Trans-Sahara, Indian Ocean Trade, Islam in India, and Christianity in Africa
Terms in this set (51)
What do the kingdoms of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai have in common?
They are all located in the same relative area
What is the Trans-Sahara Trade Network?
Trade route connecting sub-Sahara Africa to the Mediterranean and Middle East
How did the Trans-Sahara Trade Network start?
Berber nomads began using camels for travel across the desert
What items came from West Africa?
Leather, Slaves, Gold
What items came from North Africa?
Salt, Silk, Glass, Horses
What were the most valuable products?
Salt and Gold
Why is salt valuable?
Its necessary for human survival, helps the body retain water in hot climates, in West Africa salt was scarce
How was salt transported across the desert?
It was loaded in slabs onto camel caravans
How was trade conducted along the Trans-Sahara?
Merchants met in trading cities, the King's officials collected taxes and enforced the laws, Royal guards provided protection from bandits
What effects did the trade network have on West Africa?
Directly linked Asia-Europe trade to Sub-Sahara Africa, powerful kingdoms grew in W. Africa to control the trade network. Kings consolidated their power, the most important are the Ghana and Mali Empires
What important cities rose along the trade route?
Timbuktu, Fez, Gao
What forms of cultural diffusion came through the trade network to West Africa?
Islam, Arabic language, Islamic business methods, and Mosques
Why did Islam spread to West Africa?
Muslim merchants from North Africa settled in West Africa and spread their faith, Ethics of Islam create accepted rules for trading, spiritual appeal of Islam, Kings employ Muslims who are experienced administrators as their advisors, some Kings convert to Islam such as Mansa Musa
Who is Mansa Musa and what did he accomplish?
King of Mali who converted to Islam, he later completed the Hajj to Mecca to demonstrate his faith and wealth, Europeans learned about the extravagant gold and wealth of West Africa from this
How did Mali differ from Ghana?
It was bigger and was ruled by Muslims
Who participated in the Indian Ocean trade network?
Indian, Arab, Chinese, and African merchants participated in this international trade network
Where did they travel from?
Trade was conducted between independent merchants; there is no empire governing the trade, it was decentralized trade
What goods were transported on each leg?
Silk and Porcelain (China); Spices (South East Asia); Pepper, Gems, Cotton (India); Horses and Incense (Arabia); Gold, Ivory, and Slaves (East Africa)
When did this trade network operate?
500-1200 Moderate Trade, 1200-1500 Volume of trade explodes
Why did trade increase?
Economic prosperity of Asian (Song), European (Italy) and African States stimulate expansion. After the collapse of Mongols overland trade was risky
How did the trade system operate?
Monsoon winds; Dhows and Junks; Trade was decentralized and cooperative- no empire controlled the trade network
What are the main differences between this trade network and the "Silk Road"?
The trade route is overland and is not controlled by a specific country or nation
What are the main similarities?
Both trade networks traded the same things to the same nations
How did city states develop on the East African Coast?
Trade along the East African coast promoted cities to grow and trade goods with foreign peoples
What is a Dhow and what impact did it have?
A type of African boat that participated frequently in Indian Ocean trade. The dhows allowed for more goods to be transported over trade routes due to the larger size of the Dhow's compared to other vessels at the time.
What is the Swahili Coast?
A group of African city states on the East coast of Africa. Had AFrican customs and vocabulary but were enriched by Arabic and Persian terms
Why was Kilwa an important trade center?
It was located near gold mines south of the Zimbabwe river allowing gold to be easily transported to the city
What role did Great Zimbabwe play in East Africa?
A major trading city in East Africa and traded things such as copper, salt, and gold
What role did Aden in the Red Sea play in the Indian Ocean Trade Network?
Aden sorted the trade goods and sent them to their designated locations
How did the trade network influence India?
Allowed India to grow and become a large economic power from the profits of trade
How did Malacca become an important state in South East Asia?
Its location on the choke point of access to the South China Sea allowed for one nation to cut China off from trade entirely
What is significant about Axum?
Modern day Ethiopia, key trading center in East Africa for 1000 years. Connected Africa, India, and Europe. Merchants and missionaries brought Judaism and Christianity to the region. Isolated from Christian Europe after the rise of Islam. Became a Christian Outpost- preserved its religious identity, built churches in rocks
What is significant about East African Trade?
By 1100 African's had migrated to the East African coast, they developed trade contacts with Muslim merchants from North Africa
What is significant about the Swahili Coast?
Cities locate on the East African coast developed into 40 independent trading states, they conducted trade with Islamic Merchants in the Indian Ocean, Kilwa, Mogadishu, and Sofala were centers of trade that became major cities
What is significant about the Great Zimbabwe?
Largest Kingdom in sub-Sahara Africa, built "Great Stone Buildings"- served as royal palaces, its wealth came from gold mining and cattle herding, it provided goods from the heart of Africa (gold, ivory, slaves), linked to Swahili Coast and Indian Ocean Trade Network, abandoned due to resource exhaustion
What were significant social effects in Africa?
East Arab and Persian merchants set up Islamic communities in Africa, trade cities became wealthy and powerful, most government officials were Muslim, many Africans converted to Islam and often married Muslim merchants, Arabic and Bantu blended to create the Swahili language, Arab Muslim traders exported enslaved persons from East Arica, slaves were sent to Arabia, India, Persia, and Iraq
How far east did the Islamic empire extend to the east in the year 1200?
The Indus River Valley
What three ways did Islam spread to India?
Military Conquest, Merchants, and the Invasion of the Turks
What is the Delhi Sultanate?
The invasion of India by the Turks in the late 12th century. An Islamic state was established and ruled by a sultan. the capitol was Delhi.
Who is Ibn Battuta and where did he travel?
A muslim traveler who was born in North Africa. He traveled 75,000 miles in his lifetime to places such as China, Russia, the Mongol Empire, and India
What effects did the spread of Islam have on India?
Decline of Buddhism and Hinduism and the destruction of Hindu and Buddhist monasteries
How did the spread of Islam result in syncretism?
Sultans became tolerant of Hinduism in their states as long as Hindus payed a tax. Over time the Hindu people became more accepted and the blending of cultures occurred.
The Kingdom of Aksum is connected to the modern nation of what?
When did the Kingdom of Aksum reach its peak?
The fourth century under the leadership of Ezana
What percent of the Ethiopian population is Christians?
What happened to regions around Aksum?
They became Islam while Ethiopia remained Christian
Who leads the Ethiopian Orthodox Church?
Nuns, Priests, Bishops, and Patriarchs
Who did monasteries house?
Nuns and monks
What did monasteries also act as?
Monks played an important role in what?
Writing and interpreting history
How did Ethiopia resist invaders?
The unity of the people through the Church