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65 terms

acid base balance

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acidosis
abnormally high acidity (excess hydrogen-ion concentration) of the blood and other body tissues
active transport
energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference
homologous transfusion
transfusion prepared from another individual whose blood is compatible with that of the recipient. Also called allogeneic transfusion
alkalosis
a condition that occurs with increases in blood bicarbonate or decreases in blood carbonic acid; blood pH above 7.45 (low hydrogen ion concentration)
angiotensin
Hormone that constricts blood vessels, resulting in increase in blood pressure. A normal blood protein produced by the liver, angiotensin is converted to angiotensin I by renin (secreted by kidney when blood pressure falls). Angiotensin I is further converted to angiotensin II by ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme). Angiotensin II is a powerful systemic vasocontrictor and stimulator of aldosterone release, both of which result in an increase in blood pressure.
anion gap
difference between the concentrations of serum cations and anions, determined by measuring the concentrations of sodium cations and chloride and bicarbonate anions.
anions
negatively charged ions
antidiuretic hormone
ADH. hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland and also by nerve endings in the hypothalamus
arterial blood gas
ABG, measures the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the arterial blood
atrial natriuretic peptide
A peptide hormone secreted by cardiac atrial cells in response to atrial distension (increased blood flow); causes increased renal sodium excretion and as such lowers blood pressure (antagonizing aldosterone). causes vasodilation and osmoregulation.
autologous transfusion
a transfusion prepared from a donor's own blood
buffer
weak acid or base that can react with strong acids or bases to help prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH. It maintains a fairly constant pH in a solution by accepting H+ ions when their levels rise and donating H+ ions when their levels fall
cations
positively charged ions
colloid osmotic pressure
pressure exerted by plasma proteins on permeable membranes in the body; synonym for oncotic pressure, opposes the forces of hydrostatic pressure, pulls fluid back into capillaries
colloids
particles are mixed together and not dissolved, particles are relatively large and are permanently suspend (whipped cream)
concentration gradient
An increase or decrease in the density of a chemical substance in an area. Cells often maintain concentration gradients of ions across their membranes. When a gradient exists, the ions or other chemical substances involved tend to move from where they are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated.
crystalloids
electrolyte solutions that move freely between the intravascular compartment and interstitial spaces
dehydration
A decrease in the amount of water in body tissues
diffusion
the process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
electrolyte
a substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that conducts an electric current
electronic infusion device
EID - a piece of medical equipment that delivers intravenous fluids at a prescribed rate through an intravenous catheter
filtration
a process that separates materials based on the size of their particles
fluid volume deficit
FVD, when you lose more water than you take in. electrolytes are lost in the same proportion
fluid volume excess
increases interstitial and vascular volumes, hypertension; tachycardia; strong bounding pulses; moist crackles/wheezes; jugular vein distension; dependent edema; taut skin turgor; low or normal urine output; low urine specific gravity; weight gain
hemolysis
lysis of erythrocytes with the release of hemoglobin
homeostasis
a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level
hydrostatic pressure
Pressure exerted by a volume of fluid against a wall, membrane, or some other structure that encloses the fluid.
hypercalcemia
the presence of abnormally high levels of calcium in the blood
hyperchloremia
an excess of chloride in the blood plasma
hyperkalemia
higher than normal levels of potassium in the circulating blood
hypermagnesemia
an excess of magnesium in the blood plasma
hypernatremia
excessive amounts of sodium in the blood
hypertonic
when comparing two solutions, the solution with the greater concentration of solutes
hypocalcemia
abnormally low level of calcium in the blood
hypochloremia
deficiency of chloride in the blood plasma
hypokalemia
abnormally low level of potassium in the circulating blood leading to weakness and heart abnormalities
hypomagnesemia
deficiency of magnesium in the blood plasma
hyponatremia
abnormally low level of sodium in the blood
hypotonic
(of a solution) having a lower osmotic pressure than a comparison solution
hypovolemia
low blood volume
infiltration
IV fluids seep into the subcutaneous tissue around the venipuncture site. Causes swelling, pallor, coolness, pain, edema.
infusion pump
device that delivers fluids and medications under positive pressure.
insensible water loss
water loss through the skin and lungs
isotonic
(used of solutions) having the same or equal osmotic pressure
metabolic acidosis
a condition characterized by a deficiency of bicarbonate ions in the body in relation to the amount of carbonic acid in the body, in which the pH falls to less than 7.35
metabolic alkalosis
a condition characterized by an excess of bicarbonate ions in the body in relation to the amount of carbonic acid in the body; the pH rises to greater than 7.45
milliequivalents per liter
mEq/L, number of grams of a specific electrolyte dissolved in 1 L of plasma.
oncotic pressure
The osmotic pressure in the blood vessels due only to plasma proteins (primarily albumin) --> causes water to rush back into capillaries at end.
osmolality
the concentration of solutes in body fluids
osmolarity
Solute concentration expressed as molarity.
osmoreceptors
Found in the hypothalamus, these sense the osmolarity of the blood. Cause thirst sensation
osmosis
water moves from a more dilute solution (of a solute) to a more concentrated solution (of the solute) through a membrane that is permeable to the solvent until the solution is equalized
osmotic pressure
the pressure exerted by a solution necessary to prevent osmosis into that solution when it is separated from the pure solvent by a semipermeable membrane
phlebitis
inflammation of a vein (usually in the legs)
renin
enzyme that is produced by the kidney; important for blood pressure and volume regulation; catalyzes the conversion of circulating angiotensinogen to angiotensin I
respiratory acidosis
acidosis resulting from reduced gas exchange in the lungs (as in emphysema or pneumonia or hypoventilation)
respiratory alkalosis
alkalosis resulting from increased gas exchange in the lungs (as in hyperventilation associated with extreme anxiety or aspirin intoxication or metabolic acidosis)
sensible water loss
water loss that is noticed by a person, such as through urine output and sweating
solute
the dissolved substance in a solution
solution
a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
solvent
a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances
total parenteral nutrition
TNP, administration of a nutritionally adequate solution through a catheter into the vena cava
transfusion reaction
a serious, and potentially fatal, complication of a blood transfusion in which a severe immune response occurs because the patient's blood and the donated blood do not match
vascular access device
VAD, devices such as a needle, cannula, or catheter that allow direct access to the circulatory system
venipuncture
puncture of a vein to remove blood, instill a medication, or start an intravenous infusion