly tested, well structured, well written code that has been built into an executable.
2. The user operation of the functionality is documented.
What does "Pigs and Chickens" signify in Scrum?
Pigs have skin in the game. Chickens are spectators.
What are the 3 management roles in Scrum?
Product Owner, Scrum Master, and Team.
Outside of the Product Owner, Scrum Master, and Team, who has direct authority over the project's execution or progress?
No one other than the Product Owner, Scrum Master, and Team have direct authority over the project's execution or progress. All others are spectators.
The Scrum Master fills the position normally occupied by ______________.
The Scrum Master fills the position normally occupied by the Project Manager.
The Scrum Master protects the Team from what?
The Scrum Master protects the Team from outside interference during the Sprint.
What is the Product Owner's primary focus?
The Product Owner's primary focus is Return on Investment (ROI).
According to Agile Project Management With Scrum, what is the optimal size for a Sprint team?
Optimally, a Team should include 7 people.
The Scrum Master must walk a fine line between what 2 phenomena?
The Scrum Master must walk a fine line between the organization's need to make changes and its limited tolerance to change.
What is the process that should take place if an opportunity arises that is more important than the work selected by the Team for the Sprint?
The Product Owner and Team can terminate the Sprint and conduct a new Sprint Planning Meeting. Assuming the new opportunity is the top priority in the Product Backlog, it is selected for the upcoming Sprint.
The Scrum term for the mechanism that coordinates multiple teams working on a single project is ________________.
The Scrum term for the mechanism that coordinates multiple teams working on a single project is Scrum of Scrums.
True or False: The same individual can serve as Product Owner and Scrum Master.
False. The Scrum Master should never serve as the Product Owner. Reasons:
- Being a ScrumMaster is a full time job.
- The Scrum Master supports the team while the Product Owner represents the clients' needs. At times these roles may come into conflict because often what the client wants and what the Team can accomplish within the Sprint are different. Therefore, the Scrum Master needs to have the role, when necessary, of pushing back on some of the Product Owner's requests.
- It is hard to facilitate (Scrum Master) when you also are the person also responsible for priorities (Product Owner). Even if you are good at it, team members may think that your question/request as a ScrumMaster is an order/direction from the Product Owner.
Describe the Scrum practice of Sashimi.
Sashimi stipulates that every slice of functionality created by developers is complete. That is, all requirements gathering and analysis, design work, coding, testing, and documentation that constitute the functionality are completed in the Sprint and demonstrated in the Sprint increment of functionality.
The Scrum Planning Process involves resolving what 3 questions?
The Scrum planning process involves resolving the following 3 questions:
1. What can those funding the project expect to have when the project is finished?
2. What progress will have been made at the end of each Sprint?
3. Why should those funding the project believe that the project is a valuable investment, and why should they believe that the Team can deliver?
What 2 things comprise the minimum plan necessary to start a Scrum project?
The minimum plan necessary to start a Scrum project consists of - A vision - A product backlog
In Scrum, what does the project Vision describe?
The Vision describes - why the project is being undertaken - what the desired end state is.
What are the roles of the XP Coach?
The XP Coach - Helps the team stay on process - Helps the team to learn - Brings an outside perspective to help a team see themselves more clearly - Helps balance the needs of delivering the project while improving the use of the practices - Supports the Customer Team, the Developer Team, and the Organization - Makes decisions that always stem from the XP values: Communication, Simplicity, Feedback, and Courage.
Name the 4 XP values.
The 4 XP values are Communication, Simplicity, Feedback, and Courage.
What are the roles of the XP Customer?
The XP Customer is responsible for - Defining what is the right product to build - Determining the order in which features will be built - Making sure the product actually works - Writing system features in the form of user stories that have business value - Using the Planning Game to choose the order in which the stories will be done by the development team - Defining acceptance tests that will be run against the system to prove that it is reliable and does what is required.
What is the role of the XP Programmer?
The XP Programmer is responsible for implementing the code to support the user stories.
What is the role of the XP Programmer Administrator?
The XP Programmer Administrator
- deals with establishing the physical working environment - assumes most of the traditional software development technical roles, such as designer, implementer, integrator, and administrator
What does the XP Tracker do?
The XP Tracker measures and communicates the team's progress.
The three basic things the XP Tracker will track are - the release plan (user stories) - the iteration plan (tasks) - the acceptance tests.
The tracker may also keep track of other metrics that help in solving problems the team is having.
A good XP Tracker has the ability to collect the information without disturbing the process significantly.
What does the XP Tester do?
The XP Tester
- helps the customer define and write acceptance tests for user stories - runs the tests frequently and posts results for the team to see - creates and maintains tools to make it easier to define and run tests and quickly gather results
How can cost/benefit and assumptions data help guide a Scrum project?
Scrum is an empirical process, and cost/benefit and assumptions data can help guide its inspection-and-adaptation cycle.
Name 4 avenues of reporting in Scrum.
Reporting in Scrum can be handled in the following ways:
- In the Daily Scrum, which is open to everyone
- In the Sprint Review, which provides monthly insight into whether the project is creating valuable functionality
- In the Product Backlog, which lists and prioritizes the project's requirements
- Sprint Reports generated at the end of every Sprint.
A Sprint Report contains what information?
The Sprint Report contains a snapshot of the project's progress - specifically work done during the Spring just ended.
If someone wants to change the rules for a Scrum team, what is the proper time to discuss these changes?
If someone wants to change the rules for a Scrum team, this should be discussed in the Retrospective.
True or False: Rule changes in Scrum should originate from the Team.
True. Scrum Teams are self-managing. Rule changes should not originate from management.
True or False: In Scrum, it is acceptable to change the rules while the Team is still learning how Scrum works.
False. Rule changes should be entertained if, and only if, the Scrum Master has determined that the Team, and everyone else involved has an in-depth understanding of Scrum.
Who determines whether a change can be made in a Team's Scrum process?
No Scrum rules can be changed until the Scrum Master has determined that the Team and everyone else involved has an in-depth understanding of Scrum.
What are the two segments of the Sprint Planning Meeting, and what are their time boxes?
The Sprint Planning Meeting consists of
1. Selecting priorities in the Product Backlog: 4 hours.
2. Preparing the Sprint Backlog: 4 hours.
True or False: The Sprint Planning Meeting's duration cannot exceed 10 hours.
False. The time box for the Sprint Planning Meeting is 8 hours.
True or False: Individuals in addition to the Product Owner, Scrum Master, and Team may attend the Sprint Planning Meeting.
True. Additional individuals may attend the Sprint Planning Meeting to provide information or advice, but they are dismissed after they have done so.
True or False: In Scrum, the Product Owner prepares the Product Backlog during the Sprint Planning Meeting.
False. In Scrum, the Product Owner prepares the Product Backlog prior to the Sprint Planning Meeting.
True or False: The Scrum Master may not stand in for the Product Owner in the Sprint Planning Meeting.
False: If the Product Owner must be absent from the Sprint Planning Meeting, the Scrum Master is required to prepare the Product Backlog prior to the meeting and stand in for the Product Owner.
In Scrum, what happens during the first segment of Sprint Planning Meeting?
During the first segment of Sprint Planning Meeting, the Team selects priority Product Backlog items that it believes it can commit to turning into an increment of potentially shippable functionality.
True or False: In Scrum, if the Team still has analysis of the Product Backlog that it needs to do before the Sprint when the first 4 hours of the Sprint Planning Meeting are done, the Team must wait until the next Sprint Planning Meeting to finish this analysis.
False. If the Team still has analysis of the Product Backlog to do when the first 4 hours of the Sprint Planning Meeting are done, further analysis must be performed during the Sprint.
True or False: The Product Owner must be present in the second segment of the Sprint Planning Meeting.
True. The Product Owner must be present in the second segment of the Sprint Planning Meeting to answer the Team's questions about the Product Backlog.
True or False: In Scrum, the Team acts solely on its own to figure out how it will turn selected Product Backlog items into potentially shippable functionality.
True. No one else outside the Team may do anything but observe or answer questions when the Team is figuring out how it will turn selected Product Backlog items into potentially shippable functionality.
In Scrum, what is the outcome of the second segment of the Sprint Planning Meeting?
The outcome of the second segment of the Sprint Planning Meeting is the Sprint Backlog.
True or False: In Scrum, the Sprint Backlog must be complete before the Sprint can start.
False. The Sprint Backlog must be complete enough to reflect mutual commitment on the part of the Team Members and to carry the Team through the first part of the Sprint, while the Team devises more tasks in the Sprint Backlog.
True or False: The Daily Scrum may be extended to more than 15 minutes if the team has a lot of members.
False. The Daily Scrum lasts no more than 15 minutes, regardless of the size of the Team.
The Daily Scrum is best held what time of day? Why?
The Daily Scrum is best held first thing in the day so that Team members think first about what they did the day before and what they will do today.
What should a Team member do if he/she can't attend the daily Scrum?
If a team member can't attend the Daily Scrum, he/she should attend by phone or by have a team member report on his/her behalf.
According to Agile Project Management With Scrum, what is the penalty for showing up late for the Daily Scrum?
Those who do not show up on time to the Daily Scrum must pay $1 to the Scrum Master.
True or False: Reporting in the Daily Scrum proceeds clockwise.
False: During the Daily Scrum, the Scrum Master starts with the person immediately to his/her left, proceeding counterclockwise around the room until everyone has reported.
Where do "Chickens" stand during the Daily Scrum?
During the Daily Scrum, "Chickens" stand on the periphery of the Team.
True or False: "Chickens" are allowed to talk with Team members after the Daily Scrum.
False. "Chickens" are not allowed to talk to Team members after the Daily Scrum to get or give clarification or to give advice or instructions.
In Scrum, why is the Sprint limited to 30 days?
The Sprint is limited to 30 days because
- This is the maximum time that can be allocated without the Team doing so much work that it requires artifacts and documentation to support its thought processes.
- This is the maximum time that most stakeholders will wait without losing interest in the Team's progress and without losing belief that the Team is doing something meaningful for them.
True or False: In Scrum, the Team can seek outside help during the Sprint, and others outside the Team can give advice, instructions, or direction to the Team.
False. During the Sprint, the Team can seek outside advice, help, information, and support during the Sprint. But the Team is self-managing - no one can give advice, instructions, or direction to the Team.
True or False: The priorities in the Product Backlog can be changed during the Sprint.
False. The Product Backlog is frozen during the Sprint.
Who has the authority to terminate a Sprint if it's not viable?
The Scrum Master has the authority to terminate a Sprint if it's not viable. The Scrum Master can do this of his/her own accord or at the Team's or Product Owner's request.
In Scrum, what should the Team do if it feels it is unable to complete all the work it committed to for a Sprint?
If a team feels it is unable to complete all the work it committed to for a Sprint, it should consult the Product Owner.
In Scrum, what should the Team do if it finds that it can address more of the Product Backlog than it selected during the Sprint Planning Meeting?
If a Team finds that it can address more Product Backlog than it selected during the Sprint Planning Meeting, it should consult the Product Owner on which Product Backlog items can be added to the Sprint.
In Scrum, what two administrative items is the Team responsible for during the Sprint?
During the Sprint, the Team is responsible for
1. Attending the Daily Scrum
2. Keeping the Sprint Backlog up to date and visible to all.
In Scrum, how much time should the Team spend preparing for the Sprint Review?
The Team should not spend more than 1 hour preparing for the Sprint Review.
In Scrum, what is the purpose of the Sprint Review?
The purpose of the Sprint Review is for the Team to present the functionality it has completed to the Product Owner and Stakeholders.
In Scrum, what is the definition of "done" when referring to a functionality?
"Done" means the functionality is completely engineered and could be potentially shipped or implemented.
In Scrum, if a functionality is not yet completed, can it still be presented in the Sprint Review?
Functionality that isn't "done" cannot be presented at the Sprint Review.
In Scrum, should Artifacts be presented at the Sprint Review?
Artifacts that aren't functionality cannot be presented at the Sprint Review unless they are being used to support the understanding of the functionality.
True or False: Functionalities presented at the Sprint Review should be executed from a development environment.
False. Functionalities presented at the Sprint Review should be executed from the server closest to production - usually a quality-assurance (QA) environment server.
In Scrum, what is the first thing that happens in the Sprint Review?
The Sprint Review starts with a Team member presenting
1. The Sprint Goal 2. The part of the Product Backlog to which the team committed for the Sprint 3. The part of the Product Backlog completed during the Sprint.
In Scrum, what is the role of the Product Owner in the Sprint Review?
The Product Owner discusses with the stakeholders and Team potential rearrangement of the Product Backlog, based on feedback from the stakeholders.
True or False: Stakeholders may not request that new functionalities be added to the Product Backlog during the Sprint Review.
False. In the Sprint Review, stakeholders can identify new functionality as well as functionality that wasn't delivered or wasn't delivered as expected and request that this functionality be placed in the Product Backlog for prioritization.
In Scrum, who sets up the Sprint Review meeting?
The Scrum Master sets up the Sprint Review meeting.
In Scrum, what is the Sprint Retrospective's time-box?
The Sprint Retrospective is time-boxed to 3 hours.
What happens during Pair Programming?
In Pair Programming, all code is produced by two people programming on one task at one workstation. One programmer controls the workstation and focuses on the coding in detail. The other programmer focuses more on the big picture, and continually reviews the code written by the first programmer. Periodically, the programmers trade roles.
What is the role of the Customer in Extreme Programming?
The Customer provides the requirements, sets priorities, and steers the project. The Customer should be an actual end user who understands the domain and what is needed.
What is the role of the Coach in Extreme Programming?
In Extreme Programming, the Coach facilitates the process and helps the team keep on track.
What is the role of the Manager in Extreme Programming?
In Extreme Programming, the Manager provides resources, handles external communication, and coordinates activities.
True or False: In a well-formed Extreme Programming team, everyone is a specialist.
False. The best Extreme Programming teams have no specialists, only general contributors with special skills.
What two key questions are addressed in XP planning?
XP planning addresses two key questions in software development:
1. Predicting what will be accomplished by the due date 2. Determining what to do next.
What are the 2 key planning steps in XP?
The 2 key planning steps in XP are
1. Release Planning 2. Iteration Planning
What happens during XP Release Planning?
In XP Release Planning, the Customer presents the desired features to the programmers, and the programmers estimate the features' difficulty.
What happens during XP Iteration Planning?
In XP Iteration Planning, the following happens:
1. The Customer presents the features desired to be completed during the upcoming 2 weeks. 2. The programmers break these features down into tasks and estimate their cost. 3. Based on the amount of work accomplished in the previous iteration, the team signs up for what will be undertaken in the upcoming iteration.
What is the role of the XP Customer in acceptance testing?
The XP Customer defines one or more automated acceptance tests to show that the feature is working.
What is the role of the XP Team in acceptance testing?
The team builds the automated acceptance tests (defined by the Customer) and uses them to prove to themselves, and to the customer, that the feature is implemented correctly.
Why is automated testing important in XP and other Agile practices?
Automated testing is important because when time is pressing, teams tend to skip manual tests.
In what 2 important ways do XP teams practice small releases?
XP teams practice small releases in the following two ways:
1. The team releases running, tested software, delivering business value chosen by the Customer, every iteration. This software is visible and given to the customer at the end of every iteration.
2. XP teams release frequently to the end users. Web projects, for instance, release as often as daily.
What are some of the problems caused by infrequent integration?
Infrequent integration on a software project can lead to the following problems:
- Although integration is critical to shipping good working code, the team is not practiced at it, and often it is delegated to people who are not familiar with the whole system.
- Infrequently integrated code is frequently buggy. Problems creep in at integration time that are not detected by any of the testing that takes place on an unintegrated system.
- Infrequent integration leads to long code freezes during which the programmers cannot work on important shippable features.
True or False: Programmers in an XP project may not make changes to each others' code.
False. In XP, any pair of programmers can improve any code at any time during a project.
In XP, what are the 2 main advantages of allowing programmers to improve one another's code at any time during a project?
Allowing programmers to improve one another's code has the following advantages:
- Many people are paying attention to the code, which increases code quality and reduces defects.
- It leads to better cohesion. When code is owned by individuals, required features are often put in the wrong place, leading to ugly, hard-to-maintain code that is full of duplication.
What 2 XP practices prevent programmers from blindly working on code that they do not understand?
XP avoids the problem of programmers blindly working on code that they do not understand by the following:
- Programmer tests catch mistakes.
- Pair programming allows a programmer who is unfamiliar with code to work side-by-side with an expert.
In XP, teams develop a common vision, in the form of a simple evocative description, of how the program works. This is called the _______________.
In XP, the team's common vision of how the program works -- in the form of a simple evocative description -- is called the Metaphor.
True or False: The 2 most widely used Agile methods are Scrum and Lean.
False. The 2 most widely used Agile methods are Scrum and XP.
The theory behind Scrum is based on what three concepts?
The theory behind Scrum is based on Transparence, Inspection, and Adaptation.
In Scrum, Transparency means ___________________.
In Scrum, Transparency means giving visibility of information to those responsible for the outcome.
In Scrum, Inspection refers to what?
In Scrum, Inspection refers to timely checks on how well a project is progressing toward its goals.
In Scrum, Adaptation involves what?
In Scrum, Adaptation involves adjusting a process to minimize further issues if an Inspection reveals a problem.
When more than one Scrum Team works simultaneously on a project, it is referred to as a _______________.
When more than one Scrum Team works simultaneously on a project, it is referred to as a scaled project.
The mechanisms used to coordinate the work of Scrum teams in a scaled project are called which of the following:
a. Scrum of Scrums b. Scaling Mechanisms c. Multiple-Sprint Mechanisms
The mechanisms used to coordinate the work of Scrum teams in a scaled project are called:
b. Scaling Mechanisms.
Dividing a large working group into smaller Scrum teams and designating one member of each team as an ambassador to participate in a daily meeting with ambassadors from other teams is called ________________.
Dividing large groups into smaller Scrum teams and designating one member of each team as an ambassador to participate in a daily meeting with ambassadors from other teams is called Scrum of Scrums.
What three environmental considerations need to be addressed prior to scaling a Scrum project?
To successfully scale a Scrum project, the following must be in place:
- An appropriate infrastructure so that work across multiple teams can be synchronized. - A more detailed product and technical architecture so that the work can be cleanly divided among teams. - Alternate communications, such as instant messaging, since multiple teams will not always be able to communicate face to face.
Setting up the infrastructure, technical architecture, and communications channels prior to scaling a Scrum project occurs when?
Setting up the infrastructure, technical architecture, and communications channels prior to scaling a Scrum project occurs during Sprints.
When preparing to scale a Scrum project, why is it important to set up the needed infrastructure during Sprints while at the same time developing shippable functionality?
When preparing to scale a Scrum project, it is important to set up the needed infrastructure during Sprints while at the same time developing shippable functionality. This allows the team to test the infrastructure with functionality development work as it evolves. It also demonstrates business functionality that enables results, thus keeping stakeholders engaged in the project.
When preparing to scale a Scrum project, nonfunctional requirements for this scaling take what priority in the Product Backlog?
When preparing to scale a Scrum project, nonfunctional requirements are a high, or even top, priority in the Product Backlog because they must be completed before scaling begins. They share high priority with business functionality.
What is a nonfunctional requirement?
A nonfunctional requirement specifies criteria that can be used to judge the operation of a system, rather than specific behaviors of the system. The following are examples of nonfunctional requirements:
The process of defining and prioritizing nonfunctional requirements for scaling a Scrum project is called
a. Staging b. Decomposing c. Iterative Scaling
The process of defining and prioritizing nonfunctional requirements for scaling a Scrum project is called
When preparing to scale a Scrum project, Staging occurs when?
When preparing to scale a Scrum project, Staging occurs prior to the start of the first Sprint and lasts just one day.
Which of the following is not a nonfunctional requirement for scaling a Scrum project?
a. A business architecture to support multi-team development b. A system architecture to support multi-team development c. A development environment to support multi-team development d. A schedule of synchronized releases for multi-team development
d. A schedule of synchronized releases for multi-team development is not a nonfunctional requirement for scaling a Scrum project.
What Scrum practice can sometimes override rules such as "no outside work will be added to a team's Sprint once it's underway"?
The Scrum practice of following common sense can sometimes override rules such as "no outside work will be added to a team's Sprint once it's underway."
If a team member wants to change a Scrum rule because it doesn't seem to be working, this is addressed during what activity?
The desire to change a Scrum rule is addressed during the Retrospective.
True or False: Changing Scrum rules should originate from management.
False. Scrum rule changes should originate from the Team, not management.
True or False: The Scrum Master can disallow the changing of a Scrum rule if he or she feels that the team does not yet have an in-depth understanding of Scrum.
True. The Scrum Master can disallow the changing of a Scrum rule if he or she feels that the team does not yet have an in-depth understanding of Scrum.
The Waterfall model takes a highly defined approach to projects, meaning that the team will adhere to the project plan as closely as possible and changes must undergo a change-management process. What type of approach does Agile take?
Agile takes an empirical approach to projects. This means that the project plan will change as requirements change.
In the Waterfall model, what are the three points of the traditional iron triangle?
The three points of the traditional iron triangle are - Scope - Cost - Schedule
In the traditional project iron triangle, what is the primary constraint, and why is it considered primary?
In the traditional project iron triangle, Scope is the primary constraint because it is the first constraint that is known.
In a defined approach to project management, Cost and Schedule can be adjusted to accommodate changes in what constraint?
In a highly defined approach to project management, Cost and Schedule can be adjusted to accommodate changes in Scope.
In a defined approach to project management, which constraint refers to the time limits posed by project deadlines?
In a defined approach to project management, the Schedule constraint refers to the time limits posed by project deadlines.
In a defined approach to project management, which constraint refers to the limits posed by the project's budget?
In a defined approach to project management, the Cost constraint refers to the limits posed by the project's budget.
In a defined approach to project management, a budget overrun may require changes to what two constraints?
In a defined approach to project management, a budget overrun may require changes to Scope and Schedule.
What are the three parameters of the Agile Triangle?
The three parameters of the Agile Triangle are
- Value - Quality - Constraints
Picture the Agile Iron Triangle in your mind. Which constraint is located at the upper left point?
The Cost constraint is located at the upper left point of the Agile Iron Triangle.
Picture the Agile Iron Triangle in your mind. Which constraint is located at the upper right point?
The Scope constraint is located at the upper right point of the Agile Iron Triangle.
Picture the Agile Iron Triangle in your mind. Which constraint is located at bottom point?
The Schedule constraint is located at the bottom point of the Agile Iron Triangle.
What is considered the most important parameter of the Agile Triangle?
Value is considered the most important parameter of the Agile Triangle.
The Agile Triangle focuses on delivering what two things, given Constraints?
The Agile Triangle focuses on delivering Value and Quality, given Constraints.
Which Agile principles does the traditional Iron Triangle violate?
1. Use working software as the primary measure of progress. 2. Document all aspects of a project prior to development. 3. Deliver working software frequently. 4. Welcome change. 5. Ensure that members of the development team are highly motivated. 6. Follow the project plan as closely as possible to ensure that the product meets customer requirements.
The traditional Iron Triangle violates the following Agile principles:
1. Use working software as the primary measure of progress. 3. Deliver working software frequently. 4. Welcome change. 5. Ensure that members of the development team are highly motivated.
Which part of the Agile Triangle indicates the most important Agile principle?
The Value part of the Agile Triangle indicates the most important Agile principle.
Which Agile value is difficult and expensive to uphold if you are using the traditional Waterfall model?
Responding to Change is difficult and expensive to uphold if you are using the traditional Waterfall model.
In the Agile project management model derived by Jim Highsmith, what are the 5 Agile project management phases, in order?
In the Agile project management model derived by Jim Highsmith, what happens during the Agile Envisioning phase?
During the Agile Envisioning phase, you do the following:
1. Focus on defining the product vision. 2. Determine the project scope, or requirements. 3. Develop a project schedule. 4. Decide on your project team.
In the Agile project management model derived by Jim Highsmith, what happens during the Speculating phase?
During the Speculating phase, you do the following:
1. Develop estimated Iteration and Release Plans. 2. Develop Feature Breakdown. 3. Using 1 and 2, along with the requirements defined in the Envisioning phase, develop a rough project plan. 4. Consider project risk and appropriate risk-mitigation strategies. 5. Estimate project costs.
In the Agile project management model derived by Jim Highsmith, what happens during the Exploring phase?
During the Exploring phase:
1. The team designs, builds, and tests features in increments that deliver value to the customer. 2. Project leaders help the team overcome obstacles. 3. Project leaders manage the team's interaction with the product owners, customers, and stakeholders.
In the Agile project management model derived by Jim Highsmith, what happens during the Adapting phase?
During the Adapting phase:
1. The team uses feedback to review the results of the Iteration. 2. Based on that feedback, the team adapts product features and project plans for the next Iteration. 3. The project leader also make necessary adjustments, such as changing the team composition.
In the Agile project management model derived by Jim Highsmith, what happens during the Closing phase?
During the Closing phase: 1. All project work is completed. 2. Tasks associated with a final product release, such as writing end-user documentation, are completed. 3. Lessons Learned are recorded for future use.
True or False: In Agile project management, the project scope remains unchanged throughout the course of the project.
False: In Agile project management, the scope continues to be adjusted as the project evolves.
What is the role of the customer in Agile project management?
In Agile project management, the customer
1. Helps the team define requirements. 2. Helps the team prioritize requirements. 3. Reviews the results of each iteration, providing feedback to help the team adapt product features to better meet requirements.
In traditional project management, customer feedback is gathered at what stage?
In traditional project management, customer feedback is gathered near the end of the project, after the product has been delivered.
Name the 5 phases of traditional project management, in order.
The 5 phases of traditional project management are the following:
How are the Initiating phase of traditional project management and the Envisioning phase of Agile project management similar?
The Initiating phase and the Envisioning phase both determine the vision for the project along with relevant objectives and constraints.
How do the Initiating phase of traditional project management and the Envisioning phase of Agile project management differ?
The Initiating phase of traditional project management determines the project Scope. The Envisioning phase of Agile project management does not do this because it's expected that the scope will become clear only as the project progresses.
How do the Planning phase of traditional project management and the Speculating phase of Agile project management differ?
During the Planning phase, every aspect of the project is planned.
During the Speculating phase, the team creates a Release Plan based on required features and the team's capacity; however, this is a rough estimate and the plan will change as the project proceeds.
What Agile project management phase corresponds with the Initiating phase in traditional project management?
In Agile, the Envisioning phase corresponds with the Initiating phase in traditional project management.
How does the Agile Exploring phase of a project differ from the traditional project management Executing phase?
During the Exploring phase in Agile, the team is not expected to strictly adhere to the original project plan as is done in the Executing phase of traditional project management.
Rather, the process includes reviews, testing, and adjustments to future iterations based on review and testing results.
What happens in the Monitoring and Controlling phase of traditional project management?
The Monitoring and Controlling phase occurs throughout a project. In this phase, the project manager compares planned and actual results and, if necessary, takes steps to bring actual results in line with planned results.
How does the traditional Monitoring and Controlling project management phase compare with Agile's Adapting phase?
In Monitoring and Controlling phase, the project manager makes sure that actual results stay in line with planned results.
In the Adapting phase, the focus is on adapting to, and incorporating, change, with the goal of delivering the most value to the customer within the given constraints.
How do the Closing phases of traditional and Agile project management differ?
In a traditional project, the Closing phase involves completing relevant documentation and handing deliverables over to the customer or sponsor.
By the time of the Closing phase in Agile, deliverables have been handed over to the customer incrementally over several iterative work cycles resulting in Releases. The Closing phase is the time when all possible deliverables have been released within the given constraints.
True or False: In Agile, project management responsibilities are usually handled by one individual.
False. In Agile, project management responsibilities may be spread across different members of the team.
Agile project managers are often referred to using what term?
Agile project managers are often referred to as Project Leaders.
The Agile Project Leader does what?
The Agile Project Leader
- Has a lot of the traditional project manager's responsibilities - Is often in the Business Analyst or Scrum Master role - May take on more of a coaching role, helping team members achieve their goals, rather than delegating tasks and overseeing team members' work.
True or False: The Agile Project Leader generally takes on a lot of the traditional project manager's responsibilities.
True. The Agile Project Leader has many of the traditional project manager's responsibilities.
True or False: The Agile Project Leader is often a Business Analyst.
True. The Agile Project Leader is often in the Business Analyst or Scrum Master role.
True or False: The Agile Project Leader is often in the role of the Scrum Master.
True. The Agile Project Leader is often in the Business Analyst or Scrum Master role.
True or False: The Agile Project Leader is responsible for delegating tasks to the team members and overseeing their work.
False. The Agile Project Leader takes on more of a coaching role, helping team members achieve their goals.
What are the Project Leader's 3 most important responsibilities?
The Project Leader's most important responsibilities include the following:
- Helping team members interact with the rest of the organization - Controlling organizational aspects of the project - Support team members and keep them motivated so that they're equipped to handle the challenges associated with Agile development
How does the Business Analyst role differ, comparing traditional and Agile project management?
In traditional project management, the Business Analyst assists with communication between an off-site customer and the team.
In Agile, the Business Analyst
- has a role that varies depending on the nature of the organization and/or the project. - helps manage the relationship between an on-site customer or customer rep and the team. - is often a member of the team.
What is the role of the Business Analyst in Agile project management?
The Business Analyst
1. Reminds the customer of any constraints or needs that the team has. 2. Helps the team express themselves in business terms that the customer can understand, for example, ensuring that new product functionality is explained clearly to the customer.
What skills must a Business Analyst have in a complex Agile project?
In a complex Agile project, the Business Analyst must be skilled at effectively analyzing and managing project requirements to ensure the project's success.
What is the role of the Product Manager, or Product Owner in relation to the product vision?
The Product Manager, or Product Owner, documents the vision for the product and shares that product vision with stakeholders and the team.
What 4 strengths or abilities should a Product Manager, or Product Owner bring to a project?
The Product Manager, or Product Owner should
- understand the market for a product and its importance - be able to facilitate difficult decisions, such as which features to include, and which to leave out - be able to manage time efficiently so that budget constraints can be met - be available to work full time during a project iteration to help keep the project on target
What role includes the responsibility to facilitate daily stand-up meetings?
The Scrum Master is responsible for facilitating daily stand-up meetings.
On an Agile team, what does the Designer do?
The Designer works alongside product developers to help simplify complex designs.
On an Agile team, what does the Developer do?
Developers build the product or service, working together to program and test code.
What do Testers do on an Agile team?
Testers do the following:
- investigate products for possible flaws - test product performance, scalability, and stability in relation to customer requirements - envision all possible uses of a product and test accordingly
In Agile, testing happens at what stage of the project?
Testing is done on an ongoing basis in Agile.
The Project Leader can track the team's progress using what kind of chart?
The Project Leader tracks the team's progress using a burndown chart.
In Scrum, what document lists all possible requirements for a product?
In Scrum, the Product Backlog lists all possible requirements for a product.
The Product Backlog lists what 4 types of product requirements?
The Product Backlog lists - Features - Functions - Enhancements - Fixes
True or False: The Product Backlog is constantly updated and reordered.
True. The Product Backlog is constantly updated and reordered during the course of a project.
The programmer-centric Agile methodology that focuses on ongoing, rapid delivery of small pieces of software is called __________________.
The programmer-centric Agile methodology that focuses on ongoing rapid delivery of small pieces of software is called Extreme Programming, or XP.
In XP, the interval between software releases is typically what range of days?
In XP, the interval between software releases is typically 30 to 180 days.
True or False: In XP, Iterations last between 1 and 4 weeks.
True. XP Iterations last between 1 and 4 weeks.
XP stands for what?
XP stands for Extreme Programming.
True or False: In XP, each Iteration results in code that is ready for the testing phase.
False. In XP, each Iteration results in production-ready code, that is, code that has been fully tested and can be integrated into a Release.
What is Refactoring?
Refactoring refers to the redesign or reprogramming of code that is already been implemented in order to improve its performance.
What three tasks are integrated into the XP coding process?
The XP coding process integrates Testing, Refactoring, and Feedback.
Which of the following is not one of the three main principles of XP?
1. Pair Programming 2. Sustainable Pace 3. Ongoing Automated Testing
Continuous Integration is not one of the 3 main principles of XP.
XP programmers are encouraged to work no more than ____ per week.
XP programmers are encouraged to work no more than 40 per week in order to maintain a sustainable pace.
What do XP programmers write even before they begin writing code?
XP programmers write Unit Tests even before they begin writing code.
Lean software development is based on what processes?
Lean software development is based on manufacturing processes such as those used by Toyota.
How does Lean differ from other Agile methodologies?
Unlike other Agile methodologies, Lean does not prescribe specific development methods. Rather, it provides guidelines for streamlining the development process so that teams can meet customer needs more efficiently.
Lean software development follows what 7 principles?
Lean software development follows these 7 principles:
1. Eliminate waste. 2. Incorporate continuous learning. 3. Delay decisions. 4. Deliver software quickly. 5. Empower the programming team. 6. Focus on system integrity. 7. Focus on the whole system.
Which of the following is not one of the 7 Lean software development principles?
"Focus on feature integrity" is not one of the 7 Lean software development principles.
What is Lean's core principle?
Lean's core principle is to Eliminate Waste.
What does Waste refer to in Lean software development development?
In Lean software development, Waste refers to time and effort that doesn't directly add Value to the end product.
What are some of the ways that Lean incorporates continuous learning into the process?
Lean teams Incorporate Continuous Learning in the following ways:
- Early and ongoing testing - Early and ongoing customer feedback - Breaking work into time-boxed Iterations so that lessons learned in one Iteration can inform the next - Team members collaborate and learn from one another
What Lean principle helps to minimize the need to fix problems later on?
Lean teams Incorporate Continuous Learning to ensure that they are doing things right the first time and minimizing the need to fix problems later on.
Why is the Lean principle of Delaying Decisions important?
Making decisions about software design and code as late as possible reduces the risk that new information and changes in business needs will invalidate those decisions.
Lean software development focuses on reducing Time to Market. What does this mean?
Reducing Time to Market refers to meeting the customer's needs faster and more efficiently. This is done by planning smaller software Releases after short periods and focusing on the customer's existing -- rather than anticipated -- needs.
How does Lean reduce Time to Market?
Lean reduces Time to Market by doing the following:
- Planning smaller software Releases after short periods - Focusing on the customer's existing, rather than anticipated, needs - Identifying and removing bottlenecks in the software development process
In Lean software development what three procedures must occur throughout the development process to ensure System Integrity?
To ensure system integrity, system testing and customer feedback must occur throughout the development process. Developers also must feel free to refactor or redesign code if it will improve performance.
True or False: In Lean software development, programmers focus on specialized system components and unit testing.
False. Lean software development emphasizes that each programmer must be able to focus on the whole system and how its parts will integrate. This requires collaboration and breadth, as well as depth, of knowledge. It also requires ongoing testing at the system level as well as at the unit level.
Scrum is often used in combination with what other Agile methodology?
Scrum is often used in combination with XP.
What are the possible disadvantages of Scrum?
The following are the possible disadvantages of Scrum:
- Projects do not always involve extensive customer interaction with the team. - Scrum lacks a comprehensive testing methodology. - Scrum does not include formal code reviews - Much of the testing in Scrum is not automated.
What are the possible disadvantages of XP?
The following are the possible disadvantages of XP:
- XP is more of a set of rules than a methodology - XP doesn't include formal code reviews in addition to those occurring during pair programming - XP provides little support for virtually distributed teams.
What sort of chart is used to track team progress in Scrum?
Scrum uses a Burndown Chart to track team progress.
Crystal Clear is suitable for project teams of what size?
Crystal Clear is suitable for projects involving small teams of up to 6 members.
Crystal Yellow is suitable for project teams of what size?
Crystal Yellow is suitable for project teams of 7 to 20 members.
Crystal Orange is suitable for project teams of what size?
Crystal Orange is suitable for project teams of 21 to 40 members.
Crystal Red is suitable for project teams of what size?
Crystal Red is suitable for project teams of 41 to 80 members.
Crystal Maroon is suitable for project teams of what size?
Crystal Maroon is suitable for projects with 81 to 100 or more team members.
What are the two most commonly used Crystal methodologies?
The two most commonly used Crystal methodologies are Crystal Clear and Crystal Orange.
What are the specified team roles in a Crystal Clear project?
A Crystal Clear project has 3 specified roles:
- Sponsor - Senior Designer - Programmer
True or False: In a Crystal Clear project, team members may be distributed across different locations.
False. In a Crystal Clear project, team members must be co-located.
In a Crystal Clear project, the team is expected to deliver working software after Iterations of how many days?
In a Crystal Clear project, the team is expected to deliver working software after Iterations of 60 to 90 days.
True or False: In a Crystal Clear project, the team defines its own set of coding standards and testing practices.
True. In a Crystal Clear project, the team is responsible for defining its own set of coding standards and testing practices.
True or False: The Crystal Orange methodology is appropriate for medium-sized projects.
True. The Crystal Orange methodology is appropriate for medium-sized projects, with teams of between 21 and 40 members.
In a Crystal Orange project, the team is expected to deliver working software after Iterations of how many days?
In a Crystal Orange project, the team is expected to deliver working software after Iterations of 90 to 120 days, although the team can choose to work in shorter Iterations.
Crystal Orange teams must define what artifacts?
Crystal Orange teams must define the following artifacts:
- Requirements Documentation - Project Schedule - Status Reports
Which of the following are Crystal Orange teams responsible for defining?
They are not responsible for defining the Product Vision.
FDD provides a prescriptive model for _____________.
FDD provides a prescriptive model for development.
True or False: FDD stands for Functionality-Driven Development.
False. FDD stands for Feature-Driven Development.
FDD stands for _________________.
FDD stands for Feature-Driven Development.
DFDM stands for which of the following:
a. Distributed Systems Development Methodology b. Dynamic Software Development Methodology c. Dedicated Software Development Methodology d. Dynamic Systems Development Methodology
DFDM stands for Dynamic Systems Development Methodology.
ASD stands for which of the following:
a. Adaptive Software Development b. Agile Software Development c. Applied Software Development
ASD stands for
a. Adaptive Software Development.
In FDD, all aspects of software development are
a. planned by identifying and decomposing functionalities b. planned, managed, and tracked at the level of individual software features c. organized into components comprised of feature sets
In FDD, all aspects of software development are
b. planned, managed, and tracked at the level of individual software features.
FDD teams use work iterations of what length?
FDD teams use work iterations of 2 weeks or less.
FDD defines 5 processes that the team must complete. Name these 5 processes in their correct order.
FDD teams must complete the following 5 processes, in order:
1. Develop an overall model. 2. Build a features list. 3. Plan by feature. 4. Design by feature. 5. Build by feature.
DSDM is which of the following:
a. a structured framework for Agile software development b. a methodology that adapts XP rules to systems development c. a change-management-driven methodology for software development d. a structured framework for Agile systems development
d. a structured framework for Agile systems development.
Unlike other Agile methodologies, DSDM applies what perspective?
Unlike other Agile methodologies, DSDM applies a business perspective rather than a technical one.
True or False: One of DSDM's main goals is ensuring a fit between developed products and their business purposes.
True. One of DSDM's main goals is ensuring a fit between developed products and their business purposes.
What are the three phases of a DSDM project?
The three phases of a DSDM project are the following:
1. Activities that must occur before the project begins. 2. Activities that make up the project's actual lifecycle. 3. Activities that must occur once the project is completed.
A DSDM project's lifecycle phase are:
a. Business Study → Feasibility Study → Functional Model Iteration → Design and Build Iteration → Implementation b. Feasibility Study → Business Study → Functional Model Iteration → Design and Build Iteration → Implementation c. Business Study → Feasibility Study → Design and Build Iteration → Implementation b. Feasibility Study → Business Study → System Design Iteration → System Build Iteration → Implementation
A DSDM project's lifecycle phase are
b. Feasibility Study → Business Study → Functional Model Iteration → Design and Build Iteration → Implementation
True or False: The ASD methodology views the software-development process as a learning cycle beginning with a collaborative phase.
False. The ASD methodology views the software-development process as a collaborative learning cycle beginning with a Speculation phase.
The phases of ASD are:
a. Speculate → Collaborate → Learn b. Envision → Speculate → Explore → Adapt → Close c. Speculate → Collaborate → Explore → Learn → Adapt d. Envision → Collaborate → Learn
The phases of ASD are
a. Speculate → Collaborate → Learn
The Speculate phase of ASD is also called
a. Product Backlog Planning b. Iterative Cycle Planning c. Adaptive Cycle Planning d. Iteration Objective Planning e. Initial Release Planning
The Speculate phase of ASD is also called
c. Adaptive Cycle Planning.
What happens during Adaptive Cycle Planning?
The following activities happens during Adaptive Cycle Planning:
- Planning the number and length of required Cycles per development period - Identifying the Objective Statement for each Cycle - Identifying the technology and components needed - Developing a project task list for the Cycle. - Revising planning for the next Cycle based on what was learned during the previous Cycle.
How is learning obtained at the end of an ASD Cycle?
At the end of an ASD Cycle, learning is obtained through Quality Reviews.
What should an ASD Quality Review include?
An ASD Quality Review include the following:
- Feedback from end users - Software inspections - A Postmortem
What happens during the Postmortem part of an ASD Quality Review?
In an ASD Postmortem, the team
1. evaluates its progress and the effectiveness of its process 2. brainstorms ideas for solving any identified problems 3. revisits the Adaptive Cycle Planning phase and revises plans based on what they learned, in preparation for the next cycle
The ASD Collaborate phase is also called
a. Concurrent Component Engineering b. Concurrent Component Development c. Collaborative Component Engineering d. Collective Component Engineering e. Concurrent Software Development
The ASD Collaborate phase is also called
a. Concurrent Component Engineering.
What happens during the Concurrent Component Engineering phase?
During the Concurrent Component Engineering phase, the ASD team collaborates to implement the planned work.
Functionality built during the Concurrent Component Engineering phase depends on what?
Functionality built during the Concurrent Component Engineering phase depends on what's achieved during the time assigned to each cycle and to the total project.
True or False: If an ASD team completes the planned objectives in less time than estimated, it may work on adding extra functionality.
True. The ASD team may work on adding extra functionality if it has completed work on the planned objectives in less time than estimated.
What is the Unified Process, or UP?
The Unified Process, or UP, is a detailed framework for the Iterative and Incremental development of software.
Which of the following are processes derived from Unified Process, or UP?
a. AUP b. EssUP c. IUP d. OpenUP e. xUP f. AIUP
The following are processes derived from Unified Process, or UP:
a. AUP b. EssUP d. OpenUP
AUP stands for
a. Applied Unified Process b. Adaptive Unified Process c. Agile Unified Process
AUP stands for
c. Agile Unified Process.
EssUP stands for ________________.
EssUP stands for Essential Unified Process.
AUP projects follow which 4 phases: a. Inception → Exploration → Iteration → Deploy b. Envision → Speculate → Construction → Transition c. Envision → Speculate → Explore → Adapt → Close d. Inception → Elaboration → Construction → Transition e. Speculate → Collaborate → Learn
AUP projects follow these 4 phases: d. Inception → Elaboration → Construction → Transition
EssUP is derived from what three things?
EssUP is derived from
- UP - Agile Principles - An approach to improving business processes known as Capability Maturity Model Integration
EssUP emphasizes what concept?
EssUP emphasizes the concept of Separation of Concerns, or SOC.
What is Separation of Concerns?
Separation of Concerns, or SOC, is aspect-oriented thinking, in which specific concerns are identified and then addressed in order of priority. You can then use the EssUP practices that best address those concerns and incorporate them into your development process.
What is OpenUP?
OpenUp is a development process that provides fundamental content and guidance to project teams. It uses scenarios, use cases, risk management, and an architecture approach to development. It focuses on collaborative project teams.
TDD focuses on
a. continuous and iterative system testing b. the iterative development of unit tests during the coding process c. the development of unit tests for a particular code block before the code itself is written c. the development of unit tests once a particular code block is written
TDD focuses on
c. the development of unit tests for a particular code block before the code itself is written.
TDD derives from what principle?
TDD derives from the Test First principle of XP.
TDD is an effective approach in what scenario?
TDD is an effective approach when the team is already aware of the sort of code that will be used and how it will be designed.
Used along with other Agile methodologies, TDD provides useful guidelines for ______________________.
Used along with other Agile methodologies, TDD provides useful guidelines for testing and documenting progress.
True or False: FDD uses a prescriptive and planned development process.
True. FDD does use a prescriptive and planned development process. FDD teams must complete the following 5 phases, in order:
1. Develop an overall model. 2. Build a features list. 3. Plan by feature. 4. Design by feature. 5. Build by feature.
True or False: Crystal includes methodologies for projects of different size and complexity.
True. Crystal includes methodologies for projects of different size and complexity, ranging from projects with teams of about 6 people to projects requiring teams of more than 100.
True or False: DSDM focuses on ensuring the fitness of products for their business purposes.
True. One of DSDM's main goals is ensuring a fit between developed products and their business purposes.
Which methodology makes use of SOC?
Essential Unified Process (EssUP) emphasizes the concept of Separation of Concerns, or SOC.
Which methodology follows the cycle of Speculation, Collaboration, Learning?
Agile Software Development (ASD) follows the cycle of Speculation, Collaboration, Learning
True or False: TDD is a stand-alone methodology.
False. Test-Driven Development (TDD) is a technique that can be used alongside other Agile methodologies.
True or False: Crystal prescribes different coding standards and testing practices depending on the size and complexity of the project.
False. In Crystal, teams define their own coding standards and testing practices.
True or False: One of the disadvantages of XP is the lack of automated-testing.
False. One of XP's components is ongoing automated testing.
What is the main role of the Product Manager in Lean?
In Lean, the main role of the Product Manager is to promote the product vision.
Starting at the top and going clockwise, what are the three points of the traditional iron triangle, and what is in the center?
Starting at the top and going clockwise, the three points of the traditional iron triangle are Scope, Schedule, Resources. In the center is Quality.
Starting at the top left and going clockwise, what are the three points of the Agile iron triangle?
Starting at the top left and going clockwise, the three points of the Agile iron triangle are Cost, Scope, Schedule.
Starting at the top and going clockwise, what are the three points of the Agile triangle?
Starting at the top and going clockwise, the three points of the Agile triangle are Value, Constraints, Quality.
True or False: Agile can't be used in combination with Waterfall.
False. Agile and Waterfall methods can be combined to best suit the needs of the project and the organization.
True or False: Agile can be used effectively in projects other than software-development.
True. Agile is not just for software-development. It can be adapted to various types of high-change projects.
No matter what combination of methodologies you use, it's best to include
a. XP principles b. FDD principles c. Lean values d. some traditional reporting methods
No matter what combination of methodologies you use, it's best to include
c. Lean values.
What is CMMI and how might it be used with Agile?
CMMI stands for Capability Maturity Model Integration. It is a traditional approach to process improvement that defines 25 different process areas, each with its own goals and practices to improve that process.
A team could use CMMI to enhance its processes and improve performance while using Agile to deliver incremental value to the customer and incorporate customer feedback.
Agile development requires
a. no documentation b. just enough documentation c. minimal documentation d. incrementally expanding documentation
Agile development requires
b. just enough documentation.
Agile considers which the following documents as waste?
a. formal change requests b. detailed design plans c. scope statements d. lists of items that are likely to change e. minutes of team meetings f. all of the above
Agile considers all of the listed documents as waste:
a. formal change requests b. detailed design plans c. scope statements d. lists of items that are likely to change e. minutes of team meetings
Which of the following documentation does Agile deem essential?
a. product and iteration backlogs b. burndown charts c. user stories d. project charters e. task boards
Agile deems the following documentation essential:
a. product and iteration backlogs b. burndown charts c. user stories e. task boards
In a project burndown chart, the straight line indicates what?
In a project burndown chart, the straight line indicates the ideal workflow, in which the tasks are completed in a steady, uniform manner.
The line indicating the team's progress in the burndown chart does not closely match the straight line. Instead, it takes a number of sharp angles. What does this indicate?
This indicates that you need to make adjustments to the schedule to bring the team's progress back on track.
A traditional project plan includes what information?
A traditional project plan includes the following information:
What is the purpose of the Work-Breakdown Structure (WBS) in Agile?
Agile does not use a traditional Work-Breakdown Structure (WBS). Instead, Agile uses Just-In-Time (JIT) planning to identify requirements and work to be done.
In Agile, the initial project plan contains what information?
In Agile, the initial project plan contains just enough detail to get the team started.
What factors should you consider when deciding on a project-management methodology for a particular project?
When deciding on a project-management methodology for a particular project, consider the following:
- project type - organizational structure - organizational culture - project management processes needed - team characteristics - the industry in which the organization operates - the willingness of the customer to participate in the development process
A project is particularly suited for Agile when what three dynamics are present?
A project is particularly suited for Agile when
1. there is a high level of internal uncertainty 2. the scope isn't well defined at the start of the project 3. the product benefits from ongoing customer feedback
What is meant by "internal uncertainty"?
Internal uncertainty refers to uncertainty on the part of the project manager and team about what a project will involve and about aspects of the project such as its schedule, resources, and cost.
True or False: Agile is appropriate for projects involving highly creative work.
True. Agile is especially appropriate for projects involving highly creative work, especially where customers aren't sure at the outset what they want.
True or False. Agile is appropriate for ground-breaking projects involving the development of completely new products or features.
True. Agile is appropriate for ground-breaking projects involving the development of completely new products or features. That's because this type of project involves a high level of internal uncertainty, and the lack of a well defined scope.
True or False: Agile is a good choice for a project that has a well established process and outcome.
False. In a project that has a well established process and outcome, the team will most likely be better off following a prescriptive plan based on the process and outcome of similar projects.
What does a project's criticality refer to?
Criticality refers to the severity of the impact its failure could have on the organization running it and on others, including end users.
True or False: It can be difficult to use an Agile approach in projects including safety and security requirements.
True. It can be difficult to use an Agile approach in projects including safety and security requirements because these requirements likely cannot be changed. However, applying Agile practices to such a project can be done; the project manager and team would need to recognize up front that some requirements are fixed.
True or False: A building-construction project with a specific scope lends itself well to Agile.
False. Construction projects depend on clearly formulated project plans in which each phase builds on the previous phase, and safety and security is key.
However, Agile could be used at the architectural-design phase.
Why is a hierarchical organizational structure not well suited to Agile?
A hierarchical organizational structure not well suited to Agile because it restricts open communication and rapid response to change. Employees are expected to follow orders, and their work is finely managed.
What are the main characteristics of a cooperative organizational structure?
In a cooperative organizational structure, employees work on teams, and collaboration is encouraged. This structure lends itself well to Agile.
Which type of organizational structure is best suited to Agile methodologies?
The project-based organizational structure is best suited to Agile methodologies because business- and project-related decisions are integrated, making the organization more flexible to any external change. This structure also encourages the organization to build its portfolio based on the strengths of its employees. Employees are motivated because they feel that they are contributing directly to the success of the organization.
How does requirements management affect the ability to adopt Agile processes?
If an organization's requirements management process is flexible and informal, it will be easier to adopt Agile processes. Rigid requirements management processes with highly detailed documentation will make it more difficult to adopt Agile.
How does configuration management affect the adoption of Agile?
Agile methodology will be easier if a system for configuration management is already in place but associated processes are flexible. Agile supports configuration management by requiring strict code versioning and strict build-and-release versions. However, it is flexible regarding document and baseline control.
What team characteristics should be considered when thinking of adopting Agile?
When thinking of adopting Agile, consider
- team size - team skills and experience - team members' locations
Agile is most suitable for teams of what size?
Agile is most suitable for small teams of up to 15 members. Some methodologies are scalable however, allowing for the division of larger teams into sub-teams.
List the 4 steps, in order, in the Agile process for defining requirements.
Agile uses the following 4 steps in defining requirements:
1. Describe the need for the product. 2. List required features. 3. Prioritize the requirements. 4. Refine the requirements.
Describe the MoSCoW Technique.
Using the MoSCoW Technique, the customer groups requirements into 4 categories: 1. Must have: Crucial features 2. Should have: Important features, but possible to implement short-term workarounds 3. Could have: These features can be left out of a release if the team runs out of development time. 4. Would have: Desired features, but marked for probable inclusion in a later release.
Iterative means involving repeated cycles.
Incremental means divided into a series of stages, each stage building on the last.
When determining what to develop in each Iteration, what 3 things should you consider?
When planning an Iteration, you should consider:
- Importance to Customer: What features are the most important to the customer, and work on them in the earliest Iterations. - Risk: Focus on the uncertain elements in a project first so that there is plenty of time to resolve these. - Architecture: The architecture or design of a product may make it necessary to complete certain development tasks in a certain order.
What are the 3 main Lean principles?
The 3 main Lean principles are
- Eliminating waste - Achieving flow in the value stream - Continuous improvement
What are the 3 main causes of waste?
The 3 main causes of waste are
- Lack of information - Overproducing - Using poor processes and work practices
What are the common areas of waste in service industries?
Common areas of waste in service industries are the following:
- Unnecessary movement of people, paper, and information - Delays that result in wating - Overproduction - faster or in larger volumes than the customer requires - Failure to deliver what the customer needs. - Unnecessary processes or procedures that slow service delivery
What is Lean's definition of Value?
Lean's definition of Value is what the customer wants and is willing to pay for.
What is the Value Stream?
The Value Stream is what you use to deliver Value (what the customer wants and is willing to pay for). It includes all the tasks, actions, and information you use to create a deliverable and get it to the customer.
How do you achieve perfect flow in the Value Stream?
To achieve perfect flow in the Value Stream, you must remove all obstacles and waste.
Continuous improvement in the context of Lean manufacturing is called _______________.
Continuous improvement in the context of Lean manufacturing is called Kaizen.
When attempting to convince senior management of the benefits of Agile, you should focus on _____________.
When attempting to convince senior management of the benefits of Agile, you should focus on the reduction in financial risk. Because of incremental delivery, even if an Agile project is terminated early, some ROI is realized.
What are the main risks associated with Agile project management?
The main risks associated with Agile project management are the following:
- It's difficult to estimate the cost of a project at the outset. - Success depends on highly skilled team members. - The process relies heavily on the participation of certain stakeholders, such as the Product Owner. - Ongoing testing can be laborious and time consuming.
True or False: Extreme Programming (XP) focuses on rapid delivery of small releases of software.
True. Extreme Programming (XP) focuses on rapid delivery of small releases of software.
True or False: Extreme Programming (XP) focuses on close collaboration of team members and beginning projects by developing an overall model of the system.
False. Extreme Programming (XP) focuses on close collaboration of team members and continuous refinement of program requirements as development progresses.
XP's core values are
a. Communication, Simplicity, Feedback, Refinement b. Communication, Collaboration, Feedback, Courage c. Communication, Simplicity, Feedback, Courage d. Communication, Collaboration, Transparency
XP's core values are
b. Communication, Collaboration, Feedback, Courage.
XP emphasizes __________________ as an effective way of developing quality software and increasing efficiency.
XP emphasizes simple design as an effective way of developing quality software and increasing efficiency.
True or False: A main focus of Extreme Programming (XP) is continuous communication with the customer so that the team can anticipate future requirements.
False. In XP, the team focuses on the customer's current requirements rather than anticipating future requirements.
What Agile methodology has the core values of Communication, Simplicity, Feedback, and Courage?
XP's core values are Communication, Collaboration, Feedback, and Courage.
Which of the following feedback mechanisms are used in XP?
a. daily automated unit tests b. constant code reviews c. customer stories d. project tracking e. all of the above
The answer is:
e. all of the above.
XP uses daily automated unit tests, constant code reviews, customer stories, and project tracking as feedback mechanisms.
What does Courage refer to in the context of Extreme Programming (XP)?
In XP, developers must have the courage to alter code and modify a system as user requirements change -- even if the new approaches may fail.
The primary principles that support XP's core values include which of the following?
a. collective ownership b. customer stories c. continuous integration d. energized work e. courage f. shared workspace g. on-site customer
The following primary principles support XP's core values:
a. collective ownership c. continuous integration d. energized work f. shared workspace g. on-site customer
b. customer stories is a feedback mechanism that supports continuous feedback. e. courage is an XP core value.
What does Collective Ownership refer to in XP?
Collective Ownership means that all developers on a team are responsible for the entire body of code, including code they didn't personally work on.
True or False: In XP, any team member may alter any system code at any time.
True. In XP, any team member may alter any system code at any time. This is useful since system code is interlinked; one code module may depend on the performance of others.
In XP, after code changes have been rigorously tested, they are integrated into the system every few hours or at least once a day. This is called ________________.
In XP, after code changes have been rigorously tested, they are integrated into the system every few hours or at least once a day. This is called Continuous Integration.
Which are advantages of XP's principle of Continuous Integration? (You may choose more than one.)
a. It supports the rapid delivery of working software. b. It reduces the need for testing. c. It helps prevent initial coding errors. d. It enables early detection of integration problems.
Advantages of XP's principle of Continuous Integration are the following:
a. It supports the rapid delivery of working software.
d. It enables early detection of integration problems.
It does not reduce the need for testing. And initial coding errors should be caught at the Unit Testing stage.
True or False: Your team has several non-co-located members. Therefore, XP would be an ideal methodology since it makes special allowances for distributed teams.
False. XP emphasizes a shared workspace so that feedback can be immediate. XP teams typically work in the same room.
True or False: In XP, it's okay if the customer designates a representative to co-locate with the team.
True. In XP, the customer, or a customer representative, shares the same work space with the team so that communications can be immediate and ongoing. This fosters faster software development.
True or False: In XP pair programming, one person codes while the other unit tests, thus ensuring that the code is rapidly made ready for continuous integration.
False. In XP pair programming, one person codes while the other watches.
What are some of the possible drawbacks to pair programming?
Some of the possible drawbacks to pair programming are the following:
- Some programmers have a strong preference for working alone. - It can increase costs since 2 or more programmers will be working on the same code, thus possibly slowing productivity.
In XP, what is the Planning Game used for?
In XP, the Planning Game is a structured approach for determining which functionalities to develop over a set of successive iterations.
In the Planning Game, from where is the word "Game" derived?
"Game" is derived from economics: Actions taken by players, with the payoffs depending on the actions of all players.
What is the customer's role in the Planning Game?
In the Planning Game, the customer
1. expresses the requirements in the form of stories, written on story cards. 2. prioritizes the cards, specifying the order in which each functionality should be developed -- this is done after the developers estimate the time required to build each functionality.
True or False: Lean prescribes specific processes for carrying out development work that eliminate waste, achieve flow in the value stream, and make continuous improvements.
False. Lean doesn't prescribe specific processes for carrying out development work. Instead, it provides a set of guiding principles, such as encouraging teams to develop only the functionalities that are truly required.
Key principles of Lean include which of the following? (Choose more than one.)
a. eliminating waste b. building integrity in c. seeing the whole d. identifying early e. deciding late f. delivering fast g. adding value beyond what is required
Key principles of Lean include the following:
a. eliminating waste b. building integrity in c. seeing the whole e. deciding late f. delivering fast
d. identifying early, is not a key principle of Lean. g. adding value beyond what is required = waste.
In Lean, what is the first step in eliminating waste?
In Lean, the first step in eliminating waste is to analyze each step in the team's development process. For each step, ask, "What value does this step deliver to the customer?" and "What waste does this step involve?"
What are the common forms of waste in IT projects?
In IT projects, common forms of waste are:
- unnecessary processes, such as using detailed time sheets; burdensome, elaborate signoff forms; and unnecessary or badly run meetings. - production delays, such as waiting for code to be deployed and waiting for management signoff on tasks - incomplete work, such as code that hasn't been integrated, code that's waiting to be tested, and work started and then abandoned because of new decisions about what's required - multitasking, because switching tasks requires a change of focus and time to adjust
What are the 2 types of integrity in software development?
The 2 types of integrity in software development are
1. Perceived 2. Conceptual: This is judged by developers. Conceptual integrity is high if the different components of a product integrate well to provide a reliable, smooth-running system that fulfills its purpose.
What does Perceived Integrity refer to in software development?
Perceived Integrity depends on the customer's perceptions. It is high if the customer is happy with the product because it meets requirements, is highly usable, and is of good quality and value.
What does Conceptual Integrity refer to in software development?
Conceptual Integrity is judged by developers. It is high if the different components of a product integrate well to provide a reliable, smooth-running system that fulfills its purpose.
The customer is happy with the new training system your team has built. The system has a friendly, easy-to navigate user interface, it meets accessibility requirements, and it addresses the needs of different types of learners. The system was deployed by the agreed time and within cost constraints. This is an example of what type of software Integrity?
This is an example of Perceived Integrity, which depends on the perceptions of the customer. In this case, the customer is happy with the product because it meets requirements, is highly usable, and is of good quality and value.
Lean development follows a systems-thinking approach. What does this mean?
A systems-thinking approach means that all developers must focus on the system as a whole and how its parts will integrate rather than focusing on their own specialized components or modules.
True or False: Because Lean software development focuses on streamlining development and eliminating waste in the development process, most testing occurs at the unit, or component level, where the testing procedure is simplest.
False. Lean software development emphasizes "seeing the whole." Ongoing testing must occur at the system level as well as at the unit or component level. This helps ensure that developers focus on the total functionality of the system rather than just on its parts and that systems integration problems are discovered and fixed early on so that they don't delay the release of a system.
True or False: In Lean software development, developers are encouraged to assist other coders once their work is completed. Running tests, however, is handled by specified testers to ensure that both unit and system testing is done using a consistent process. This in turn ensures that undiscovered coding and integration problems do not delay the release of a system.
False. Lean software development focuses on "seeing the whole." As part of this, developers are encouraged, once their work is completed, to assist other coders whose work is proving to be more complicated or longer to finish. Developers who finish their coding may also assist with testing rather than moving on to developing other code -- this can alleviate work backing up and delays.
In Lean software development, why is the practice of "deciding late" important?
Lean development encourages late decisionmaking, with decisions delayed until the last possible moment. This is because of the following:
- Customers may change requirements often, making early decisions, and work based on them, no longer applicable. - Late decisionmaking keeps developers open to change. - It also helps to ensure that decisions are made only when the maximum amount of information is available. - Because of all of the above, late decisions reduce uncertainty and risk as well as eliminating waste.
How does the Iterative approach support the Lean core principle of delivering value?
The Iterative approach ensures regular delivery of value to the customer. It also allows the team to incorporate customer feedback into the development lifecycle and to respond rapidly to changes in customer requirements.
What is the Queuing Theory, and how does it apply to Agile software development?
According to the mathematical Queuing Theory, work processes are most efficient when small batches of work move through a system at a steady rate. This applies to the small, frequent iterations used in Lean and other Agile software development methodologies.
Describe "team empowerment" in the context of Lean.
A Lean principle that is common to all other Agile approaches is team empowerment. In the context of Lean, team empowerment means the following:
1. All team members - not just team leaders - are responsible for learning and applying Lean principles. 2. All team members should also have equal access to required resources. 3. All team members should participate in monitoring progress. 4. All team members should have the authority to implement decisions that will improve the end product.
Describe "amplifying learning" in the context of Lean
A Lean principle that is common to all other Agile approaches is amplifying learning. In the context of Lean, this means the following:
- ongoing feedback between team members - ongoing feedback between the team and the customer
What is Value Stream Mapping, and what is it used for?
Value Stream Mapping is used in Lean to assess work processes with the goal of identifying and eliminating waste.
When creating a Value Stream Map, where do you begin?
When creating a Value Stream Map, begin at the end point, where the customer receives the product. From there, work backward through the process.
How is Kanban used in Lean software development?
Kanban is a signaling system that is used to control the flow of work and show the status of tasks. Kanban is used to pull work through the development process.
What is a User Story?
A User Story is a high-level statement describing a functionality that the end user or customer needs the software to perform.
What is the following an example of?
"As a news editor, I need to be able to subscribe to an RSS feed of recent press releases on the site so that I can decide which to highlight in our newspaper in a timely manner."
The following is an example of a User Story:
"As a news editor, I need to be able to subscribe to an RSS feed of recent press releases on the site so that I can decide which to highlight in our newspaper in a timely manner."
What does using a Kanban board help ensure?
Using a Kanban board helps ensure the following:
- that every member of the team has work to do and is not idle - that the status of tasks is transparent to the team and others - that workload does not exceed capacity at any point - that team members understand and focus on important aspects of the project
Which is Kanban?
a. a push system b. a pull system
b. a pull system.
Kanban is a "pull" system. Explain what this means.
Kanban is part of an approach in which the "pull" comes from the demand - that is, the supply or production is determined according to the actual demand of the customer.
This is in contrast to a "push" system, in which supply follows a forecast of demand. Because this is based on the anticipation of customer needs rather than actual, current customer needs, it can result in waste. Pushing work through a process also can create bottlenecks.
You are on a Scrum team that is using a Kanban board to track and communicate the team's progress. What is this combination called?
Scrum that incorporates Kanban is called Scrumban.
What are the 3 main components of the Crystal development process, in order?
The 3 main components of the Crystal development process are
Chartering activities in the Crystal methodology are which of the following:
a. Building the team b. Exploratory 360° process c. Developing initial timeline d. Shaping and fine-tuning the methodology e. Project scoping f. Building an initial project plan
Chartering activities in the Crystal methodology are, in order:
a. Building the team b. Exploratory 360° process d. Shaping and fine-tuning the methodology f. Building an initial project plan
What are the 3 core roles on a Crystal Clear project team?
The 3 core roles on a Crystal Clear project team are
- Executive Sponsor - Lead Designer - Ambassador User
What is the role of the Executive Sponsor on a Crystal Clear project team?
The Executive Sponsor
- represents the customer's perspective - drives the project - is responsible for funding
What is the role of the Lead Designer on a Crystal Clear project team?
The Lead Designer
- takes control of technical development activites - assumes project-team management
What is the role of the Ambassador User on a Crystal Clear project team?
The Ambassador User represents the interests of those who will be using the system.
What happens during the Exploratory 360°?
In the Exploratory 360° Crystal process, the Executive Sponsor checks how sound a project is in terms of
- business value - requirements - domain model - development technology - other criteria, as appropriate
Based on the results, the project team adjusts the project setup as needed. If sufficiently serious issues are found, the Executive Sponsor can cancel the project.
The Crystal Shaping-and-Fine-Tuning phase lasts how long?
The Crystal Shaping-and-Fine-Tuning phase lasts 2 days to 1 week.
What happens during the Crystal Shaping-and-Fine-Tuning phase?
During the Crystal Shaping-and-Fine-Tuning phase, the team shapes and fine tunes the methodology it will use for the project, agreeing on the conventions it will adopt.
The team reexamines its methodology throughout the project and may be refined to better suit the team's needs.
What two activities take place during the Crystal project planning phase?
When building the initial project plan, the team
- builds a base project plan - sets iteration periods in consultation with the Executive Sponsor
During a Crystal Clear delivery cycle, each Iteration may last how long?
During a Crystal Clear delivery cycle, each Iteration may last between 2 weeks and 1 month.
What are the 4 components of a Crystal Clear Iteration?
The 4 components of a Crystal Clear Iteration are
- Iteration planning - Daily activities, such as development tasks and stand-ups - Integration-cycle activities, such as testing and integrating code - Updating release plans to reflect updated estimates
What are Completion Rituals?
The Crystal methodology uses Completion Rituals in its Iterations. These rituals are meant to combat the fatigue and burnout caused by long hours of programming.
Completion rituals give team members a chance to relax and celebrate accomplishments. They also give the team a chance to reflect and identify possible improvements for the next iteration.
True or False: In the Crystal methodology, Completion Rituals happen at the end of each Iteration.
False. In the Crystal methodology, Completion Rituals happen at the end of each Iteration and in the Project Wrapup phase. In the latter, the team not only focuses on the results of the latest Iteration but on the entire project.
The Crystal methodologies are built on what 7 key principles?
The Crystal methodologies are built on the following 7 key principles:
1. Frequent delivery 2. Reflective improvement 3. Osmotic communication 4. Personal safety 5. Focus 6. Easy access to subject matter experts 7. Technical environment
In the Crystal methodologies, what happens during Reflective Improvement?
Reflective Improvement is a time for the following:
- lessons learned from successes - devising methods for reinforcing effective practices - lessons learned from failures or weaknesses - devising methods of avoiding negative practices
Results of the reflection are taken to the next Iteration with the purpose of improving results.
In Crystal teams, Osmotic Communication refers to what?
Osmotic Communication refers to communication that happens through the barrier of awareness. That is, team members in the same space unconsciously take in information from one another. In a shared environment, individuals are exposed to various sensory inputs even when they are not consciously aware of them. Osmotic Communication also lessens the need for information to be shared in more formal, time-consuming ways, such as meetings.
In the context of Crystal methodologies, what does Personal Safety refer to?
Personal Safety means that the level of trust within the team is such that any team member may express him or herself - for example, giving honest feedback or delivering bad news - in a positive, constructive way without fear of harsh reactions.
Personal Safety helps ensure that problems are openly discussed and addressed. This helps to resolve problems more quickly and efficiently and can boost productivity and morale.
In the context of Crystal methodologies, what is the opposite of Focus?
The opposite of Focus is multitasking. Multitasking and multiple projects waste time and effort. This is because switching focus requires a "settling in" period to become adjusted to the new task. Multiple projects also require other time-wasting activities such as meetings, phone calls, and creating status reports.
True or False: The Crystal methodologies provide a framework within which teams are able to work on multiple projects because it allows them to focus on single tasks for set periods of time.
False. The Crystal methodologies emphasize that teams work on only one project at a time, with tasks prioritized based on the needs of the project sponsor. The Crystal methodologies insist that interruptions be kept to a minimum.
Crystal emphasizes the need for rapid feedback on design decisions and issues of product quality. How does Crystal address this need?
To address the need for rapid feedback on design decisions and issues of product quality, Crystal promotes quick and easy access to subject matter experts. This also allows developers to get feedback about the results of each iteration.
True or False: The Crystal methodologies require that subject matter experts be co-located with the development team.
False. Subject matter experts do not need to be in the same office as the team, but they do need to be readily available by phone, e-mail, or other channels.
The ideal technical environment for Crystal teams supports what 3 efforts?
The ideal technical environment for Crystal teams supports the following:
Automated testing reduces development time and effort because it makes it easier to check for coding errors and integration problems.
Because developers work on different parts of a system, good configuration management is critical. What are the 3 main benefits of good configuration management?
Good configuration management
- enables developers to check work in and out at different times - allows for rolling back of problematic changes - prepares configurations for release and deployment
What is a Walking Skeleton?
In the context of software, a Walking Skeleton refers to a basic working structure or a scaled-down version of a system that performs an entire function from end to end.
True or False: Because a Walking Skeleton is a very basic working structure, it may contain early versions of code that have not been fully tested.
False. A Walking Skeleton contains fully tested, production-ready code.
What does a Walking Skeleton provide to the customer?
A Walking Skeleton provides the customer with an early prototype to review.
What are Information Radiators?
Information Radiators are visual representations of status-related information about a project. Whiteboards and dashboards are examples of Information Radiators.
True or False: The primary audience of an Information Radiator is the Executive Sponsor.
False. Information Radiators' primary purpose is to share information within teams - as well as with individuals outside teams.
A Crystal Reflective Improvement workshop covers what 3 basic areas?
A Crystal Reflective Improvement workshop covers
- what to keep - what problems are recurring - what to try out in the next Iteration
True or False: The Crystal methodology makes use of daily stand-up meetings.
True. The Crystal methodology makes use of tools used in other Agile methodologies, such as daily stand-up meetings, burndown charts, and planning games.
True or False: Because of its focus on individual features, FDD is typically used for small to medium-sized software projects.
False. FDD is typically used for large, complex software projects.
FDD breaks work down into what 3 levels?
FDD breaks work down into the following 3 levels:
1. Subject Areas 2. Feature Sets 3. Features
True or False: FDD enables teams to work on a large number of features simultaneously.
False. FDD teams work on small sets of features for fixed periods of time.
What are the 6 chief roles for team members on an FDD project?
The 6 chief roles for team members on an FDD project are the following:
- Project Manager - Chief Architect - Development Manager - Chief Programmer - Class Owner - Domain Expert
What is the role of the Project Manager in FDD?
The Project Manager administers all aspects of the project, including budget, deliverable schedules, and progress reporting.
In FDD, what is the Chief Architect responsible for?
The Chief Architect is responsible for the overall design of the system. This person runs all design sessions and code reviews and makes final technology decisions.
True or False: In FDD, the Project Manager is responsible for coordinating daily activities of the development team.
False. In FDD, the Development Manager coordinates daily activities of the development team.
What is the role of the Development Manager in FDD?
The Development Manager - coordinates daily activities of the development team - manages resource issues - balances the Chief Programmer's workload
What does the Chief Programmer do on an FDD team?
The Chief Programmer is a senior developer who is responsible for completing the project's business functionalities. This person oversees and participates in designing and developing feature sets.
What is the role of the Class Owner in FDD?
A Class Owner works under the direction of a Chief Programmer to design, code, test, and document features.
What is the role of the Domain Expert in FDD?
A Domain Expert is any stakeholder with expert knowledge about the business requirements that the software must meet. End users, clients, and business analysts can be Domain Experts.
What's another term for a Domain Expert?
Domain Experts are also known as Subject-Matter Experts, or SMEs.
True or False: An FDD team may include technical writers.
True. FDD teams may include technical writers, testers, and deployers.
The FDD process consists of what 5 steps?
The FDD process consists of the following 5 steps:
1. Develop overall model 2. Build features list 3. Plan by feature 4. Design by feature 5. Build by feature
What 3 steps in the FDD process involve developing the project's scope and plan?
The first three steps in the FDD process involve developing the project's scope and plan:
1. Develop overall model 2. Build features list 3. Plan by feature
What happens in FDD's Develop an Overall Model step?
In the Develop an Overall Model step, 1. the team conducts a high-level walkthrough with the customer to define the overall scope and context of the project. 2. the Chief Architect works with the development team and Domain Expert to gather system requirements 3. the Chief Architect develops a unified, high-level domain model, which is a conceptual model of the system to be built.
What happens during the 2nd step of the FDD process?
The team and the customer work together to build a Features List.
In the FDD process, the Features List resembles what traditional project document?
The Features List resembles a traditional Work-Breakdown Structure (WBS).
What are the three hierarchies of an FDD Features List?
The three hierarchies of an FDD Features List are
Subject Areas ↓ Feature Sets ↓ Features
In FDD, how long should it take to build one Feature?
Building one Feature should take no more than 2 weeks.
Who does an FDD team work with to make sure that the Features List is correct, consistent, and complete?
An FDD team works with Domain Experts and Analysts to make sure the Features List is correct, consistent, and complete?
In FDD, who comprises the Planning Team?
An FDD Planning Team is comprised of the Project Manager, Development Manager, and Chief Programmer.
What information does an FDD Development Plan include?
An FDD Development Plan includes
- organized and prioritized features, ready for assignment to developers - completion dates - complexities, dependencies, and risks associated with the planned features
Which FDD team member develops detailed modeling for each feature?
The Chief Programmer develops detailed modeling for each feature.
Which FDD team member works with customer representatives to develop detailed sequence diagrams for each feature?
The Chief Programmer works with customer representatives to develop detailed sequence diagrams for each feature.
Which FDD team member writes a work statement and conducts a design inspection?
The Chief Programmer writes a work statement and conducts a design inspection.
At which of the 5 FDD stages does actual development begin?
Development begins at the 5th stage: Build By Feature.
Which FDD team member is responsible for unit testing?
Class Owners are responsible for developing code for the required classes and conducting unit tests.
On an FDD team, who is responsible for code integration and system testing?
The Chief Programmer is responsible for code integration and system testing.
In FDD, what is a Task List used for?
A Task List identifies all the tasks that need to be completed in order to implement a Feature. It generally includes a status column for tracking the progress in developing the Feature.
In FDD, what are Milestone Tables?
For each Feature Set and Feature, the FDD team creates a Milestone Table for recording the date on which each of the following 6 milestones is reached:
This enables tracking of where each Feature Set and Feature is in the development cycle.
In FDD, what does a Line Graph show?
A Line Graph shows the cumulative total, by day or week, of all Features that have been completed across a project.
In FDD, what is the function of the Progress Report?
The Progress Report tracks progress on all the Feature Sets in a project. The report generally uses color coding to show
- which Feature Sets are on track - which Feature Sets are behind schedule - which Feature Sets are completed.
For each Feature Set, the report details
- the number of Features it includes - percentage of work completed - targeted completion date - name of the Chief Programmer assigned to that set.
True or False: FDD is one of the most prescriptive Agile methodologies.
True. FDD is one of the most prescriptive Agile methodologies and is typically used for large projects. It involves a 5-step process and a specific set of tools to closely track progress.
What is the main focus of DSDM?
The main focus of Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM) is to ensure that the product that is developed fits the business purpose for which it is intended.
Which Agile methodology takes a business perspective instead of focusing on technical development?
Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM) is unique in that it takes a business perspective instead of focusing on technical development. Its main focus is ensuring that the product that is developed fits the business purpose for which it is intended.
DSDM is based on what model?
DSDM is based on the Rapid Application Development (RAD) model.
True or False: Because it depends on continuous customer involvement, DSDM is typically used for open-ended projects without a tight deadline.
False. DSDM is typically used for projects with tight schedules and budgets.
True or False: DSDM is ideal for safety-critical projects.
False. Because it lacks a technical focus, DSDM is not recommended for safety-critical systems.
How does DSDM include integrated testing?
In DSDM, integrated testing begins very early and continues through the development lifecycle as a mandatory task for each software iteration. This helps to ensure that the system is robust and reliable and meets business needs.
How does DSDM use the 80/20 Rule?
DSDM follows the 80/20 Rule, which says that 80 percent of a system's business benefit comes from 20 percent of its functionality. With this in mind, the DSDM team prioritizes the critical 20 percent and works on this first so that maximum value is delivered to the customer sooner rather than later. After that, the remaining 80 percent is developed. This helps the project stay on schedule and within budget.
Explain Business Fit in the context of DSDM.
In DSDM, the main criterion for acceptance of final software is fitness for business purpose. This means that the software
- must address current business needs - have functionalities supporting critical business areas.
This is in contrast with how customers tend to focus on the final product: It must be complete and perfect, as planned from the project's beginning.
What are the sub-phases of the Project Lifecycle Phase in a DSDM project?
The sub-phases of the Project Lifecycle Phase in a DSDM project are the following:
1. Feasibility Study 2. Business Study
and these 3 iterative phases:
3. Functional Model Iteration 4. Design-and-Build Iteration 5. Implementation
What happens in the DSDM Pre-Project Phase?
In the DSDM Pre-Project Phase
- the project is identified and commissioned - the necessary funding is committed to the project
What happens in the DSDM Post-Project Phase?
The DSDM Post-Project Phase ensures that the product operates effectively and efficiently and includes all activities that take place after the software is delivered, including the following:
- maintenance - fixes - enhancements - upgrades
What happens in the Feasibility sub-phase in DSDM?
In the Feasibility sub-phase, you assess several aspects of the project:
- the likelihood that the project will meet the customer's business requirements - DSDM's suitability as a methodology for the project - Scope - Risks - Possible technical solutions to the customer's business problem - initial estimates of costs and timescales - quality tests that can be used to evaluate the product
What happens in the Business Study sub-phase in DSDM?
In the Business Study sub-phase, you hold workshops with the customer to
- gather business requirements - plan what to include in each Iteration - conduct prototype planning - gather system requirements - reviewing and updating project risk documentation - scoping nonfunctional requirements, such as security, performance, and usability
What happens in the Functional Model Iteration sub-phase in DSDM?
In the Functional Model Iteration sub-phase, you identify and design the product's functionalities. This involves the following:
1. converting the requirements from the Business Study phase into static models, such as visual, class, and data models 2. developers creating working-software prototypes of the Iteration's functionalities 3. working-software prototypes are tested and demonstrated to the customer to get feedback
What is the final result of the Functional Model Iteration sub-phase in DSDM?
The Functional Model Iteration sub-phase ends with a working prototype that includes all the functionalities identified during the Business Study stage. Nonessential functionalities that were left out of the prototype are discussed and listed so that they can be dealt with in the next sub-phase.
When does the Design and Build Iteration sub-phase happen in DSDM, and what takes place during this sub-phase?
The Design and Build Iteration sub-phase takes place at the same time as the Functional Model Iteration sub-phase. In the Design and Build Iteration sub-phase, developers
- create the actual functionality - integrate the functionality - test it in the overall system - the Functional Model as the plans and incorporates reusable aspects of the prototypes that have already been developed - write end-user documentation - addresses other nonfunctional requirements
What happens in the Implementation sub-phase in DSDM?
In the Implementation sub-phase, the team installs and tests the fully functional system in the customer's working environment and train users, operators, and support staff on how to use the system.
The team also assesses the impact of the software on business needs and discusses any additional requirements that the user would like developed in future Iterations.
If further iterations are needed, the team returns to the final 3 iterative sub-phases in the project's cycle.
Which Agile methodology uses the core techniques of MoSCoW, prototyping, workshops, visual modeling, and configuration management?
Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM) uses the core techniques of MoSCoW, prototyping, workshops, visual modeling, and configuration management.
What technique does DSDM use to prioritize system elements?
DSDM uses MoSCoW to prioritize system elements. MoSCoW stands for
Must Have Should Have Could Have Would Have
Elements in the Must-Have category of MoSCoW have what characteristic?
Elements in the Must-Have category are essential to meet business needs, so they must be incorporated into the product.
Elements in the Should-Have category of MoSCoW have what characteristic?
Elements in the Should-Have category should be incorporated if possible. However, the project will succeed without them.
Elements in the Could-Have category of MoSCoW have what characteristic?
Elements in the Could-Have category are optional and don't affect business needs. They could be implemented as long as the time and effort they require won't have a negative impact on the essential aspects of the project.
Elements in the Would-Have category of MoSCoW have what characteristic?
Elements in the Would-Have category are optional and would be nice to include if there is spare time and funds left over after the final Iteration.
How does DSDM use Prototyping?
In DSDM, Prototyping involves making working models of software at regular intervals throughout the development process. The technique reveals difficulties that may arise later, enabling the team to make easier adjustments sooner rather than making difficult changes later when the system is in full development.
Prototyping also enables the team to demonstrate software to the customer, which helps in managing expectations and allowing the team to make changes based on the customer's feedback.
In the context of DSDM, what are Workshops?
Workshops are structured meetings in which various project stakeholders, such as developers and customers, gather to discuss project-related issues. This allows developers to seek clarity on requirements, and customers to suggest changes in requirements.
What is Visual Modeling?
Visual Modeling involves using diagrams and other visual representations to give customers an idea of how software will work. This helps to eliminate ambiguity and can help developers and the customer understand and confirm the business domain and what the system needs to do.
AUP is a simplification of what process?
Agile Unified Process, or AUP, is a simplification of its predecessor, Rational Unified Process (RUP).
Each development release, which occurs at the end of an Iteration, goes into a pre-production staging area. This staging area serves as a predecessor of pre-production quality assurance, testing, and deployment. After a number of development releases, the software moves to a production release. What methodology is this process a part of?
In Agile Unified Process (AUP), each development release, which occurs at the end of an Iteration, goes into a pre-production staging area. This staging area serves as a predecessor of pre-production quality assurance, testing, and deployment. After a number of development releases, the software moves to a production release.
True or False: In AUP, there are several production releases leading up to the final release.
True. In AUP, there are several production releases before the final release is ready.
In this phase of AUP, the team establishes the initial scope of the project and potential architecture for the system. Which phase is this?
This is the Inception phase of AUP, in which the team establishes the initial scope of the project and potential architecture for the system. The team compiles the business case for the project, identifying success criteria, assessing risks, estimating required resources, and drafting a phase plan with milestone dates. The team also secures initial project funding and stakeholder acceptance for the project.
What happens during the Inception phase of AUP?
In the Inception phase of AUP, the team
- establishes the initial scope of the project and potential architecture for the system - compiles the business case for the project, identifying success criteria, assessing risks, estimating required resources, and drafting a phase plan with milestone dates - secures initial project funding and stakeholder acceptance for the project
In this phase of AUP, the team improves its understanding of the system. Which phase is this?
This is the Elaboration phase, in which team improves its understanding of the system and validates the selected architecture for the system. The team analyzes the problem domain and considers the whole system, including its scope, major functionality, and nonfunctional requirements. The result is a sound architectural model and a project plan.
Which AUP phase results in a sound architectural model and a project plan?
The Elaboration phase results in a sound architectural model and a project plan.
What happens in the AUP Elaboration phase?
In the Elaboration phase, the team
- improves its understanding of the system - validates the selected architecture for the system - analyzes the problem domain - considers the whole system, including its scope, major functionality, and nonfunctional requirements
The result is a sound architectural model and a project plan.
In this incremental phase of AUP, the team develops working software. Which phase is this?
This is the Construction phase. In the Construction phase, the team develops working software on an incremental basis to meet the customer's highest priority needs. This involves
- coding - integration - thorough testing of all features
Also in this phase, managers aim to control operations in a way that optimizes costs, quality, and time.
In this incremental phase of AUP, managers aim to control operations in a way that optimizes costs, quality, and time. Which phase is this?
This is the Construction phase. In this phase, managers aim to control operations in a way that optimizes costs, quality, and time, while the team develops working software.
What happens in the Transition phase of AUP?
In the Transition phase, the team completes systems testing and deploys the working software in the customer's environment.
This phase also can include correcting problems and may be followed by further development to finish previously postponed features.
Which Agile methodology employs these 7 disciplines: Modeling, Implementation, Testing, Deployment, Configuration Management, Project Management, and Managing the Environment?
These are the 7 AUP Disciplines:
1. Modeling: Creating a conceptual model of the required software 2. Implementation: Actual development of the software 3. Testing: Verifies and validates the software 4. Deployment: Implementing the software in production 5. Configuration Management: Managing changes and implementing version control 6. Project Management: Keeping a project on schedule, within budget and meeting requirements 7. Managing the Environment: To ensure that the resources and processes needed to support development are in place.
This Agile methodology emphasizes early development of a workable systems architecture, which is conceptualized in the Project Inception phase. Which Agile methodology is this?
AUP emphasizes early development of a workable systems architecture, which is conceptualized in the Project Inception phase. It is then elaborated upon as work progresses.
Which Agile methodology specifically emphasizes the prioritization of high-risk elements?
AUP emphasizes the prioritization of high-risk elements of a project, with these being developed early on.
Name 3 AUP guidelines for choosing a software development process.
The following are AUP guidelines for choosing a software development process:
- Provide only high-level guidance for team members, who should be able to direct their own work - Select a process that is simple and concise - Ensure that the process conforms with general Agile principles - Ensure that the process focuses on activities that deliver value - Choose a process that's independent of particular toolsets - Tailor the process to suit the needs of the project
Which of the following Agile methodologies becomes more rigid as projects grow more complex and teams grow larger?
a. AUP b. Crystal c. Lean d. XP
The answer is
This methodology becomes more rigid as projects grow more complex and teams are larger.
Which Agile methodology begins with developing an overall model called a Domain Model?
a. FDD b. AUP c. Crystal d. DSDM
The correct answer is
Feature-Driven Development begins with developing an overall model called a Domain Model.
Which Agile methodology includes a phase in which the project is transitioned to a user community?
a. FDD b. AUP c. Crystal d. DSDM e. Lean
The correct answer is
AUP includes a phase in which the project is transitioned to a user community.
In FDD, the Chief Programmer works with customer representatives to develop detailed sequence diagrams for each feature. What is a sequence diagram?
A sequence diagram is an interaction diagram that shows how processes operate with one another and in what order.
What is the name for an Iteration in Scrum?
The name for an Iteration in Scrum is Sprint.
True or False: Anybody who wants to change the Scrum Product Backlog needs to clear it with the Product Owner first.
True. Everyone must respect the wishes of the Product Owner because these reflect the wishes of the Customer. Therefore, anybody who wants to change the Product Backlog must first clear the change with the Product Owner.
In Scrum, what 5 qualities must the Product Owner have?
The Product Owner must have the following 5 qualities:
1. Clear vision 2. Ability to gather requirements 3. Communication skills 4. Problem-solving skills 5. Ability to make decisions
True or False: The Scrum Master may be a member of the development team.
True. The Scrum Master may be a member of the development team.
True or False: A Scrum Master must guide only one development team at a time.
False. A dedicated Scrum Master may guide multiple development teams.
A Scrum Master must have what 6 qualities?
A Scrum Master must have the following 6 qualities:
1. Proven track record 2. Servant leader 3. Organizer and communicator 4. Conflict resolution 5. Presentation skills 6. Interest in developing the skills of others
On a Scrum team, the software engineer learns directly from the programmer why his design will be difficult to code, so the two of them end up working together on a more feasible design. This is an example of what characteristic of Scrum teams?
This is an example of cross-functional teams.
In the context of Scrum, what are the two types of Stakeholders?
The two types of Stakeholders are
- Committed: Those responsible for its results, including the Scrum team.
- Interested: Those who are interested in the project but have no formal role, including management, vendors, and integrators who need to integrate the product into their systems.
True or False: In addition to using Burndown Charts and Task Boards, Scrum teams may use other reports generated with traditional software.
True. Scrum teams may use traditional software to generate reports and graphs, for example, timelines. These reports are in addition to the Scrum team's Burndown Charts and Task Boards.
How might a Scrum team communicate with a customer who is reluctant to meet face-to-face with the team?
If a customer is reluctant to meet face-to-face with the team, the team can
- Assign a proxy product owner who can bridge the gap - Share electronic versions of demos - Provide reasons why face-to-face communication is important - Travel to the customer
The Scrum development process consists of what three phases?
The Scrum development process consists of the following three phases:
1. Pre-Game 2. Game 3. Post-Game
What happens during the Scrum Pre-Game phase?
In the Pre-Game phase, the Product Owner
- works with the customer to define the product vision and goal - works with the customer to develop the Product Backlog - identifies required release dates - works on the overall budget - identifies risk-control measures - determines what tools and team members are needed
In addition, the team may need to develop a high-level design, which describes the product's structure and behavior. This involves identifying any changes that need to be made to an existing product and what problems these changes may cause. It resolves these problems and integrates them into the high-level design.
What happens during the Scrum Game phase?
During the Scrum Game phase, the product is built, inspected, and adapted.
What happens during the Scrum Post-Game phase?
The Scrum Post-Game phase involves the following closure tasks:
- the product is integrated into the environment where it will be released - the product is tested in the environment where it will be released - the team develops end-user documentation
However, if a product has multiple releases, it is not yet at closure. In this case, integration and testing may be part of the Game phase.
What are the 4 main guidelines for developing a comprehensive Product Backlog?
The following are the 4 main guidelines for developing a comprehensive Product Backlog:
- Order customer requirements by priority - Add supporting technical requirements that the team needs to meet - Provide the most detail for top items - Ensure that user stories are specific
What 6 things should the Scrum Master make sure to do during the Sprint Review?
During the Sprint Review, the Scrum Master should
- Limit preparation time to 30 minutes or less - Reiterate the sprint goal - Keep the product backlog visible - Allow anyone present to ask questions - Add new input to the product backlog - Be flexible about the meeting's duration
During what Scrum event does the team move tasks that were not completed during the last sprint back into the product backlog?
During the Sprint Retrospective, the team moves tasks that were not completed during the last sprint back into the product backlog.
A burndown chart tracks the cumulative ___________ against the number of days left in the Sprint.
A burndown chart tracks the cumulative number of hours of work remaining in a Sprint against the number of days left in the Sprint.
The rate at which a team completes work is called _____________.
The rate at which a team completes work is called Velocity.
True or False: A Scrum team's work that was not completed in a Sprint must be moved back into the Product Backlog.
False. Work not completed during a Sprint can be moved back into the Product Backlog or into the next Sprint.
True or False: Scrum teams track progress in terms of the percentage of all project requirements completed.
False. Tracking the percentage of all requirements being completed would be inaccurate because the number of requirements changes over time.
True or False. Sudden spikes at various points in a burndown chart are normal.
True. Sudden spikes at various points in a burndown chart are normal because blockers may occur.
True or False: Task Charts track a Scrum team's cumulative progress over the course of a Sprint.
False. Task Charts track the progress of individual tasks, not the team's cumulative progress.
What is an Information Radiator?
An Information Radiator is a publicly displayed chart of a team's progress.
Name the 7 types of metrics that can be used to measure a Scrum team's progress.
The 7 types of metrics that can be used to measure a Scrum team's progress are the following:
1. Velocity 2. The number coding or design standards violated per sprint 3. Business value delivered per sprint, in terms of story points, number of stories, or some other metric 4. Defects per Iteration 5. Number of stories or story points 6. Level of automation 7. Number of tests
In Scrum, what is the definition of a defect?
A defect is any problem that prevents a product from satisfying the customer.
How is the level of automation in a Scrum project measured?
The level of automation in a Scrum project is measured by how many of the regression tests developed by the team are automated.
What concept describes how the level of uncertainty changes during a project's lifecycle.
The Cone of Uncertainty describes how the level of uncertainty changes during a project's lifecycle.
Agile development teams use what type of project planning?
Agile development teams use Rolling-Wave Planning.
What is Progressive Elaboration?
Progressive Elaboration refers to uncertainty decreasing as more information becomes available during a project's lifecycle.
What is the main drawback of using brainstorming to determine product requirements?
Brainstorming encourages product owners to identify requirements they think they might need in the future - many of which aren't actually required or useful.
What are the 6 levels of project planning, in order?
The 6 levels of project planning are the following:
Considering the 6 levels of project planning, at what levels does Agile project planning mainly occur?
Agile project planning mainly occurs at the following 3 levels:
4. Release 5. Iteration 6. Day
During what activity does an Agile team create a Release Plan?
An Agile team creates a Release Plan at the beginning of a project; this period is frequently called Iteration Zero.
True or False: The customer is involved in Agile release planning.
True. During Iteration Zero, the team and the customer collaborate to create a release plan.
What is a Release Plan?
A Release Plan is a collection of high-level information about what will be included in a product release.
In what scenario is the Release Plan the same as the Project Plan?
The Release Plan the same as the Project Plan when a project will result in only one release.
What information is included in a Release Plan?
A Release Plan includes the following:
- The number of iterations and their start and end dates - Key business milestones - Initial user stories or required features, prioritized and divided into iterations
What 7 activities take place during release planning?
During release planning, the team works with the customer to
- establish project goals - gather requirements - create user stories - prioritize stories - estimate story points - group stories - set a release date
What 4 activities take place during iteration planning?
During iteration planning, the team
- updates requirements based on customer input - confirms user stories and priorities with the customer - merges smaller stories and breaks down large stories into smaller ones as needed - decomposes selected stories into tasks - refines estimates in the release plan
What information should a Business Case contain?
A Business Case should contain the following information:
- Why and how the project will benefit the customer - An outline of required cash flow - Estimated Return on Investment (ROI) - Net Present Value - Internal rate of Return on Investment (ROI)
The Product Vision describes what the product will deliver, in keeping with what information in what document?
The Product Vision describes what the product will deliver, in keeping with the benefits outlined in the Business Case.
What 4 types of impact are addressed in a Business Case?
The 4 types of impact addressed in a Business Case are
1. Economic 2. Technical 3. Operational 4. Political
What does economic impact refer to in a business case?
Economic impact refers to
1. Whether or not a project will pay for itself 2. Whether or not a project will deliver Return on Investment (ROI)
What does technical impact refer to in a business case?
Technical impact refers to who has the technical ability to build the product.
What does operational impact refer to in a business case?
Operational impact refers to whether the customer will have the ability to maintain the product that will be developed
What does political impact refer to in a business case?
Political impact addresses any political consequences of going forward with a project.
What are the different sections of a business case?
The different sections of a business case are the following:
What does the Success Guarantee component of a use case describe?
The Success Guarantee describes the successful outcome of a use case.
What does the Actors component of a use case describe?
An Actor is a type of end user or a persona representing an end user. There can be primary and secondary actors.
What does the Success Scenario component of a use case describe?
The Success Scenario describes a sequence of steps resulting in successful interaction with the system.
What does the Exceptions component of a use case describe?
Exceptions that describe ways that the system may behave or errors that can occur and the steps that should occur to resolve the problem. Exceptions are mapped back to corresponding steps in the Success Scenario.
What is a Secondary Actor in a use case?
A secondary actor is someone who, or something that, provides a service to a system in order to achieve a goal.
It's estimated that around _____ percent of all projects that fail do because of ethical issues.
Around 50 percent of all projects that fail do because of ethical issues.
PMI's Code of Ethics & Professional Conduct applies to what individuals?
PMI's Code of Ethics & Professional Conduct applies to
- all PMI members and volunteers - those holding or attempting to gain PMI certification
PMI's Code of Ethics & Professional Conduct identifies what 2 kinds of ethical constraints for project managers?
PMI's Code of Ethics & Professional Conduct identifies the following 2 kinds of ethical constraints for project managers:
- Mandatory Standards - Aspirational Standards
What is implied by Mandatory Standards in PMI's Code of Ethics & Professional Conduct?
Mandatory Standards must be adhered to, for ethical and legal reasons. Examples are fraud, corruption, embezzlement, hiding a conflict of interest, behaving in an abusive way toward others, and not reporting such behavior.
What is implied by Aspirational Standards in PMI's Code of Ethics & Professional Conduct?
Aspirational Standards are standards that project managers should strive to uphold. They are principles you should apply generally. They include making decisions that are in the best interest of society at large, keeping private information confidential, taking ownership of your mistakes, and doing as you have promised.
Any behavior that transgresses the law is regarded as transgressing what PMI standards?
Any behavior that transgresses the law is regarded as transgressing Mandatory Standards.
Voilation of PMI's Mandatory Standards results in what action?
Voilation of PMI's Mandatory Standards results in disciplinary procedures on the part of PMI's Ethics Review Committee.
True or False: Making decisions that are in the best interest of society at large, keeping private information confidential, taking ownership of your mistakes, and doing as you have promised are examples of PMI's Mandatory Standards.
False. These are examples of PMI's Aspirational Standards.
True or False: In any project, PMI's Code of Conduct should guide the behavior only of those in the project manager role.
False. PMI's Code of Conduct should guide the behavior of all members of the project team, stakeholders, clients, and suppliers.
The standards in PMI's Code of Conduct are based on what 4 core values?
The standards in PMI's Code of Conduct are based on the following 4 core values:
- Responsibility - Respect - Fairness - Honesty
How does PMI's Code of Conduct define Responsibility?
Responsibility is defined as "...our duty is to take ownership for the decisions we make or fail to make, the actions we take or fail to take, and the consequences that result."
What are the 7 Aspirational Standards defined by the PMI Code of Conduct?
The PMI Code of Conduct defines the following 7 Aspirational Standards:
- Base decisions on the best interests of society, public safety, and the environment. - Accept assignments consistent with your background, experience, skills, and qualifications. - Honestly disclose gaps or weaknesses in your experience, qualifications, or skills. - Fulfill the commitments that you undertake. - Take ownership of errors or omissions and promptly make corrections. - Protect proprietary and confidential information. - Uphold the PMI Code, and hold others accountable to it.
If you are offered a project manager role without first undergoing a fair-selection process, and you accept the role, you are violating which PMI standard?
You are violating the following Aspirational Standard: Accept assignments consistent with your background, experience, skills, and qualifications.
If you are offered a project manager role without first undergoing a fair-selection process, what should you do?
You should decline the offer in favor of a more qualified candidate.
When you are undergoing the selection process for a project management role, what is the main advantage of being up front about any weaknesses or gaps in knowledge?
The client who hires you knows what to expect and is likely to be more understanding about minor setbacks.
A member of your project team makes a mistake that leads to temporary derailment of the project and much embarrassment. What is your responsibility as a project manager?
As the project manager, you must take ownership of the mistake and not cast blame on the team member.
What are the 4 Mandatory Standards defined by PMI's Code of Conduct?
PMI's Code of Conduct defines the following 4 Mandatory Standards:
- Inform yourself about and uphold the policies, rules, regulations, and laws that govern your work. - Report unethical or illegal conduct to the appropriate authorities, and if necessary, those affected by the misconduct. - File only complaints supported by facts. - Never take part in, or help someone else take part in, illegal activities.
Informing yourself about zoning laws is an example of what standard in PMI's Code of Conduct?
This is an example of the following Mandatory Standard:
Inform yourself about and uphold the policies, rules, regulations, and laws that govern your work.
If you accuse a member of your project team of theft without having facts to support your accusation, you could be guilty of what crime?
You could be guilty of libel.
How does PMI's Code of Conduct define Respect?
PMI's Code of Conduct defines Respect as "...our duty to show a high regard for ourselves, others, and the resources entrusted to us."
PMI's Code of Conduct identifies 6 Aspirational Standards for Respect. What are these 6 Aspirational Standards?
PMI's Code of Conduct identifies 6 Aspirational Standards for Respect:
- Be informed about cultural norms, of the project, the organization, and the broader community. - Listen to all perspectives. - Approach others directly with any issues, conflicts, or disagreements. - Never undermine another's reputation. - Conduct yourself professionally. - Hold people accountable.
PMI's Code of Conduct identifies 4 Mandatory Standards for Respect. What are these 4 Mandatory Standards?
PMI's Code of Conduct identifies 4 Mandatory Standards for Respect:
- Negotiate in good faith, conducting all business negotiations with honest intentions. - Don't use influence for personal gain. - Avoid abusive manner toward others, including that which results in physical harm or other forms of stress. - Respect the property rights of others.
Making information available to someone on time when someone requests it and has reason to access it is an example of what standard for Respect in PMI's Code of Conduct?
This is an example of the following Mandatory Standard for Respect: Negotiating in Good Faith.
How does PMI's Code of Conduct define Fairness?
PMI's Code of Conduct defines Fairness as making decisions and acting impartially and objectively.
PMI's Code of Conduct defines what 4 Aspirational Standards for Fairness?
PMI's Code of Conduct defines the following 4 Aspirational Standards for Fairness:
- Demonstrate transparency in decisionmaking. - Reexamine objectivity. - Provide equal access to information. - Make opportunities equally available.
A project's communications plan includes steps for clearly communicating how decisions are made as the project progresses. This is an example of what Fairness standard as defined by PMI's Code of Conduct?
This is an example of the following Aspirational Standard for Fairness:
Demonstrate transparency in decisionmaking.
The PMI Code of Conduct lists 5 Mandatory Standards for Fairness. What are these 5 standards?
The PMI Code of Conduct lists 5 Mandatory Standards for Fairness:
- Disclose all real or potential conflicts of interest to relevant stakeholders. - Withdraw from the decisionmaking process until a full disclosure of real or potential conflicts of interest is made. - Do not base actions on personal considerations. - Refrain from discrimination. - Apply rules of the organization without favoritism or prejudice.
What does "Duty of Loyalty" refer to?
"Duty of Loyalty" refers to your legal or moral obligation to promote the best interests of your organization.
You have withdrawn from a decisionmaking process and have made a full disclosure of a conflict of interest. What do you need before you can rejoin the decisionmaking process?
You need either an approved mitigation plan or the approval from the stakeholders to proceed.
How does PMI's Code of Conduct define Honesty?
PMI's Code of Conduct defines Honesty as "...our duty to understand the truth and act in a truthful manner both in our communications and in our conduct."
The PMI Code of Conduct lists 5 Aspirational Standards for Honesty. What are these 5 standards?
The PMI Code of Conduct lists 5 Aspirational Standards for Honesty:
- Try to understand the truth. - Be truthful in your communications and conduct. - Provide accurate and timely information. - Keep your commitments and promises. - Foster an environment in which telling the truth is encouraged.
The PMI Code of Conduct lists 2 Mandatory Standards for Honesty. What are these 2 standards?
The PMI Code of Conduct lists the following 2 Mandatory Standards for Honesty:
- Don't engage in or condone deceitful behavior. - Don't behave dishonestly for personal gain or at the expense of others.
What are the 4 ways a project manager can integrate ethical standards into a project?
A project manager can integrate ethical standards into a project by
- adhering to, and modeling, ethical behavior - including ethical dimensions in decisionmaking - ensuring a transparent decisionmaking process - defining a joint process and mutually agreeable criteria
When working internationally, what 4 steps should you take to establish an ethical environment that respects cultural differences?
The following 4 steps can aid in establishing an ethical environment that respects cultural differences when working internationally:
1. Be aware of policies of international clients, especially those that may impact your business interactions. 2. Be aware of both noticeable and subtle cultural differences. 3. Know the laws and regulations that apply in any country you work with - including your own country's laws. 4. Follow PMI and the company's ethical standards.
According to PMI, what are the most important values in a project manager's work?
According to PMI, the following are the most important values in a project manager's work:
- Honesty - Fairness - Responsibility - Respect
What 4 steps can you use to aid in making an ethical decision during a project?
When faced with an ethical decision, the following 4 steps can help:
1. Define the dilemma. 2. Identify the stakeholders. 3. Determine what standards need to be followed. 4. Consider decision options.
When making an ethical decision, what is involved in Defining the Dilemma?
Defining the Dilemma involves clarifying what values are involved:
- Honesty - Fairness - Responsibility - Respect
The focus when planning an Agile project is on which?
a. estimating outcomes b. the tasks required to achieve the desired outcomes
The focus when planning an Agile project is on
a. estimating outcomes.
During early project planning how would an Agile team estimate story points for a large User Story, or Epic, that isn't yet fully understood?
For an Epic that isn't yet fully understood, the team will estimate a large number of Story Points and then revisit the Epic later to break it down and refine estimates.
What is a large User Story called?
A large User Story is called an Epic.
Who should participate in estimating Story Points in a new project that is still in the planning phase?
When estimating Story Points in a new project, the following should participate:
- the team - someone with expertise on the product you are creating
Story Point estimates are more accurate when arrived at collaboratively by the entire team. This is true for what 2 reasons?
Story Point estimates are more accurate when arrived at collaboratively because
- anyone potentially may be assigned any task, so the estimate should be based on input from everyone on the development team.
- everyone in the group can contribute different experiences and expertise.
True or False: Considering monetary cost is part of estimating the time and effort required to address each User Story in a project or iteration.
False. Agile teams do not estimate how much money will be spent developing each User Story. Estimating User Stories is meant to create a shared understanding of the relative size and complexity of each story.
In traditional project management, the focus is on estimating how long it will take to perform to complete the required work and identifying a date when it will be completed. In Agile, the focus is on what?
In Agile, the focus is on estimating the development effort that is required.
A Story Point represents what?
A Story Point represents a fixed amount of effort, for example 4 hours of 1 developer's time.
True or False: A Story Point is roughly equivalent to an hour.
False. Story Points should not be interpreted as equivalent to hours. The value of a Story Point can vary greatly from one team to the next.
True or False: A simple User Story identifying a relatively straightforward task will take less time to complete than one identifying a complex task or set of tasks.
False. A simple User Story, pointing to a task such as gathering website content, can take every bit as long as a complex Story pointing to a task such as configuring a database.
Story Points represent
a. an agreed-upon equivalent to a set number of hours it will take to complete a User Story b. the number of hours it will take 1 person to develop a User Story c. the relative size of each User Story in terms of the effort required to develop it d. 4 hours of 1 person's time
Story Points represent
c. the relative size of each User Story in terms of the effort required to develop it.
True or False: Story A has 1 Story Point. Story B has 5 Story Points. Therefore, it will take 5 times longer to complete Story B than it will to complete Story A.
False. Story points do not refer to the length of time it takes to develop a Story. Rather, they refer to the amount of effort.
True or False: Story A has 1 Story Point. Story B has 5 Story Points. Therefore, it will take 5 times the amount of effort to complete Story B than it will to complete Story A.
True. Story Points refer to the relative amount of effort it will take to develop User Stories.
Planning Poker is an adaptation of what technique?
Planning Poker is an adaptation of Wide-Band Delphi, in which members of a group estimate independently, compare and discuss individual results, and revise their estimates to arrive at a consensus.
When using Planning Poker to estimate larger stories, what size intervals should be used?
When using Planning Poker to estimate larger stories, you should use large intervals.
True or False: In Planning Poker, it is always useful to use small intervals when comparing the sizes of Stories.
False. It's useful to use small intervals only when comparing smaller stories. Larger stories should be compared using large intervals, so the values aren't too similar.
Planning Poker uses intervals based on what numerical series?
Planning Poker uses intervals based on the Fibonacci series.
Why use the Fibonacci series when estimating Story Points?
The Fibonacci series helps ensure appropriate intervals when comparing small or large User Stories.
What is a linear scale?
A linear scale, sometimes used for estimating Story Points, has the same interval between each number, such as 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
5, 10, 15, 20, 25 is an example of what kind of scale?
5, 10, 15, 20, 25 is an example of a linear scale, in which there is the same interval between each number. In this case, the interval is always 5.
1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 is an example of what kind of scale?
1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 is an example of a binary scale, in which each succeeding value is double the preceding value.
Name the 6 steps of Planning Poker, in order.
The 6 steps of Planning Poker are the following:
1. Choose a reference point. 2. Discuss the Story. 3. Estimate the Story individually. 4. Check for consensus. 5. Repeat 2-4. 6. Reach consensus.
A binary scale is particularly useful when estimating what type of User Story?
A binary scale is particularly useful when estimating larger User Stories because the high-end intervals are sufficiently large.
In Planning Poker, the Reference Point Story should be of what size?
In Planning Poker, the Reference Point Story should be average- or medium-sized, so the team estimates all other stories as larger or smaller.
What should you refrain from doing during Step 2 of Planning Poker?
Refrain from indicating which card you think you will choose during Step 2 of Planning Poker. You should be discussing the Story without openly estimating its size.
What happens during Step 3 of Planning Poker?
During Step 3 of Planning Poker, each team member chooses and raises a card indicating his or her estimate of a Story's size.
What does the Product Owner do during Planning Poker?
The Product Owner clarifies stories and answers questions; this person usually does not participate in estimating Story size.
What happens in Step 4 of Planning Poker?
In Step 4 of Planning Poker, the Product Owner and Team Leader check the cards for consensus.
What happens in Step 5 of Planning Poker?
Step 5 in Planning Poker happens when there is no consensus, in which case,
1. the participants with the highest and lowest estimates give a rationale for their estimates. 2. the team cycles through Steps 2-4 until they reach consensus.
What happens in Step 6 of Planning Poker?
In Step 6 of Planning Poker, the team has reached consensus on a Story's size. The Team Leader records the estimated size of the Story, and the team moves on to the next Story.
Ideally, the number of participants in Planning Poker should not exceed what number?
Ideally, the number of participants in Planning Poker should not exceed 10.
What can you do if the number of people participating in Planning Poker exceeds 10?
You can split participants into teams.
A team has estimated that it will take 10 Ideal Days to complete a particular User Story. What does this mean?
An Ideal Day involves the number of days it will take a single developer to build, test, and release the functionality described by a User Story under ideal circumstances and relative to the estimates of other User Stories in a project. Ideal Days don't take into consideration disruptions and multitasking.
What is the equation used to determine a team's velocity?
Velocity = Development Effort / Project Time
When is it most useful to rely on historical values to estimate a team's velocity?
Historical values are most useful when the team already has experience with the process, tools, product owner, and working together.
A team that has worked together in the past is now embarking on an entirely new and different project. How can they best estimate their velocity?
They can start with historical values as a rough estimate and then adjust this estimate after a few initial iterations.
When estimating a Release Plan using the velocity data from the first 2 or 3 Iterations of a project, it's generally a good idea to do what?
It's generally a good idea to estimate slightly upward because the team will improve its velocity over time.
The Product Owner uses velocity figures to make what two changes in the project?
The Product Owner uses velocity figures to
- Adjust the Release Plan - Increase or decrease the number of User Stories attempted in an Iteration
A project isn't due to start for several months, the resources aren't yet available, the team composition is new, and you aren't authorized to run a test iteration. How, then, should you estimate velocity?
In this case, you should use Forecasting.
When should you use Forecasting to estimate a team's velocity?
Use Forecasting when
- a project isn't due to start for several months - the resources aren't yet available - the team composition is new - you aren't authorized to run a test iteration
Forecasting involves what tasks?
1. Breaking User Stories down into tasks 2. Estimating the work effort involved in completing the tasks 3. Calculating the amount of work that can fit into an iteration 4. Determining the velocity required to produce the required work in the available time.
True or False: Forecasting involves a high amount of uncertainty.
True. Forecasting involves a high amount of uncertainty and should be used only when you do not have historical values or cannot run a test iteration.
You need to estimate the velocity for a team that has worked really well together on previous projects. What is the best approach for estimating this velocity?
For a team that already works well together, it's best to use historical data for the initial estimate. You can adjust this, if necessary after a few iterations.
What are some of the things that can reduce a team's velocity?
Some of the things that can reduce a team's velocity are
- burnout and overwork - changes in the team's structure - miscommunication - technological complexity - changes in the customer's requirements
How can burnout and overwork affect a team's velocity?
Tired people make mistakes that then need to be fixed, or, they may take longer to get work done.
How can changes in a team's structure affect a team's velocity?
People who have experience working together as a cohesive unit are generally more efficient. New members disrupt this.
High or unexpected technological complexity and needing to learn new tools or programming languages have what in common when it comes to a team's velocity?
All of these can reduce a team's velocity because the team is on a learning curve.
A Product Owner is unclear about requirements. How an this affect a team's velocity?
Unclear requirements lead to unnecessary rework.
What are the 6 factors that can determine the priority of User Stories?
The 6 factors that can determine the priority of User Stories are
Value-based prioritization in large projects may involve what?
Value-based prioritization in large projects may involve a detailed evaluation of the expected ROI of the product, taking into consideration
- the net present value of investments - the internal rate of return over time
Prioritization based on Cost involves what 2 considerations?
Prioritization based on Cost involves
- total cost of developing the functionality - the cost of supporting the functionality once it's developed
High-risk high-value stories should be given what priority?
High-risk high-value stories should be given high priority so they can be addressed early on.
What is market risk?
Market risk refers to how the market will respond to a product or features.
What is Releasability?
Releasability refers to the extent to which a deliverable can be released without requiring further development work or additional components.
Using the MoSCoW method of prioritization, in which category should you assign critical functionalities?
Critical functionalities should be assigned to the Must Have category.
Features that are not critical but are of high value to the customer, and that can be addressed with short-term work-arounds if needed should be assigned what category using the MoSCoW method?
These features should be assigned to the Should Have category. They have a fairly high priority.
Desirable features that will be included only if time and resources allow should be assigned what category using the MoSCoW method?
These features should be assigned to the Could Have category.
Features that would be nice to include but that aren't of high importance should be assigned what category using the MoSCoW method?
These features should be assigned to the Would Have category and given the lowest priority. They would be included in a later release or project.
When combining MoSCoW with Story Mapping, what Stories are the top level, or backbone of the map?
The Must Have Stories are at the top level of the story map.
A Story Map using the MoSCoW prioritization method shows what?
A Story Map using the MoSCoW prioritization method shows all the User Stories in a hierarchy and grouped by theme, or common functionality.
During later Iterations, it's best to mix what types of Stories?
During later Iterations, it's best to mix Must Have stories with lower priority stories. The lower priority stories create a buffer in case time runs out and something has to be dropped.
In later iterations especially, why is it inadvisable to have all top-priority stories?
If all stories are top-priority in an iteration, it becomes impossible to prioritize them.
What are the 4 main steps in Agile Release Planning?
The 4 main steps in Agile Release Planning are
1. Estimate User Stories 2. Estimate Velocity 3. Prioritize User Stories 4. Assign Stories to Iterations
Ideally a User Story should take what amount of time to develop?
Ideally a User Story should take 2-5 days to develop.
Ideally, how many User Stories should a team develop during an Iteration?
Ideally, a team should develop 4-10 Stories during an Iteration.
User Stories are developed during what phase of Release Planning?
User Stories are developed during the requirements-gathering phase of Release Planning.
Making User Stories too small results in what difficulty?
It can make the planning and development process too granular and complicated.
What is the appropriate guideline for combining too-small User Stories?
Combine small, related Stories that will take less than 2 days to develop.
Disaggregation refers to what?
Disaggregation refers to splitting User Stories into smaller ones.
Splitting User Stories into smaller ones is called what?
Splitting User Stories into smaller ones is called Disaggregation.
What are the different boundaries that can be used to split User Stories?
User Stories can be split by
- Data boundaries, that is, the types of data involved - Operation boundaries, that is, the operations that are performed as part of the Story - Cross-functional features that don't operate in isolation - Nonfunctional performance requirements - Sub-stories of mixed priority
The CRUD approach helps with using what type of boundary to split User Stories?
The Create/Read/Update/Delete approach helps with using Operation boundaries when splitting User Stories.
If an application behaves differently depending on a user's priviledges, this is an example of what kind of feature that can be used to split a User Story?
A team agrees to develop a set of features rather than to meet a fixed release date. The team uses developers' estimates and the features that the customer has requested as the basis for an estimation of a completion date. Which project planning approach is this?
This is the Feature-Driven project planning approach.
A team works with the customer to identify how many features, and how many story points, it can complete by a specified deadline. Which project planning approach is this?
This is the Date-Driven project planning approach.
As an Agile project manager, you must calculate approximately how many features the team can complete during an iteration. Within budget constraints you need to make sure the team is large enough to complete the project on time. Which project planning approach are you using?
You are using the Date-Driven project planning approach.
In Feature-Driven project planning, how is it best identify stories to be developed in an iteration?
It is best to group Stories by themes because they indicate a working product feature and releasability. It's also best to work on high-priority Stories in early iterations.
In the Kano method of prioritizing features, what does Must Have refer to?
Must Have features are
- basic - essential - expected
In the Kano method, what are Linear features?
Linear features are performance features. The more, or the better, the higher the customer satisfaction.
In the Kano method, what are Exciters?
Exciters are neither essential nor expected, so customers won't be disappointed if they're not included. Adding them, however, increases customer satisfaction.
In the Kano method, this type of feature never improves satisfaction, but leaving it out leads to customer dissatisfaction. What type of feature is this?
This is a Must-Have feature.
What is the minimum number of customers who should complete a Kano questionnaire?
At least 20-30 customers.
You ask how customers would feel if a particular model of car had a built-in movie screen for those in the back seat. What type of Kano questionnaire question is this?
What is a Kano Dysfunctional Question?
In a Dysfunctional Question, you ask how the customer would feel if a feature were left out.
In Kano, features that customers want and expect are called what?
In Kano, features that will increase customer satisfaction in direct relation to how well they are implemented are called what?
In Kano, features that aren't expected but will increase customer satisfaction if they are included are called what?
In Kano, features that aren't wanted and that will decrease customer satisfaction if they are included are called what?
In Kano, if it's not clear how including a feature will affect customer satisfaction, what type of feature is this?
In Kano, when customers don't care either way if a feature is included or left out, what type of feature is this?
In Kano, what types of Features should be given the top three levels of priority? And in what order?
1. Must Have 2. Linear 3. Exciter
When prioritizing User Stories, you can use a 2-by-2 Matrix. What is this tool?
It's a matrix for comparing two variables - such as importance and urgency, or risk and releasability - to one another.
If you wanted to compare features in terms of two variables - value and cost - what sort of matrix could you use?
You could use a 2-by-2 Matrix.
During the development process what should you do with features that pose high risk and high value?
You should focus on developing high-risk/high-value features first.
Why should you make high-risk/high-value features the top priority for development?
So that you will learn as early as possible whether you can get these features to work.
High-risk/high-value features should be what your team focuses on first. What type of features should you focus on second?
Low-risk/high value features should come second in priority.
You have used a 2-by-2 Matrix to identify high-risk/high-value features, and that's proven pretty handy. But how do you prioritize features in terms of Risk, Value and Cost?
You use two matrices: Cost-to-Value and Risk-to-Value. Use the first to identify your high priority features. Then plot those features in the second matrix.
Why is identifying and documenting all requirements at the beginning of an Agile project considered waste?
This is waste because
1. It's too soon for customers to know what they want at a detailed level. 2. Features identified later in the project could add significant value. 3. Extensive requirements documentation takes a great deal of time and effort to create and maintain. 4. Documenting requirements is an ineffective way to communicate.
What 4 situations necessitate more traditional project documentation in an Agile project?
More traditional documentation may be needed if
- stakeholders require it - regulatory agencies require it - the team is not co-located - it is needed for maintenance and updates
When regulations call for certain types of documentation, what should you do?
You should study the regulations and come up with a way to provide the needed documentation in the most efficient and least time-consuming way.
What 3 documents are created at the beginning of an Agile project?
The 3 documents created at the beginning of an Agile project:
What documents are created as an Agile project progresses?
The team creates Acceptance-Testing Documents as a project progresses.
What documents are created at or near the end of an Agile project?
At the end of the project, the team creates
- support documentation - end-user documentation
What does the Vision Statement define in an Agile project?
The Vision Statement defines the ultimate goal of a project.
In addition to a description of the ultimate goal of a project, what other information may be included in a Vision Statement document?
The Vision Statement document may include the following:
- financial and resource cost estimates - potential benefits and risks - scheduled milestones
What motivation should the Vision Statement provide?
The Vision Statement should
- motivate the sponsor and stakeholders to fund and support the project - motivate the team to achieve the project's goals
What information is contained in a Project Overview?
A Project Overview is a summary of critical information about a project. It contains the following information:
- the Vision Statement - technologies - operation processes - main customer contacts - important artifacts such as system models and source code
The Project Overview is particularly important for what members of the team? Why?
The Project Overview is particularly important for new team members because it tells them what they need to know to plan and prioritize their work.
What sort of information does Agile Requirements Documentation contain?
Requirements Documentation contains the following: - a summary of what the system should be able to do - relevant user stories - business rules - interface prototypes - new and refined/revised information as the project progresses
What is Acceptance-Testing documentation?
Every User Story requires Acceptance Criteria, which the team will use to test whether the requirement outlined in the Story has been met.
Support documentation might contain what information?
Support documentation might contain the following:
- problem-escalation procedures - a list of contacts - a trouble-shooting guide - help-desk training material
What are the 4 guidelines for Agile documentation?
Agile documentation must be
- valuable enough so that its benefits outweigh the costs of creating and maintaining it - focused - lean - necessary
What does it mean that Agile documentation should be focused?
Focused documentation means that
- each document has a single, clear purpose - no document's content overlaps with another document's content
As a general rule, when should Agile documents be created? Why?
Agile documentation should be created as late as possible, to avoid frequent updates and changes.
Who is the primary audience for the Project Overview?
The project team is the primary audience for the Project Overview.
What type of contract is typically used in a traditional project?
Traditional projects use fixed-price contracts.
Why is a fixed-price contract unsuitable for an Agile project?
Fixed-price contracts assume a fixed scope from the outset, thus preventing the team from identifying deliverables that add value as the project progresses.
Fixed-price contracts require that unambiguous monetary results indicate that a goal has been met. Why does this pose a problem for an Agile project?
Agile relies on customer and user feedback, which cannot be monetized.
Even if a business goal can be defined using monetary results, this is still problematic in an Agile project. Why is this?
Market forces and other factors outside of the team's control could still prevent the customer from achieving its business goals. Generally, a team should be held responsible only for the product it creates rather than ensuring particular business outcomes for the customer.
How do fixed-price contracts foster mistrust?
If either party tries to change requirements in a fixed-price contract, it often results in disputes over who will bear the cost of the change.
Conflicts caused by attempts to change requirements in a fixed-price contract violate what Agile principle?
This violates the Agile principle of valuing collaboration over contract negotiation.
List the Agile alternatives to a fixed-price contract.
Agile alternatives to fixed-price contracts are the following:
- Service with Series of Fixed-Price contracts - Cost-Reimbursable, also known as Time-and-Materials contracts - Not to Exceed with Fixed-Fee contracts - Incentive contracts
From a customer perspective, Agile projects are broken down into what two phases?
Initiation and Development.
What is the objective of the Initiation Phase of an Agile project?
The objective of the Initiation Phase is for the team to learn the customer's business and for the customer to learn about the technology that could be used for the product. The objective is not to deliver any product, not even requirements specification.
What sort of contract could you use for the Initiation Phase of an Agile project? Why?
Because the objective of the Initiation Phase is learning, which could be classified as consulting services. So, a general consulting service contract could cover this phase.
What is the objective of the Development Phase of an Agile project.
The objective of the Development Phase is to deliver increments of the product.
What sort of contract could you use during the Development phase of an Agile project?
You could draw up a series of fixed-price contracts for the deliverable of each Iteration.
Describe the Service with Series of Fixed-Price contract approach in an Agile project.
This approach uses the following contracts:
1. Initiation Phase: Service contract for consulting 2. Series of fixed-price contracts for the deliverable of each Iteration
What are the 2 main advantages of a Service with Series of Fixed-Price contract approach in an Agile project.
The 2 main advantages of a Service with Series of Fixed-Price contract approach in an Agile project are
1. The team is able to identify new features that can add value and cancel features that will not add value. 2. It is easier to apply a price to a small increment of the deliverable.
What is the Fixed Range variant of a Service with Series of Fixed-Price contract?
The Fixed Range sets a limit on the amount of time a team will work on a project, thus, the number of hours for which the customer will be billed - for example the contract may arrange for the customer to be billed for no more than 150-200 hours per month.
What is the Fixed Price Per User Story variant of a Service with Series of Fixed-Price contract?
The Fixed Price Per User Story variant includes an agreement that the customer will pay a Fixed Price Per User Story.
The Fixed Price Per User Story variant to a contract can provide what kind of incentive?
The Fixed Price Per User Story variant can provide an incentive to the team to complete as many User Stories as possible.
What is a Cost-Reimbursable, or Time-and-Materials contract?
With a Cost-Reimbursable, or Time-and-Materials contract, payment is based on the following:
- the amount of time developers work - the resources they use to develop the product
When a customer requests changes to what is being developed under a Cost-Reimbursable, or Time-and-Materials contract, what is understood to take place?
The customer will pay for any additional time and resources required to make these changes.
Why is a Cost-Reimbursable, or Time-and-Materials contract ideal for Agile projects?
These contracts allow for the flexibility that's needed when requirements change.
Who bears most of the risk in a Cost-Reimbursable, or Time-and-Materials contract? Why?
The customer bears most of the risk because even if developers don't finish the work, they are still paid for the work they have done.
For a Cost-Reimbursable, or Time-and-Materials contract to work, the customer needs to have a lot of what?
The customer needs to have a lot of trust in the development team.
For a Cost-Reimbursable, or Time-and-Materials contract to work, the team needs to be committed to what?
The team needs to be committed to doing the work efficiently, not dragging it out to collect extra pay.
What is an NTE/FF?
A Not-to-Exceed Fixed Fee contract.
What is a Not-to-Exceed Fixed Fee contract?
An NTE/FF contract contains the following:
- Fixed-fee base, or a set amount that the customer agrees to pay over and above the cost of developing the product - Not-to-Exceed condition, which sets the maximum amount that the customer will pay for the project.
True or False: An NTE/FF contract protects the customer more than it does the development team.
False. A Not-to-Exceed Fixed Fee contract protects both the customer and the developers.
What is the Fixed-Fee base in an NTE/FF project?
The Fixed-Fee base sets the amount that the customer agrees to pay over and above the cost of developing the product.
An NTE/FF contract protects the development team from what?
An NTE/FF contract protects the development team from losses it would otherwise incur if
- it finishes the required work much faster than estimated - the customer reduces the scope of a project by removing requirements
What is a Not-to-Exceed condition in an NTE/FF contract.
A Not-to-Exceed condition sets the maximum amount that the customer will pay for the project.
What is a Not-to-Exceed condition in an NTE/FF contract protects the customer from what?
A Not-to-Exceed condition in an NTE/FF contract protects the customer from paying more than what is considered a reasonable price even if project work is completed much more slowly than expected or other factors drive up development costs.
What is an Incentive contract?
An Incentive contract motivates development teams by offering rewards for good performance.
What are the 4 main types of Incentive contracts?
The 4 main types of Incentive contracts are
- Fixed-Price With Incentive - Cost-Reimbursable With Award Fee - Percentage Increase or Decrease Based on Time - Fixed Price Per User Story With Additional Hourly Rate
What is a Fixed-Price With Incentive contract?
In a Fixed-Price With Incentive contract, both parties identify performance targets in metrics, such as cost, schedule, or technical performance. Developers are offered financial incentive for exceeding the target metrics. When all work is done, the final contract price is determined based on the developers' performance in the metrics. The contract also establishes an upper limit for costs, with developers held responsible for any costs beyond this limit while still being obligated to finish the work.
A Fixed-Price With Incentive contract ensures that the customer and the development team share what?
A Fixed-Price With Incentive contract ensures that the customer and the development team share the risk when costs are within range.
With a Fixed-Price With Incentive contract, who bears the risk if costs are higher than the agreed-upon limit?
The developers bear the risk.
What is a Cost-Reimbursable With Award Fee Incentive contract?
With a Cost-Reimbursable With Award Fee Incentive contract, the team is reimbursed for its development costs and paid a fee for its performance, which is measured in terms of performance criteria agreed upon at the outset.
What is a Percentage Increase or Decrease Based on Time Incentive contract?
Percentage Increase or Decrease Based on Time Incentive contract ties payment to the developers' ability to meet the project deadline. For example, if the team finishes a month early, the customer pays a fixed fee plus a bonus. If the team finishes late, the customer pays a fixed fee minus a penalty.
What is a Fixed Price Per User Story With Additional Hourly Rate Incentive contract?
With a Fixed Price Per User Story With Additional Hourly Rate Incentive contract, the customer pays a fixed price per User Story plus an additional hourly rate that is lower than the usual rate.
A Fixed Price Per User Story With Additional Hourly Rate Incentive contract protects the customer from what?
A Fixed Price Per User Story With Additional Hourly Rate Incentive contract protects the customer from paying an excessive amount if the team is slow to accomplish its work.
With a Fixed Price Per User Story With Additional Hourly Rate Incentive contract, how is the team paid if its work is progressing more slowly than expected?
The team will still receive the fixed fee agreed upon at the beginning of the project as well as an hourly fee at a reduced rate. This compensates the team for the extra time spent on the work.
A contract for an Agile project should contain what information?
A contract for an Agile project should contain the following: - terms of payment - when the customer will be available to answer questions - the turnaround time the customer agrees to for acceptance testing - dates when new releases will be sent to the customer
What is the goal of risk management in an Agile context?
Risk management in Agile is preventing risks from jeopardizing the delivery of value to the customer.
What are the 5 categories of risk management in Agile?
How is risk management planning handled in traditional projects?
The project manager works with management and stakeholders to decide how risk will be managed for a project. The PM then incorporates the results of the discussions into a formal risk-management plan.
In Agile, who determines how best to handle risk?
All members of the project team, along with the Product Owner, who represents the customer, work together to determine how best to handle risk.
What are the two main methods of handling risk in an Agile project?
The two main methods of handling risk are
- Overt Method: Clearly identify risk as risk - Organic Method: Risks emerge as obstacles, assumptions, or concerns during planning and review sessions
How are risks documented in an Agile project?
- aren't documented at all - are documented informally, for instance, on a whiteboard
How does risk identification occur in a traditional project?
In a traditional project, risks are identified mainly at the outset, during initiation and planning. The project manager meets with a subset of team members and stakeholders and uses assumption-analysis, checklists, and other information-gathering techniques to identify risks. They record these risks in a Project Risk Register.
If risks are being identified overtly in an Agile project, what activities occur?
The team will allocate time in its regular meetings to identify and prioritize risks.
If risks are being identified organically in an Agile project, what activities occur?
Team members identify and discuss risks when updating one another on their projects.
The Agile approach to risk management upholds what Agile principle?
It upholds the principle of communication and transparency over formal documentation.
How is risk-response planning done in traditional projects?
The project manager and/or other team members plan how to respond to each identified risk:
- by avoiding it - by transferring it to another party - by mitigating its effects - by accepting it and establishing contingency resources
The team then develops a formal risk-management plan. This is mostly done at the beginning of a project, with some additional planning done at each phase.
In an Agile approach, risk-response planning involves what?
In an Agile approach, risk-response planning involves
In the context of risk management, what are Tolerances?
Tolerances are the upper and lower limits within which it's acceptable for various project-performance metrics to fall. Metrics include budget spending, iteration velocity, and customer-satisfaction ratings.
What is an Exception Plan?
An Exception Plans identifies what the team will do if any project metrics fall outside Tolerances.
When does an Agile team develop and agree on an Exception Plan? Why?
Before project work begins. This is preferable because emotions and stress may run too high once things start to go wrong.
What information should an Exception Plan include?
An Exception Plan includes:
- the circumstances that count as an exception and that would trigger the plan - possible causes of the circumstance - a review of tolerance limits to check if they are unrealistic or need updating - a list of possible solutions for resolving the problem - the recommended solution - a request for high-ranking stakeholders to decide on the solution
What does Quantitative Risk Analysis involve?
Quantitative Risk Analysis involves quantifying risks and their potential impacts, using concrete values, for example calculating monetary costs that would be incurred.
What does Qualitative Risk Analysis involve?
Qualitative Risk Analysis uses past experience, intuition, and judgement to determine risks and potential losses.
How is quantitative and qualitative risk analysis handled in traditional project management.
The project manager estimates the possibility and probability of risks occurring and then ranks them, using a scoring sheet, which identifies which risks need immediate response and which should simply be monitored.
True or False: In Agile, both Quantitative and Qualitative Risk Analysis are used in equal measure.
False. Agile generally relies on Qualitative Risk Analysis.
How is Risk Analysis documented in Agile?
The team keeps a prioritized list of risks in a highly visible place such as a whiteboard- an information radiator - to remind the team of the dangers.
How is risk monitoring done in traditional projects?
The project manager uses a Risk Register to record risks, their status, and planned responses. These are reevaluated during formal risk-management review meetings. In these meetings, the team uses risk audits, variance- and trend-analysis, and other methods of evalulation.
During what activities do an Agile team conduct risk analysis?
Team members identify and discuss risks during, and following, Daily Standup meetings. They conduct risk audits and variance and trend analysis during Iteration Review meetings.
What is a Landing Zone?
A Landing Zone is a range of measurable attributes that a product must deliver to achieve its goal and meet the customer's needs.
What are the column headers in a Landing Zone table, and what do they mean?
The column headers in a Landing Zone table are
- Attribute: The attribute of the product, such as storage capacity, or battery life. - Minimum: Minimum requirement - Target: The specifications that the team is aiming for - Outstanding: The best possible outcome
What is a Risk Burndown Chart?
A Risk Burndown Chart tracks the severity of risks over time.
A Risk Burndown Chart provides stakeholders with what?
A Risk Burndown Chart provides stakeholders with a simple visual chart showing whether each project risk is increasing or decreasing, and to what extent. It also makes it easy to recognize overall trends in risk severity.
How is the severity of a risk calculated?
The severity of a risk calculated by multiplying its potential impact by the probability that it will occur.
Risk severity over time can be depicted in what type of Agile document?
A Risk Burndown Chart
This chart tracks a project team's delivery commitments and its actual progress in meeting those commitments. What type of chart is this?
A Risk-Based Burn-Up Chart
A Risk-Based Burn-Up Chart helps in determining what?
A Risk-Based Burn-Up Chart helps in determining how likely it is that a team will meet the targets, given its current work rate based on risk multipliers (worst-case, most-likely, and best-case probabilities).
What is a Spike?
A Spike is a small, quick technical experiment used to clear up uncertainty about a technical issue.
What can a Spike be used for?
A Spike be used for
- clearing up uncertainty about a technical issue - familiarizing the team with a new technology - analyzing system behavior to ensure more accurate estimation - identifying the best technical approaches
In traditional project management, what is used to measure a project's performance in terms of costs and schedule?
Earned Value Management (EVM) is used to measure a project's performance in terms of costs and schedule.
In an Agile context, EVM can provide what information?
Earned Value Management (EVM) can
- show how close a team is to meeting initial expectations - enable the team to forecast the impact that changes will have - give early warnings of below-expected performance levels, thus aiding in risk management - enables the team to track performance trends across the life of a project
EVM can help answer what questions from stakeholders?
Earned Value Management (EVM) can help answer
- how much to spend and when? - monetary value of actual work completed? - money spent so far? - how much do we plan to spend by the end of the project? - what is the estimated cost at completion?
What are the 3 variables used by EVM?
Earned Value Management (EVM) uses the following 3 variables:
- Budget at Completion (BAC) - Planned Value (PV) - Earned Value (EV)
What is Budget at Completion (BAC)?
Budget at Completion (BAC) is the total budget allocated to a project.
What is Planned Value (PV)?
Planned Value (PV) is the value of completed work at a given time.
How is Planned Value (PV) calculated?
PV is calculated by the planned percentage of work completed multiplied by BAC.
When using EVM, how do you calculate the percentage of work completed?
When using Earned Value Management (EVM), you calculate the percentage of work completed by dividing the current week number by the total weeks scheduled for a project. Multiply the result by 100 to get a percentage.
What is Earned Value (EV)?
Earned Value (EV) is the value of the work actually completed at the time of measurement.
How is Earned Value (EV) calculated?
Earned Value (EV) is calculated as the actual percentage of work completed multiplied by the project's BAC.
When using EVM, what is Actual Cost (AC)?
Actual Cost (AC) is the actual cost incurred up to a given point in a project.
When using EVM, what is Cost Variance (CV)?
Cost Variance (CV) is the difference between what a project has earned to date and what it has cost to date.
When using EVM, what is Schedule Variance (SV)?
Schedule Variance (SV) occurs when a project has deviated from its planned schedule. It is the difference between what a project has actually earned by a specified date and what it should have earned based on the planned schedule and budget.
When using EVM, what is Cost Performance Index (CPI)?
Cost Performance Index (CPI) shows how a project is really performing in terms of cost.
When using EVM, what is Schedule Performance Index (SPI)?
Schedule Performance Index (SPI) compares the value of performed work to the value of planned work.
How is Actual Cost (AC) calculated?
AC is calculated by adding up all project spending incurred to date.
What does the term Variance refer to?
Variance refers to any discrepancy between planned and actual performance.
Using EVM, you can calculate what variance?
Using EVM, you can determine variance in terms of both a project's cost (CV) and schedule (SV).
How do you formulate Cost Variance (CV)?
The formula for calculating CV is EV minus AC.
What does a negative CV value indicate?
A negative CV value indicates that a project has earned less than has been spent.
What does a positive CV value indicate?
A positive CV value indicates that the project has already earned a profit - less than a dollar has been spent for every dollar earned.
How is SV calculated?
The formula for calculating Schedule Variance (SV) is Earned Value (EV) minus Planned Value (PV).
What does a positive SV value indicate?
A positive SV value indicates that a project is ahead of schedule.
What does a negative SV value indicate?
A negative SV value indicates that a project has earned less than planned and so is behind schedule.
How do you calculate CPI?
To calculate Cost Performance Index (CPI), divide Earned Value (EV) by Actual Cost (AC).
What does a CPI value higher than 1 indicate?
A CPI value higher than 1 indicates that a project is earning more than is being spent.
What does a CPI value lower than 1 indicate?
A CPI value lower than 1 indicates a cost overrun. That is, a project is earning less than is being spent.
A CPI of 0.56 indicates what?
A CPI of 0.56 indicates that the project is earning only 56 cents for every dollar spent. This is a cost overrun.
How do you calculate SPI?
To calculate Schedule Performance Index (SPI), divide EV by PV.
An SPI greater than 1 indicates what?
An SPI greater than 1 indicates that a project is ahead of its planned schedule.
An SPI less than 1 indicates what?
An SPI less than 1 indicates poor performance: The project is behind schedule.
An SPI of 0.28 indicates what?
An SPI of 0.28 indicates that a project is progressing at only 28 percent of the pace originally planned.
In an Agile project, how do you calculate Actual Cost?
AC is calculated by the number of development hours multiplied by the hourly rate.
How do you calculate Budget at Completion?
To calculate BAC, multiply the ideal number of hours by the hourly rate. This represents the total labor costs if the project is completed according to plan.
When using EVM in an Agile project, what do you use as your unit of measure for a Project Period?
Instead of measuring the project period in weeks, use Iterations as the unit of measure. This, of course, assumes that all your iterations are of the same length.
When using EVM in an Agile project, how could you calculate Percentage Complete?
To calculate Percentage Complete, divide the number of Story Points completed divided by the total number of Story Points to be developed. Then convert this to a percentage.
When using EVM in an Agile project, how can you calculate Actual Cost?
Instead of measuring AC in money, you can measure it in terms of development time. So, AC is the number of hours or days it has actually taken to develop the story points that are now completed. This includes developers' overtime work.
In a Burn-Down or Burn-Up chart for an Agile project, Planned Value is represented by what?
In a Burn-Down or Burn-Up chart for an Agile project, PV is represented by the ideal straight line.
In a Burn-Down or Burn-Up chart for an Agile project, Earned Value is represented by what?
In a Burn-Down or Burn-Up chart for an Agile project, EV is represented by the line indicating the team's actual progress.
What doe the escaped defects metric represent?
The escaped defects metric represents the number of defects that have bypassed quality assurance processes.
What should be done with escaped defects?
They should be tracked and work items added to the next Iteration, ranked at a high priority.
What are some techniques used in Agile Quality Control?
Techniques used in Agile Quality Control are
- implementing a quality plan - automated unit tests - automated regression tests to test the full code - exploratory tests to identify new bugs - daily builds, or continuous integration - smoke tests - scheduled and unscheduled reviews - daily standups -
What are the 5 areas in an Agile project that quality standards apply to?
Quality standards apply to
- The Product - Communications - Relationships - Use of resources - Conduct and Compliance
How can you demonstrate the value of relationships on an Agile team?
You can demonstrate the value of relationships on an Agile team by
- holding standup meetings to allow members to share information - use team-based incentives to reward good work - encourage self-organizing, self-managing teams
Technical Debt refers to what?
Technical Debt is poor quality, problematic code that is the result of taking shortcuts.
What factors can contribute to technical debt?
Factors that can contribute to technical debt are
- changes in team membership - lack of skills - poorly defined standards and practices - tight deadlines - inaccurate or poorly designed requirements - poor understanding of business processes - poor system design
What is Refactotrng?
Refactoring involves reworking optimizing code without changing its core functionality. This reduces technical debt.
What are the benefits of refactoring code?
- improves existing code - prevents product defects - reduces time and cost of revising existing code
What sort of code is not worth refactoring?
You shouldn't refactor if it's not suited to a program or doesn't pass tests. In these cases, you need to write new code.
True or False: Wireframes provide more detail than paper prototypes but less detail than HTML prototypes.
True. Wireframes provide more detail than paper prototypes but less detail than HTML prototypes.
True or False: Wireframes frequently include graphics.
False. Wireframes generally do not include graphics.
What are the advantages of Wireframes over some other types of prototyping?
- are simpler to review - provide a clear view of the interface - simplify technical requirements - highlight flaws
What are some disadvantages of Wireframes?
- may restrict the team's creative efforts - may present an incorrect view of a system - may outlive their usefulness - may require a lot of time-consuming changes
In TDD, what happens before writing code?
Before writing actual code, automated test cases that define new functions are developed.
What are the 4 basic steps of TDD?
The 4 steps of TDD are
1. Write the test. 2. Verify that the test works. 3. Write and test the code. 4. Refactor the code.
What is the definition of a Stakeholder?
A Stakeholder is someone with a vested interest in the project.
Generally speaking, who are a project's External Stakeholders?
A project's External Stakeholders generally clients, customers, or end users outside the project team's organization.
The executive team responsible for funding a project is an example of what kind of stakeholder?
The executive team responsible for funding a project is an example of an internal stakeholder.
What is the role of the executive team in a project team's organization?
The executive team
- makes investment and risk decisions - funds the project - supports the team in its effort to take an Agile approach
Developers and System Administrators in the project team's organization who are not on the project but provide expert guidance are an example of what kind of stakeholder?
Subject matter experts in the team's organization are an example of internal stakeholders.
True or False: The developers on the Agile team are internal stakeholders.
True. The team's developers have a vested interest in the success of the project, so they are indeed internal stakeholders.
True or False: Members of the Product Team are internal stakeholders.
False. Members of the Product Team are your customers. So, they are external stakeholders.
The Product Team consists of what individuals?
The Product Team consists of
- the Product Owner, who represents the customer's interests - one or more Domain Experts - a Business Analyst
Who is responsible for promoting, updating, and communicating the Product Vision?
The Product Owner is responsible for promoting, updating, and communicating the Product Vision.
What does a Domain Expert do?
A Domain Expert is a technical subject matter expert who provides technical information and advice to the development team
What does a Business Analyst do?
The Business Analyst is an intermediary between the customer and the development team. His or her role is to analyze the customer's needs to ensure that the finalized product creates value for the customer and end users. The analyst also works with the team to identify technical limitations or workarounds.
When are the most important times to involve end users in an Agile project?
End users should definitely be involved in the planning and design phase of the project.
What is the definition of a Customer?
A Customer is the person or entity that commissions the project.
Besides paying the bill, what is the customer ultimately responsible for in an Agile project?
The customer is ultimately responsible for identifying the product features that create value.
As an Agile Project Leader, what can you do to ensure that stakeholders remain engaged throughout a project?
To keep stakeholders engaged,
- explain the benefits of being engaged at the outset of a project - communicate these benefits throughout the duration of the project
If Acceptance Criteria and Testing Processes are poorly defined, what effect can this have on the customer and other stakeholders?
The customer and stakeholders become confused, frustrated, and less willing to participate in reviews.
A key stakeholder has a low opinion of the Agile process and the team's capability to deliver value. In turn, the team resents this stakeholder's attitude toward them, as well as her recurring interference in their process. What three words sum up this situation?
Lack of trust.
What dynamics can lead to a lack of stakeholder engagement?
Dynamics that can lead to a lack of stakeholder engagement are
- inadequate explanation of the benefits of their remaining engaged - they aren't being held accountable for remaining engaged - criteria and processes have been poorly defined and communicated to the stakeholder - lack of trust between the stakeholder and the team - inadequate communication tools and processes
What 5 strategies are recommended for ensuring stakeholder engagement?
To help ensure stakeholder engagement,
- keep the executive team informed - provide training for stakeholders on the technologies and process that will be used - be flexible and accommodating to stakeholders' schedules and availability - accept customer representatives onto the project team as a replacement if the customer is not available - insist on stakeholder involvement if the project is at risk
True or False: Because executive leaders are generally involved in sponsoring multiple projects, it's advisable to confine the information you share with them to a weekly or monthly progress report.
False. It's best to meet with executive leadership in person. Progress reports alone are inadequate.
What is the main role of stakeholders during the Initiation phase of an Agile project?
During the initiation phase, stakeholders' main role is developing the Product Vision.
What is the main role of stakeholders during Release Planning?
During the Release Planning, or Speculative, phase, stakeholders work with the development team to create a Feature- or User Story-based Release Plan.
What is the role of stakeholders during the Development, or Explore, phase of an Agile project?
During the Development phase, stakeholders
- help plan each Iteration - provide advice during Iteration execution - receive regular progress updates
What is the role of stakeholders during the Review-and-Adapt phase of an Agile project?
During this phase, stakeholders review and provide feedback on
- completed features - the current business environment - team performance
What is the role of stakeholders during the Close phase of an Agile project?
During the Close phase, stakeholders
- participate in celebrating delivery of the end product - help develop the lessons learned for future projects
Stakeholders are divided into cross-functional groups of 4 to 6 members. Each group collaborates on designing sample packaging of the product. What is the name of this exercise?
This is the Product Vision Box exercise.
In the Product Vision Box exercise, what information goes on the front of the box?
The front of the box has
- the product name - a relevant graphic - bullet points summarizing key benefits of the product
In the Product Vision Box exercise, what information goes on the back of the box?
The back of the box has
- a detailed product description - a list of product requirements
The product owner and stakeholders are working on developing a Product Vision. To aid in this effort, they create a product name and purpose, brief description of the product, and the benefits it will have for its target customers and end users. What exercise are they participating in?
This is the Elevator Statement, or Elevator Pitch, exercise
What role do stakeholders have in regard to Scope during the Project Initiation phase?
Stakeholders specify a high-level scope for the project during the Initiation phase.
What 5 activities do stakeholders engage in during Release Planning?
During Release Planning, stakeholders engage in the following:
- creating the Product Backlog - creating User Stories - providing customer-drawn sketches - working on the Feature Breakdown Structure - developing the tradeoff matrix
In addition to a prioritized set of Features and User Stories, what sort of information can stakeholders provide in the Product Backlog?
Stakeholders can provide the following for the Product Backlog:
- a prioritized set of Features and User Stories - constraints on what can be developed - mockups of product and user-interface designs - model drawings
What is an FBS?
A Feature-Breakdown Structure (FBS) is a diagram of how various features break down into Releases, Iterations, and User Stories.
What is a Feature-Breakdown Structure?
A Feature-Breakdown Structure (FBS) is a diagram of how various features break down into Releases, Iterations, and User Stories.
What is a Tradeoff Matrix?
This is a simple matrix showing which constraints - Scope, Cost, Schedule - are fixed and which are flexible.
What type of chart tracks progress and projections of the project's scope as more work gets done?
A Project Burn-Up Chart, or Burn-Up Chart.
What is a CFG?
A Customer Focus Group, or CFG, participates in a facilitated session in which the development team and customers assess the results of an Iteration. Participants test features in a live environment, if possible, provide feedback, and record changes on change-request cards. These cards inform the next Iteration planning meeting.
What is a Team Performance Evaluation?
A Team Performance Evaluation happens after each Iteration and can be part of the Iteration Review. During this session, the team and stakeholders assess the team's performance, identify areas of improvement, and evaluate the team's ability to respond to change.
What happens during a Status Review Meeting?
In Status Review Meetings, the executive team, product owner, and team leader track the project's overall status.
How do the executive team, product owner, and team leader track the project's overall status in a Status Review Meeting?
In Status Review Meetings, the executive team, product owner, and team leader track the project's overall status by looking at the following:
- assess whether the team has completed the planned user stories - evaluate the team's work in accordance with the Agile Triangle (Value, Quality, Constraints) - reevaluate risks and uncertainties for the remainder of the project
At the Close phase of a project, what sort of notification must the project leader send out before the product can be released?
The project leader must send the product owner and stakeholders a Deployment Notice.
If certain stakeholders cannot attend a Project Retrospective, what can the project leader do?
The project leader can provide an online survey.
A post-project online survey indicates that a stakeholder has a serious problem. What should the project leader do?
The project leader should contact that stakeholder and discuss the problem on the phone or in person.
Overanalyzing decisions or revisiting decisions again and again can lead to what?
Overanalyzing decisions or revisiting decisions again and again can lead to poor decisions!
What is Decision Framing?
- places a decision in context - defines the overall objective of the decision - identifies who and what the decision will affect - identifies criteria for reaching the decision
What are the 2 main benefits of Decision Framing?
- manages the emotions and biases that individuals bring to the decisionmaking process - keeps individuals from making decisions too quickly
What is Highsmith's Decision Gradient?
Highsmith's Decision Gradient can help teams reach consensus in decisionmaking. Individuals' votes are plotted on a grid showing the following gradient:
- In favor - Okay, but with reservations - Mixed Feelings - Disagree, but will commit - Veto
What is the next step after completing a Decision Gradient in which you have recorded team members' votes?
Discuss why they voted as they did with the aim of resolving any underlying issues.
What are the 3 steps of decisionmaking using a Decision Gradient?
The 3 Decision Gradient steps are
1. Vote 2. Discuss 3. Vote Again
What is Kaner's Gradient of Agreement?
Kaner's Gradient of Agreement is a decisionmaking tool similar to the Decision Gradient but with more options. It can be used in group decisions or when a single person is in charge of making a decision. The tool is used to solicit everyone's thoughts on a matter, but the final decision is the responsibility of the decisionmaker.
What is a Product Model?
A Product Model identifies important structural considerations that the development team needs to take into account during development.
Agile project documentation should be stable. What does this mean?
It should not need to be changed very often.
What are the advantages of using a project wiki?
A project wiki can ensure that customers, stakeholders, and team members can all view, add, edit, and comment on project information.
How can a Gantt chart be modified to work with an Agile project?
Rather than breaking a project into tasks and sub-tasks and assigning these, instead
1. break the project into Iterations 2. list Features and/or User Story within an Iteration 3. don't specify who will be working on a Feature or User Story since the whole team is responsible
Using an Agile-modified Gantt chart can provide what advantage?
It can make it easy to see how the overall project is progressing.
The team creates an estimated project schedule, determines release dates and other target dates, decides what Iteration length to use and how many Iterations to complete, and determines what functionality will be developed by creating a Product Backlog. What activity is this?
What is a Customer Test?
Developers create Customer Tests at the beginning of an Iteration, before coding begins. The test has 3 stages:
1. Describe: The developer picks a User Story with unidentified conditions or potential for misunderstanding. 2. Demonstrate: The customer demonstrates how the functionality should work, including situations that would arise and business rules for each situation. 3. Develop: The team documents their new understanding of the User Story and relevant business rules, and asks the customer to confirm that they've got it right. The team then develops the User story.
Once a Customer Test is developed, what does the team do next?
The team automates the test, so the software can be checked against it.
A Stakeholder Focus Group can be used at what stage in the Agile process?
A Stakeholder Focus Group can be used at the end of an Iteration.
What is a Stakeholder Focus Group?
A Stakeholder Focus Group is highly participatory session in which stakeholders can review product development and provide feedback on its suitability in business scenarios.
Every project must work within what 3 constraints?
Schedule, Cost, Scope.
What does Scope refer to?
Scope refers to the list of features and functionalities to be delivered by the project.
What are 3 skills all project managers should have?
Project managers should have the following skills:
- management - leadership - coaching - technical
What is the main benefit that project management brings to any project?
Project management helps a project deliver results.
What are some of the benefits of Agile?
Some of the benefits of Agile:
- better business-IT alignment - delivering value early and often - accelerated time to market - ability to manage rapidly changing priorities - enhanced quality of deliverables - delivering within budget - eliminating waste - increased productivity - happier teams
Which statement holds the most truth?
a. Agile is a methodology. b. Agile is a collection of processes that enhance the delivery of value. c. Agile is a philosophy. d. Agile is a grassroots movement to improve software development. e.
c. Agile is a philosophy.
Traditional project management is plan driven. Agile is _______ driven.
Agile is value driven.
What is the primary measure of progress in Agile?
In Agile, the primary measure of progress is working software.
In the Agile Principles put forth by the Agile Manifesto, what is listed as the highest priority?
"Our highest priority is to satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery of valuable software."
The core values of this Agile methodology are simplicity, communication, respect, feedback, and courage. Which methodology is this?
Extreme Programming, or XP
Among the 12 key practices of this Agile methodology are small releases, acceptance tests, simple design, paired programming, test-driven development, and refactoring. Which methodology is this?
Extreme Programming, or XP.
This Agile methodology uses metaphor to help everyone on the team understand the system being built. Which methodology is this?
Extreme Programming, or XP.
This Agile methodology emphasizes continuous integration, collective ownership, coding standards, and sustainable pace. Which methodology is this?
Extreme Programming, or XP.
The following roles are part of this Agile methodology: Customer, Developer, Tracker, Coach. Which methodology is this?
Extreme Programming, or XP.
In this practice, tests are written before any coding begins. Which practice is this?
Test-Driven Development, or TDD.
In this practice, you develop and refactor until tests run all green. Which practice is this?
Test-Driven Development, or TDD.
What is the most widely used Agile methodology?
This methodology was developed by Ken Schwaber and predates the Agile Manifesto. Which methodology is this?
Teams new to Agile frequently adopt this methodology because it offers a lot of helpful structure. Which methodology is this?
This Agile methodology uses 2- to 4-week work increments called Sprints. Which methodology is this?
This Agile methodology was adapted from manufacturing principles used by Toyota. Which methodology is this?
This Agile methodology focuses on eliminating waste and delivering value. Which methodology is this?
In this Agile methodology, teams make improvements by focusing on the Value Stream. Which methodology is this?
What is Continuous Flow?
Continuous Flow happens when there are no spikes and valleys in the delivery of value.
Which Agile methodology emphasizes Continuous Flow?
What does "Pull Not Push" mean?
"Pull Not Push" means don't do anything until the customer requests it.
Which Agile methodology emphasizes "Pull Not Push"?
Complete this Lean principle: Eliminate ________.
Complete this Lean principle: Create ________.
Complete this Lean principle: Build ________ ____.
Build Quality In.
Complete this Lean principle: Deliver ________.
Complete this Lean principle: ________ People.
Complete this Lean principle: ________ the System.
Improve the System.
In Lean, the customer defines what?
The customer defines value.
What is Muda?
Muda is Waste.
What are the 2 types of waste?
Pure Waste and Contributing Waste.
What is Pure Waste?
Pure Waste is a solution to a problem that no longer exists, so the solution is now just taking up space in the value stream.
What is Contributing Waste?
Contributing Waste contributes to value but is unrecognized by the customer as value.
What should be done with Contributing Waste?
If Contributing Waste can be streamlined or eliminated in favor of a simpler way of delivering the same value, it should be.
WORMPIIT is an acronym for what?
WORMPIIT is an acronym for the 7 types of waste in manufacturing: waiting, overproduction, rework, motion, processing, intellect (failure to use any individual's talent and time), and task switching.
An improvement, or many small improvements, to the value stream is called ________.
What is Kaizen?
Kaizen is an improvement, or many small improvements, to the value stream.
What is typically the first step in improving a value stream?
Improving the work space.
What do the 5 S's refer to?
These are 5 Japanese words that translate to "a place for everything, and everything in it's place." This is usually the first step in improving the value stream.
What are the 5 Whys?
When faced with a problem, you should ask "why?" 5 times at least, like a child, rather than jumping to conclusions about what you think is wrong.
What is Nemewashi?
Nemewashi refers to the vigorous 5 Whys problem-solving process used in Lean.
What does "Go to the Gemba" mean?
"Go to the Gemba" is part of Lean and means go to the real place where the work is done or where the problem exists.
What is "Poke Yoke"?
"Poke Yoke" is part of Lean and means mistake-proofing.
This methodology has a pre-project phase, a 5-stage project lifecycle that starts with a feasibility study, and a post-project phase. Which methodology is this?
Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM).
Along with a pre-project phase and a post-project phase, this methodology has a 5-stage project lifecycle that consists of a feasibility study, a business study, a functional model iteration, a design-and-build iteration, and implementation. Which methodology is this?
Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM).
What are the 5 main activities in FDD?
The 5 main activities in Feature-Driven Development (FDD) are
1. Develop an overall model. 2. Build a Features list. 3. Plan by Feature. 4. Design by Feature. 5. Build by Feature.
This Agile methodology uses domain object modeling, develop-by-feature, component/class ownership, feature teams, inspections, configuration management, regular builds, and visibility of progress. Which methodology is this?
Feature-Driven Development (FDD).
"Level of Ceremony" refers to what?
"Level of Ceremony" refers to how formal an organization's processes are. Low Ceremony = Informal.
In 4 words, describe the Agile Triangle.
Cost Schedule Value Features
True or False: The Scrum Master can double as one of the technical experts on your Agile team.
False. Or mostly false, anyway. It's best that the Scrum Master doesn't have this double duty since it could lead to a conflict of interest.
When putting together an Agile team, it is about _______, not titles and roles.
Which (pick more than one) should the Product Owner NOT be?
a. the Customer b. the Product Manager c. a Marketing Expert d. the Scrum Master e. the Manager in the Agile Team's Unit f. a Business Analyst g. an Executive in the Customer's Organization
The Product Owner should NOT be
d. the Scrum Master e. the Manager in the Agile Team's Unit
In 2 or 3 words, what is the primary goal of the Agile Manifesto?
Deliver working software.
Name 5 duties of the Product Owner.
The Product Owner must
- Develop the Product Vision - Develop the Product Roadmap - Manage the Product Backlog - Be prepared with appropriate details at the appropriate time - Set clear acceptance criteria - COMMUNICATE - BE THERE
Name 5 duties of the Scrum Master
The Scrum Master must
- Promote Scrum and Agile values and practices - Remove impediments (blockers) - Ensure the team is well trained in Agile - Ensure that the team is on track and productive - Ensure that the team is collaborating fully (not siloing) - Shield the team from interruptions and other blockers - Avoid conflicts of interest (e.g., showing preferences for one feature, team member, etc.)
What is the primary responsibility of the Scrum Master?
The primary responsibility of the Scrum Master is to preserve and protect the Team.
If an Agile team includes both a Scrum Master and a Project Manager (who are not the same individual), generally what is the Project Manager's role?
In this case the Project Manager works for the organization as a whole, possibly being a point of contact for several teams. The project manager should serve as a trainer and coach in Agile concepts. This person also will facilitate communication within and among teams and with the rest of the organization.
What is a Pig? What is a Chicken?
A pig is committed. A chicken is only involved. A pig is a member of the Agile team. A chicken is a stakeholder, boss, or other observer of the process.
What is Osmotic Communication?
Osmotic Communication means that information flows into the background hearing of members of the team, so that they pick up relevant information as though by osmosis. This is normally accomplished by seating members of the team in the same space.
Name 5 Agile team best practices.
Some Agile team best practices:
- Work together as a team every step of the way ("start as a team; finish as a team"). - Be self-organized and self-directed; decisions must happen at the lowest level. - Co-locate if at all possible. - Be open and honest, not polite and mealymouthed. - Hold one another accountable. - Share vulnerability; admit when you are struggling and help others who are struggling. - Inspect and adapt; continually improve.
What role on the Agile team is absolutely critical if the team hopes to deliver value?
Without the Product Owner, the team cannot identify the value that should be delivered.
What is PrOpER?
PrOpER is a coaching style:
- Identify a Problem. - Consider Options. - Experiment with a solution. - Review the outcome and adjust.
Name 5 interactive communication forums for an Agile team.
Interactive communication forums for an Agile team:
In the role of Agile Coach, or Scrum Master, you should meet individually with each team member prior to the start of the project. What should you do in this meeting?
- make clear your role as a coach, what you are there for, how you can help - discuss the benefits of full participation in the Agile process and on the team - make sure the team member understands the ground rules for the Agile process and for the team - make a mental note of the team member's participation style - outgoing? dominant? reserved? timid?
As a professional in the field of project management, I will maintain ___________________________.
high standards of integrity and professional conduct
As a professional in the field of project management, I will accept ___________________________.
responsibility for my actions
As a professional in the field of project management, I will continually ___________________________.
seek to enhance my professional capabilities
As a professional in the field of project management, I will practice ___________________________.
with fairness and honesty
As a professional in the field of project management, I will encourage ___________________________.
others in the profession to act in an ethical and professional manner
What 4 words impart the PMI Code of Ethics?
Responsibility. Respect. Fairness. Honesty.
What are the 3 elements of effective communication?
Clarity, Frequency, Medium.
What are the 5 levels of the Agile "Onion" of Planning?
What 3 elements should a Project Charter for an Agile project contain?
Mission, Vision Statement, Success Criteria
What does an Agile Project Roadmap contain?
A Project Roadmap shows the Product Themes organized into a timeline.
What is a Theme?
A Theme is a large Feature or collection of related Features or User Stories.
What is the PMBOK definition of a Project Charter?
A Project Charter is "a document issued by the project initiator or sponsor that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities."
What 6 things should an Agile Project Manager be mindful of at the beginning of a project?
An Agile Project Manager should
- meet with the Product Owner in advance to come up with a game plan - be prepared with necessary materials - clearly explain the process and objectives to the team - set an appropriate iteration timebox for the team - capture notes on discussions taking place - ensure the team is progressing rather than getting bogged down in too many details up front
What does the Product Roadmap do in regard to the Product Vision?
It provides a high-level view, coupled with a timeline, of the approach that the team will take to deliver the value identified in the Product Vision.
How Themes help with planning?
A Theme is a collection of User Stories grouped around a common functionality. Grouping Stories into Themes helps to identify different parts of a product so that these parts can be prioritized in the order in which they should be built.
What is a Plan of Record and what role does it play in Agile planning?
A Plan of Record is a document of overall intentions developed at the very beginning of an undertaking. In Agile, this is not a commitment; it is just a plan.
How does a User Role differ from a Persona?
A User Role defines what the user is doing when working with the software; it is a more general role such as "logged-in user" or "admin." A Persona is more specific, such as "first-year student" or "professor."
When defining User Roles, what questions should you ask?
When defining User Roles, ask the following questions:
- What is this type of user doing when they are working with the software? - What is the person's business priorities and how does the software fit with these? - How does the user interact with the software? - In what setting, environment, with what delivery system? - What other behaviors or needs does this user have?
As an Agile Project Manager, what should you be mindful of when introducing the Team to User Roles?
- clearly explain user roles, their benefits, and what the team's goals are - have some user roles identified beforehand - timebox the session - use 3x5 cards or a white board so can be collaborative - work with team to group, name, and prioritize user roles
What are some User Roles common to software products?
Common user roles are
- new user - existing user - admin user - super user - service - nontechnical user
How does identifying User Roles and Personals help in the Agile process?
They aid when writing User Stories.
Who is primarily responsible for keeping the Product Backlog updated and prioritized?
The Product Owner is primarily responsible for keeping the Product Backlog updated and prioritized.
True or False: The Product Owner can add or remove items from the Product Backlog at any time.
True. The Product Owner can modify the Product Backlog at any time. The Iteration Backlog, however, is locked down once an Iteration begins, and only the Scrum Master can modify it if it becomes necessary to do so.
"As a sysadmin, I need to set up the development environment infrastructure." What kind of Story is this?
Foundational Story. Or Environment Story.
What is a Foundational Story?
This is a story to describe nonfunctional technical work that needs to be done to deliver value, such as setting up testing suite, or putting LDAP in place.
User Stories grouped together around a common functionality are called what?
A Theme. Or a Feature.
What does every User Story need in order to address its definition of "done"?
Acceptance Criteria. Or Validation Criteria.
What two subsets does every Story need?
- Tasks - Acceptance Criteria
What do Tasks refer to in a User Story?
These are the items of work that must be completed in order to address the Story.
What is Acceptance Criteria?
Acceptance Criteria are the criteria that must be met before a User Story is considered fully addressed. Criteria can include end-user validation, customer validation, unit/integrated testing, code reviews...
What are some examples of work that can be itemized using Foundational Stories?
Foundational Stories can be used for
- technologies that need to be in place before other work can start - dependencies from external teams - creative elements - spikes - defects - maintenance - training
Developers on the team take 3 days to bring themselves up to speed with Ruby On Rails. This is an example of what?
A Spike. Or a Business Capability Story.
When working with the team to develop User Stories, what 5 things should you, as the Agile Project Leader or Scrum Master, do?
- meet with the Project Owner beforehand to document all predetermined stories - discuss predetermined stories with the team - provide each team member with post-its and sharpies - explain the process and objectives to the team - ensure that the team does not get bogged down in details - timebox the session - capture any useful details that come up in the session for later discussion
What are some examples of Story Smells?
Mike Cohn's "Catalog of Story Smells" include
- stories that are too small - stories that are too big - interdependent stories - goldplating - too much detail - interface detail too soon - thinking too far ahead - lack of Project Owner and customer participation in writing and prioritizing stories
Why is it important to size Stories appropriately?
So that the work to address a Story can be accomplished within a single Iteration.
What are some of the prioritization themes to keep in mind when managing the Product Backlog?
Keep in mind the following prioritization themes:
- ROI or other financial value - business value - cost of developing and supporting - significance of proving new technology - high-risk features
User Stories are listed as the Y-axis in a table that has Customer Value, Annual Revenue, Story Points, etc. across the top as the X-axis. This is an example of what?
A User Story Decision Matrix, which helps in prioritizing Stories.
What is a main problem with User Story Decision Matrices?
They're easily manipulated, or fudged.
What is the Fire Alarm model?
The Fire Alarm model of prioritizing work is driven by Urgent + Important. It is a terrible model to use.
What are the 4 quadrants of Covey's Matrix?
These 4 quadrants are
Q1: Urgent and Important (Fire Fighting) Q2: Not Urgent but Important (Where You Should Be Working!) Q3: Urgent but Not Important (Unproductive Interruptions) Q4: Not Urgent and Not Important (Waste)
Of the 4 quadrants of Covey's Matrix, which is the most important? Why?
Q2: Not Urgent but Important. If we do the right things to create quality products, we will not fall prey to waste and interruptions, and we will not need to fight fires.
What is the Pareto Rule?
This is the 80/20 Rule: Most of the results in any situation are determined by a small number of causes.
What is a Risk-Adjusted Product Backlog?
This is a Product Backlog that is prioritized based on three primary factors: value, risk (uncertainty), and dependencies. It's called a Risk-Adjusted Product Backlog because it includes known and assessed risks.
A Product Backlog should be prioritized based on what 3 primary factors?
Value, Risk, and Dependencies.
What is a MMF?
Minimum Marketable Feature.
What is a Minimum Marketable Feature?
A Minimum Marketable Feature (MMF) is the smallest possible set of functionality that, by itself, has value. A Release containing just one of these Features would deliver value.
What should you, as an Agile Project Manager, do if a project has more than one Product Owner, each with his/her own Product Backlog?
Combine and prioritize those backlogs.
True or False: A Story Point = 4 hours of 1 person's time.
False. Story Points are not tied to hours in any way.
What is Relative Estimating?
Relative Estimating is used to estimate the size of User Stories: Which is the smallest Story? Which is the largest? Which ones fall in the middle?
True or False: When using Relative Estimating, it's best to compare the smallest Story to the Largest.
False. You should triangulate: Identify the smallest, largest, and medium-sized stories, and then use these to help estimate the size of the rest of the stories.
Time-based estimating focuses on elapsed time. Relative estimating focuses on what?
Relative estimating focuses on size and complexity in relation to other known factors.
When estimating the size of User Stories, what is Triangulation?
Triangulation is comparing an unknown to 2 or more knowns in order to determine its value. In the case of User Stories, you would compare a Story to two other Stories whose size has already been estimated.
When estimating the size of User Stories, what is Bracketing?
Bracketing is using ever tighter ranges of values to arrive at a proper comparison. With User Stories, you would compare a Story to one that has been identified as large and one that is small to see where it falls between those two in terms of size.
Why Story Points?
- help drive cross-functional behavior because the entire team can take part in estimating - story point estimates do not decay - story points are a pure (estimate by analogy) measure of size - estimating story points takes less time than hourly estimations
When determining Story Points, what is Affinity Estimating?
Affinity Estimating is grouping Stories of a similar size and estimating points.
What is Wideband Delphi?
Wideband Delphi is an estimating game similar to Planning Poker.
What are some different types of Story Point estimating?
Some different types of Story Point estimating are
Roman Pitchler's Agile Product Management With Scrum lists what 5 necessary attributes of a Product Owner?
A Product Owner must be
1. Visionary and Doer 2. Leader and Team Player 3. Communicator and Negotiator 4. Empowered and Committed 5. Available, Interested, and Qualified
True or False: Conflict is a team issue.
True. Conflict involves the entire team.
True or False: When dealing with conflict it is important to focus on the past, not the present.
False. When dealing with conflict it is important to focus on the present, not the past.
What 4 factors influence how project managers handle conflict?
The following 4 factors can influence how project managers handle conflict:
1. Relative importance and intensity of the conflict 2. Time pressure for resolving the conflict 3. The position taken by the players involved 4. The motivation to resolve conflict for the long-term or short-term
What are the 6 general techniques for resolving conflict?
The following are general techniques for resolving conflict:
1. Withdrawing and Avoiding 2. Compromising 3. Forcing 4. Collaborating 5. Confronting and Problem Solving
Agile teams use Continuous Planning, or Progressive Elaboration, in what levels of the planning process?
Agile teams use Continuous Planning, or Progressive Elaboration, in the top three levels of planning:
True or False: Progressive Elaboration is used in Iteration Planning.
False. Once an Iteration is planned, it should be locked in. Changes to an Iteration should be avoided if at all possible.
Developing the Project Charter, Roadmap, and Release Plan are done in what Iteration?
What is done in Iteration Zero?
Iteration Zero is used for
- Identifying the Team - Setting up the Environment - Deciding on the Definition of Done at various project levels - Developing the Charter, or Product Vision - Developing the first version of the Roadmap - Developing the first version of the Release Plan - Developing the initial Product Backlog - Addressing any other items that need to be in place before the project begins
Agile Project Charters have what 3 key elements?
Agile Project Charters contain the following 3 key elements:
- Vision - Mission - Success Criteria (Definition of Done for the Project)
This document describes, at a high level, the end state desired by the customer.
The Project Charter describes, at a high level, the end state desired by the customer.
What, typically, is the time horizon for an Agile Roadmap?
The time horizon for an Agile Roadmap is typically 6-9 months.
Tasks to address a User Story are usually what size?
Tasks to address a User Story are usually sized so that they can be completed in 1 day.
What can be described as a thin slice of functionality that can be comprised of UI changes, middleware changes, or infrastructure changes?
A User Story.
According to the PMI-ACP Study Guide, what are the 4 types of non-user stories?
The 4 types of non-user stories are
- Foundational (or Technical) - Spikes (Analysis Stories) - Constraints (Global Acceptance Criteria) - Dependencies (Reliance on Others in the Organization)
According to the PMI-ACP Study Guide, how are Constraints documented?
Constraints are not put in the Product Backlog but are put on a separate board for all the team to see.
According to the PMI-ACP Study Guide, are Constraints considered "done" at some point?
Constraints are considered "done" only when the project is done.
According to the PMI-ACP Study Guide, this type of Story is about reliance on others in the organization.
According to the PMI-ACP Study Guide, this type of Story is used learn something or find out something.
This kind of story is called a Spike.
According to the PMI-ACP Study Guide, what is the ideal size of a Story?
Small enough to be completed in an Iteration but large enough to deliver value.
According to the PMI-ACP Study Guide, what is used to gather the detail behind User Stories?
What is Agile Modeling?
Agile modeling is used to discover the details behind User Stories and identify tasks to address those stories.
According to the PMI-ACP Study Guide, what 4 methods are used to gather detail for upcoming User Stories?
Wireframes, Mockups, Process Maps, Use Cases.
A research story is called a _____________.
A research story is called a Spike, or Analysis Story.
According to the PMI-ACP Study Guide, what are the 2 ways that Agile teams account for risk?
Agile teams account for risk by
- early identification of risks - short iterations focusing on smaller problems, which are inherently less risky
What 3 things can make it difficult (or impossible) to estimate the size of a user story?
These 3 things can make it difficult or impossible to estimate the size of a user story:
- The story is too large (needs to be sliced into smaller stories) - Insufficient information (the Product Owner needs to provide more details) - Lack of domain knowledge (the team has had no experience building what is being requested)
True or False: acceptance criteria are the same as acceptance tests.
False. Acceptance Criteria are not the same as acceptance tests.
Name as many User Story "Smells" as you can.
Mike Cohn's User Story Smells:
- too small - too big - interdependent - goldplating - too much detail - includes interface detail - thinking too far ahead - lack of customer participation in writing and prioritizing
What is Goldplating?
Adding "value" that no one has asked for or wants.
Why is it important to size User Stories correctly?
A User Story needs to be right-sized so that it can be addressed within a single Iteration.
Name 5 considerations to keep in mind when prioritizing User Stories in the Product Backlog.
When prioritizing User Stories, keep in mind
- its financial value of a story (ROI, etc.) - its business value - the cost of developing and supporting the functionality - the significance of proving new technology - high risk features
True or False: Financial value usually is a sole factor in prioritizing a Feature or User Story.
False. Financial value (ROI, etc.) is usually not a sole determining factor when prioritizing a Feature or User Story.
In this table, User Stories are listed as row headers. Relevant priority considerations, such as Revenue, Risk, Story Points (Effort), are listed as column headers. Values are then filled in, such as 20 Story Points, or an Annual Revenue of $1 million. What is this table? What is it used for?
This is a Decision Matrix. It is used for prioritizing User Stories.
In the context of User Stories, what is a Decision Matrix, and what is it used for?
Decision Matrix is used for prioritizing User Stories by identifying their Size (Effort), Risk, Business Value, Financial Value, etc.
True or False: A Decision Matrix is an objective weighing of the value and risk of User Stories.
False. A Decision Matrix looks objective, but it is actually a subjective value multiplied by a subjective weighting. It also can easily be manipulated and fudged.
True or False: It is better and more accurate to have a large group of individuals contributing to a User Story Decision Matrix.
False. The larger the group, the more difficult it is to manage the Decision Matrix.
What is a Kano Analysis?
Kano is used to prioritize Features or User Stories. Its classifications are
- Must Have - Satisfier (or Linear) - Delighter (or Exciter) - Dissatisfier (or Indifferent)
True or False: You will never build a Dissatisfier (or Indifferent) into a system.
False. It's usually inevitable that some Dissatisfiers, or Indifferents, will be built into a system. An example is compliance to some regulation - the user cares not a whit for this addition, yet it is necessary.
In Kano Analysis, what classification gets top priority?
In Kano Analysis, what classification gets second-to-top priority?
Satisfier, or Linear.
Why should Story Point size estimating never be time-based?
Estimating the time to address a User Story in hours immediately looks like a promise and a deadline, and the customer will hold you to it.
What is Ideal Time?
Ideal time is estimated time assuming no distractions. It is not estimating as if nothing will go wrong.
True or False: Ideal time is estimated time assuming no distractions and nothing going wrong.
False. Ideal time is estimated time assuming no distractions. It is not estimating as if nothing will go wrong.
How do customers, stakeholders, marketers, administration, and others react to our estimates?
They form expectations.
When we consider customers, stakeholders, marketers, and others, what is the advantage of Relative Estimating?
Relative Estimating doesn't have time, or a "deadline" associated with it; therefore, these individuals will be less likely to form expectations about "when can I get this."
Relative Estimating is based on what two characteristics of a User Story?
Size and Complexity.
What are the problems with time estimating?
Problems with time-based estimating:
- Forms expectations - Too many variables
When estimating the size of User Stories, how does Bracketing differ from Triangulation?
Triangulation is comparing a Story of unknown size to 2 or more Stories of known size in order to determine its size. Bracketing is determining the two extremes - largest Story and smallest Story, and then using those to help determine the sizes of Stories falling between those extremes.
When estimating User Stories, what is Bracketing?
Bracketing is determining the two extremes - largest Story and smallest Story, and then using those to help determine the sizes of Stories falling between those extremes.
You are doing a "sanity check" after having estimated relative sizes of a group of User Stories. What does this "sanity check" involve?
During the "sanity check", you ask mathematical questions, such as "Story A is 1 point. Story B is 4 points. Is Story B really 4 times larger than Story A?"
You are doing a "sanity check" after having estimated relative sizes of a group of User Stories. What is the benefit of this "sanity check"?
The "sanity check" helps to ensure that your estimates are consistent. During the sanity check, you ask mathematical questions, such as "Story A is 1 point. Story B is 4 points. Is Story B really 4 times larger than Story A?"
Your team groups Stories that appear to be of similar size and then assigns the same points to Stories within these groups. What is this exercise called?
How many User Stories in the Product Backlog should you estimate at one time?
You should estimate enough to fill a Minimal-Marketable Feature (MMF), or if that is not possible, enough to fill a minimum of 3 Iterations.
What is a Baseline Story in Planning Poker?
A Baseline Story is a small story to use as a baseline of 2.
What are Anchor Stories in Planning Poker?
Anchor Stories at sizes 5 and 13, along with a Baseline Story of 2, help with Triangulation.
What are the 2 main advantages of Planning Poker?
Everyone gets an equal voice, and it drives discussion and collaboration.
In a round of Planning Poker, the team is stuck between 2 adjacent numbers. What should you do?
Establish a rule that when the team is stuck between 2 adjacent numbers, you pick the larger number and move on.
True or False: The Product Owner should be present at Planning Poker.
True. The Product Owner needs to be present to explain requirements.
Unless you all come up with the same number the first time around in a Planning Poker hand, what should you do?
You should always estimate twice, with a discussion between estimates - the discussion should especially focus on the highest and lowest estimates.
After playing 4 hands of Planning Poker your team still hasn't reached a consensus on a User Story. What's probably going on?
Your team doesn't have enough information about the User Story and needs to get further details from the Product Owner and/or Subject Matter Expert. Or a Spike (Analysis Story) may be needed.
How much time per Story should you spend in Planning Poker?
What components of a Story can be especially helpful during Planning Poker?
The Acceptance Criteria.
During Planning Poker, the team realizes some additional work needs to be done, or some different Features are necessary, even. What should you do?
Write these up as User Stories for later prioritization in the Backlog.
True or False: When estimating size, User Stories should examined independent of one another.
False. User Stories should be estimated by comparing them to one another.
True or False: Velocity is a good short-term predictor.
False. Velocity is a good long-term predictor but not a good short-term predictor.
A Story is partially completed at the end of an Iteration. How many of its Story Points should be considered completed?
Zero, unless the remaining work can be broken out into a new User Story.
Velocity is a measure of team _____________.
Velocity is a measure of team throughput; that is, how many Story Points of work the team can finish in 1 Iteration.
What are some factors that can affect team velocity?
Factors that can affect team velocity are
- resource issues - interruptions - multitasking (both on work within the Iteration and work spread across multiple projects) - support issues
If all is going as it should, what will happen to your team's velocity over time?
It should normalize.
How many Sprints will it take before you can determine your team's velocity?
This depends on the team and other factors. But 4-6 rolling sprints should do it.
Your team has just completed 5 rolling Sprints. What can you now do to determine your team's velocity?
Take the number of User Stories completed in each Sprint and figure the average. The average is your team's velocity and can be used for planning how many Stories to commit to in the next Sprint.
Stakeholders and Product Owners need to understand what about Velocity?
Velocity is not always consistent or predictable.
When estimating velocity for your team's first Iteration, what type of Stories should you consider first?
Consider 1 or 2 relatively large and difficult Stories first. Can they be accomplished in this Iteration with time to spare? If so, add more stories. If not, remove 1 of them, or start with smaller Stories.
What are the 6 steps of Release Planning?
The 6 steps of Release Planning:
1. Determine available project time 2. Determine Iteration length 3. Break down Features into User Stories 4. Estimate User Stories 5. Prioritize User Stories 6. Select Stories for Iterations and Release dates
In a Feature-Based Release Plan, what is locked and what is estimated?
In a Feature-Based Release Plan, the Scope is locked and the Schedule is estimated.
In a Schedule-Based Release Plan, what is locked and what is estimated?
In a Schedule-Based Release Plan, the Schedule is locked and the Scope is estimated.
True or False: It is usually best to start with Feature-Based Release Planning.
False. It is usually best to start with a Schedule-Based Release Plan: Fix the Target Date, not the Features.
If the Stories that need to be delivered hinge on regulatory compliance, what sort of Release Plan should you use?
You should use a Feature-Based Release Plan: Lock the Scope, estimate the Schedule.
Release Plans serve as what?
What is a Hardening Sprint?
A Hardening Sprint, or Integration Iteration, is a time for integrating between systems and doing any User-Acceptance Testing that was not addressed in previous Sprints.
What is preferable to relying on an Integration Iteration, or Hardening Sprint?
In addition to the priority of User Stories, what else should the team be mindful of during Release Planning?
Dependencies, Constraints, Critical Path, Themes.
What role does Velocity play in Release Planning?
Velocity indicates how many Story Points your team can address, on average, during an Iteration - so it helps you plan ahead what and how many Stories to be completed in each Iteration.
Why is Release Planning important?
- connects the Project Roadmap to Iterations and team Velocity - results in the Release Plan, an important Information Radiator
How does the Release Plan relate to the Product Vision and Roadmap?
An important Information Radiator, the Release Plan
- provides visibility into how the team will deliver the value identified in the Product Vision - shows how the Roadmap unfolds into working Iterations with predicted team Velocity
What is another name for a Story Review?
A Story Review is also called StoryTime, or Product Backlog Grooming.
What happens during a Story Review?
The Product Owner and the rest of the team groom the Product Backlog and prepare Stories for upcoming Iterations.
What kinds of documentation and materials are useful during a Story Review, or Product Backlog Grooming session?
The following documents are useful during this session:
Designers and Coders work together to develop a Rapid Prototype, or a working prototype of a feature or system.
Why is a Story Review so important?
It is important because
- the Product Backlog needs to be continually revisited, reprioritized, and groomed - Stories need to be developed for upcoming Iterations
What are the 4 steps of Iteration Planning?
The 4 steps of Iteration Planning:
1. Drill down into each Story by priority. 2. Identify specific tasks to address each Story. 3. Estimate each Task in Ideal Hours. 4. Compare the Task's Ideal Hours to the Capacity of the individual(s) who will work on that Task. 4. Commit as a team to deliver the Iteration's work.
Velocity is used in what way during Iteration Planning?
Velocity is used to decide how many Stories the team can commit to in the upcoming Iteration.
What is Capacity?
Capacity is how many hours of work each individual on the team can take on during an Iteration. Team Capacity is how many hours the team as a whole can take on during an Iteration.
As a rule, a Task should take how much time to complete?
A Task should take less than 1 day's work.
True or False: It's acceptable if a Task requires more than 8 hours' work.
True. If multiple team members can work on the task and complete it within 1 day, then this is acceptable.
Breaking Stories down into Tasks that require less than 1 days' worth of work enables the team to identify what?
During Iteration Planning, the team realizes that one Story it was planning to address in the upcoming Iteration is larger than the original estimate of 3 Story Points. According to Mike Cohn, what should the team do?
The team should not re-estimate the Story unless
- the original estimate is wildly inaccurate - relative size has dramatically changed; for example, another story to which this one was compared is significantly larger or smaller
In these cases, it's actually better to create a new Story rather than re-estimate the old one.
Studies have shown that in an 8-hour work day, an individual has _________ hours of productive time.
What is the Paperclip Exercise?
In the Paperclip Exercise,
1. The ScrumMaster distributes to each team member 1 paperclip per hour that that individual is available in the upcoming Iteration. Clips are color-coded per each person. 2. When an individual commits to a Task, he or she gives up 1 clip for each ideal hour the Task requires. 3. Once a person's clips are gone, no more clips!
What is a Story's Definition of Done?
Definition of Done for a Story is when
- all Tasks are done - all Validation Criteria are met
What is an Iteration's Definition of Done?
Definition of Done for an Iteration is when all work that the team has agreed upon and committed to is complete, for example:
- all code is written - all code is integrated - all code is unit/integration tested - all configuration is complete - all documentation is written - all acceptance criteria met - all severity-1 and -2 defects are closed
What needs to be complete and ready before Iteration Planning can begin?
Before Iteration Planning can begin,
- the Product Backlog must be prioritized - the Release Plan must be up to date and on hand - the Product Owner must be prepared to discuss Story details - all tools needed for the Iteration must be in place - the team must agree on the Iteraion's Definition of Done - the team must be aware of the planned Cadence (length of Iterations)
Who should NOT be present during Iteration Planning?
Executives and Stakeholders other than the Product Owner.
Who should be present during Iteration Planning?
The entire team, including Scrum Master and Product Owner.
During Iteration Planning, what's the recommended way to document Tasks?
Draft Tasks on a white board or their own cards first. Then transfer them to the Story cards.
True or False: During Iteration Planning it's best to assign hours to Tasks as you identify them.
False. It's best to identify all Tasks first, so that the team has an full understanding of all the work that needs to be done. Then assign ideal hours to each Task.
During Iteration Planning, what should be done regarding individuals working on multiple projects (shared resources)?
Regarding shared resources:
- Make sure to have an accurate idea of the time each individual is able to commit to the project at hand, and do not overcommit the person. - Be mindful that an individual working on multiple projects is multitasking, which will further reduce his or her productivity.
True or False: When a person takes ownership of a Task during an Iteration, it means that he or she will complete all of the Task's work.
False. Taking ownership means the person will see the Task through to completion; it does not mean the person must do all the work.
The Daily StandUp, or Daily Scrum, is an example of what Agile mechanism?
Inspect and Adapt.
During the Daily Scrum, who should identify when a conversation should be taken offline?
The Scrum Master.
After the Daily Scrum is finished, and offline conversations start, what should the Scrum Master do?
Release those who do not need to be part of the offline conversations.
During the Daily StandUp, each person should talk for about how long?
What happens during an Iteration Review?
During the Iteration Review, the team
- reviews completion of work - moves stories if necessary - splits stories if necessary - agrees, as a team, what was Done
What can be used as a checklist to make sure that a Story has been fully addressed during an Iteration?
The Definition of Done for that Story.
Stories unfinished during an Iteration should be ______________________.
Returned to the Product Backlog to be reexamined.
Stories that are partially finished at the end of an Iteration count as how any Story Points completed?
Unfinished Stories count as Zero.
If you do choose to carry unfinished Stories over into the next Iteration, what should you do with their Story Points?
Keep them at full value; do not subtract points. This is so that once the story is finished, the team gets full points at that time.
What should happen at the Demo?
The Demo is for demonstrating working software completed during the Iteration.
What should not be shown in the Demo?
Do not show the following in the Demo:
- unfinished work - work that the customer will not readily recognize as value (code, system configurations, Spikes, nonfunctional requirements that were met, etc.)
Why are Demos a good thing?
- give the team an opportunity to showcase its work - build trust with the customer and stakeholders - clearly demonstrate the team's progress - provide an opportunity to get feedback and identify new requirements
True or False: Each Iteration should include a Demo.
True. Each Iteration should conclude with a Demo showing the customer completed work.
Without a Demo at the end of each Iteration, what could happen?
Without Demos, the team could end up wasting weeks and months of work building something the customer does not want. This is because the team is not getting the following:
- regular customer buy-in - regular feedback on whether the team is on the right track
What is the difference between Capacity and Velocity?
Capacity is the number of hours the team is able to work on Tasks during an Iteration. Velocity is the average number (calculated over time) of Story Points a team can complete in an Iteration.
What is a Task Board?
A Task Board is an Information Radiator showing the team's progress on completing Tasks during an Iteration.
What is the sole purpose of a Task Board?
To communicate to everyone the status of Stories and/or Tasks during an Iteration.
True or False: A Scrum of Scrum happens daily.
False. A Scrum of Scrums happens as often as needed, which could be 2 or 3 times a week.
True or False: Each team's Scrum Master attends the Scrum of Scrums.
False. A representative from each team attends the Scrum of Scrums. This should be someone with the technical or other knowledge needed to carry to/bring back important information. And this may, or may not, be a strength of the Scrum Master.
This document shows the amount of work to be done reducing over the life of the Iteration. What is it?
An Iteration Burn Down Chart.
This document shows the team's work progress against predictions. What is it?
A Burn Down Chart.
A Burn Down Chart can spur discussion about what 2 issues?
A Burn Down chart can spur discussion about
- the need to reduce scope - the need to extend the schedule
To populate a Burn Down Chart, the Scrum Master must record what information daily?
hours of work remaining
A Burn Down chart that shows a spike upward on Day 3 of an Iteration indicates what?
This indicates that more work was added to the Iteration Backlog on Day 3.
This document shows the amount of work planned versus the amount of work actually completed. What is it?
A Burn Up Chart.
This chart shows the number of Iterations in a Release on the X axis and Total Planned Story Points for the Project on the Y axis. Lines show Planned Points for each Iteration, Completed Points for each Iteration. What type of chart is this?
A Release Burn Up Chart.
This document shows the number of days in an Iteration on the X axis and the number of Story Points committed to on the Y axis. One line starting at 0 in the lower left corner shows the ideal progress. Another line starting at the same point shows actual progress. What is this document?
An Iteration Burn Up Chart
What does a Cumulative Features Diagram show?
A Cumulative Features Diagram shows, using colored areas:
- Total Features - Features in Progress - Completed Features
This document shows the top 10 project risks and their calculated risk exposure. It tracks this risk exposure over the project's Iterations. What is this document?
A Risk Burn Down Chart.
How do you calculate risk exposure?
risk exposure = probability of risk (percent) * size of loss (days)
What does a CvC metric show?
A Complete vs. Commit (CvC) metric is a simple bar chart showing the number of Story Points a team has committed to vs. the number of Story Points completed.
This document shows the number of defects carried over into ensuing Iterations. What is this document?
An Escaped Defects Chart.
A CvC chart shows that a team consistently delivers about 5 more Story Points than they commit to. What is this team doing?
This team is
1. under-promising and over-delivering (sand bagging) 2. working on Stories outside of their planned Iterations
What baseline data is needed in AgileEVM?
In AgileEVM, the following baseline data is needed:
- number of planned sprints per release - length, in days, of each sprint - number of story points planned per release - budget planned for a release - start date of the project
What ongoing data is needed in AgileEVM?
In AgileEVM, the following ongoing data is needed:
- number of sprints completed - net story points added (can be negative) - cumulative story points completed
Schedule Performance Index is a measure of what?
Schedule Performance Index (SPI) is a measure of a project's performance and efficiency.
Cost Performance Index is a measure of what?
Cost Performance Index (CPI) is a measure of a project's budget, or cost, efficiency.
A Cost Performance Index of greater than or equal to 1 indicates what?
A Cost Performance Index of greater than or equal to 1 indicates that the project's actual costs are on track with what was planned.
A Cost Performance Index of less than 1 indicates what?
A Cost Performance Index of less than 1 indicates that the project's actual costs are greater than what was planned - a cost overrun.
In AgileEVM, what is Earned Value vs. Planned Value?
Earned Value vs. Planned Value is a team's actual performance vs. what was planned.
In AgileEVM, what is Planned Release Story Points?
Planned Release Story Points (PRSP) is the Story Points planned in each Release.
In AgileEVM, what is Expected Percentage Complete?
Expected Percentage Complete (EPC) = Current Sprint Number (e.g. Sprint Number 17) ÷ Total Planned Sprints
The Scrum process can best be described as
a. a methodology that takes good programming practices to the extreme b. an iterative process in which a product increment is built every 30 days c. an iterative process that results in incremental releases every 30 days d. an iterative process that focuses on feature-driven development
The Scrum process can best be described as
b. an iterative process in which a product increment is built every 30 days.
What is the length of a Scrum Sprint?
Your team's daily StandUp continually runs to 30 minutes or more. As the Scrum Master, what is your best approach for addressing this?
Agile teams are self-organizing, so it will be most effective to bring this issue up at the Retrospective, and let the team come up with a solution.
In the Iteration Planning session, the team is getting way too caught up in the technical details of a User Story's Task. As the Scrum Master, what should you do?
a. stop the technical discussion and ask the team to come up with an estimate b. remind the team of the goals of the Iteration Planning session, and recommend that the deep technical discussion be taken offline c. ask the individuals if they feel this level of technical information is needed in order to estimate the task d. any of the above
As the Scrum Master, you could do
d. any of the above.
As the Scrum Master, what should you do after each Daily StandUp?
a. post the minutes of the StandUp for all to see b. do what you can to facilitate removing any impediments brought up during the StandUp c. update the burndown charts and task board, or work with team members to update these information radiators d. b and c
As the Scrum Master you should do
d. b (do what you can to facilitate removing any impediments brought up during the StandUp) and c (update the burndown charts and task board, or work with team members to update these information radiators).
You are the Agile Project Leader, or Scrum Master, for the team. Your boss and his boss want an update on the status of the project. What should you guide these two bosses to do?
a. have a conversation with you and the Product Owner b. visit the team's work space and view the Information Radiators c. let you know what specific details they require at this point so that you can generate a report for them d. leave you and the team the f**k alone
As the Scrum Master, you should guide management to
b. visit the team's work space and view the information radiators.
Your Agile team should use
a. relative estimation for User Stories b. relative estimation for Tasks c. ideal-time estimation for User Stories d. real-time estimation for Tasks
Your Agile team should use
a. relative estimation for User Stories.
When is it appropriate to change Planning Poker's numerical sequence?
a. when estimates need to be more granular b. when the gap between larger stories needs to be smaller c. when estimates need to be more precise d. never
It is appropriate to change Planning Poker's numerical sequence
Your team's Velocity for the past 3 Iterations, respectively, was 28, 11, and 32. As Scrum Master, what should you do?
a. wait 2 or 3 more Iterations to see if Velocity normalizes b. set the predicted Velocity as 20, the average of the past 3 Iterations c. work with the team to identify the root cause of why its Velocity is widely fluctuating d. if the percentage-committed/percentage-completion metric is 100 percent, then assume nothing needs to change
As Scrum Master, you should
c. work with the team to identify the root cause of why its Velocity is widely fluctuating.
What information do you need to collect in order to update the daily burndown chart?
a. Story Points completed each day b. Story Points left to complete each day c. Task hours completed each day d. Task hours left to complete each day
In order to update the daily burndown chart, you need to collect
d. Task hours left to complete each day
Earned Value =
a. Story Points Completed b. Budget at Complete * Expected Percentage Complete c. Budget at Complete * Actual Percentage Complete d. Budget at Complete ÷ Actual Percentage Complete
Earned Value =
c. Budget at Complete * Actual Percentage Complete
You can use Velocity to help your team make accurate commitments by
a. averaging completed Story Points over time b. allowing the team to make incremental adjustments to what is committed c. clearly showing what allowances need to be made when estimating the time that can be committed d. revealing impediments that detract from the team's productivity during each Iteration
You can use Velocity to help your team make accurate commitments by
a. averaging completed Story Points over time.
About how many Iterations does it take for an Agile team to understand its Velocity?
a. 3 b. 4-5 c. enough Iterations for the team to come to grips with factors such as Capacity, impediments, setbacks, and successes
c. enough Iterations for the team to come to grips with factors such as Capacity, impediments, setbacks, and successes.
Agile is an Iterative methodology, which means that
a. teams develop one releasable feature at a time b. teams develop and deliver slices of working software c. teams develop better software through a cycle of feedback and revision d. teams develop software with the understanding that it is in perpetual beta
Agile is an Iterative methodology, which means that
c. teams develop better software through a cycle of feedback and revision.
Which should not be discussed during the Retrospective?
a. individual team members' successes b. team successes c. team fail points d. product successes
The topic that should not be discussed during the Retrospective is
d. product successes.
That is because the Retrospective is about people and processes, not the product.
You have just concluded a high-profile project, and the customer awards you a gorgeous gold watch at a banquet in appreciation of your outstanding leadership. Both you and the customer know that you are not allowed to accept gifts. What should you do?
a. accept the watch at the banquet but graciously return it later b. decline the watch immediately, embarrassing the customer and the entire banquet crowd c. accept the watch to avoid dismaying and embarrassing the customer d. accept the watch, sell it on eBay, and donate the money to charity
b. decline the watch immediately, embarrassing the customer and the entire banquet crowd.
This is because you must avoid even the appearance of a conflict of interest.
You are studying for the PMI-ACP exam, and your best friend offers to you what she says is a copy of the actual exam questions. You should
a. decline the offer b. report your friend to PMI c. urge your friend to turn herself in to PMI because she is blatantly violating the PMI Code of Ethics
a. decline the offer.
You do not have enough facts to report your friend, or for that matter, to urge her to turn herself in.
In Extreme Programming, features are delivered
a. early and often b. as soon as possible after they are requested c. as late as possible while meeting the customer's needs d. following integration testing
In Extreme Programming, features are developed
c. as late as possible while meeting the customer's needs.
The most significant purpose of a Release Plan is
a. to package Iterations into Releases b. to serve as a schedule of commitments c. to serve as an Information Radiator d. to serve as a contract-negotiation tool
The most significant purpose of a Release Plan is
c. to serve as an Information Radiator.
What is the measurement most commonly used in Agile EVM?
a. Percentage of Completion b. Actual Value vs. Planned Value c. CPI D. SPI
The measurement most commonly used in Agile EVM is
b. Actual Value vs. Planned Value.
The recommended ratio of developers-to-testers on an Agile team is
a. 1:3 b. 1:2 c. 1:1 d. dependent on experience and skills
The recommended ratio of developers-to-testers on an Agile team is