5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- fluid volume excess
- concentration gradient
- a the dissolved substance in a solution
- b An increase or decrease in the density of a chemical substance in an area. Cells often maintain concentration gradients of ions across their membranes. When a gradient exists, the ions or other chemical substances involved tend to move from where they are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated.
- c increases interstitial and vascular volumes, hypertension; tachycardia; strong bounding pulses; moist crackles/wheezes; jugular vein distension; dependent edema; taut skin turgor; low or normal urine output; low urine specific gravity; weight gain
- d excessive amounts of sodium in the blood
- e enzyme that is produced by the kidney; important for blood pressure and volume regulation; catalyzes the conversion of circulating angiotensinogen to angiotensin I
5 Multiple choice questions
- pressure exerted by plasma proteins on permeable membranes in the body; synonym for oncotic pressure, opposes the forces of hydrostatic pressure, pulls fluid back into capillaries
- abnormally low level of calcium in the blood
- a condition characterized by a deficiency of bicarbonate ions in the body in relation to the amount of carbonic acid in the body, in which the pH falls to less than 7.35
- Solute concentration expressed as molarity.
- A peptide hormone secreted by cardiac atrial cells in response to atrial distension (increased blood flow); causes increased renal sodium excretion and as such lowers blood pressure (antagonizing aldosterone). causes vasodilation and osmoregulation.
5 True/False questions
dehydration → a process that separates materials based on the size of their particles
hypermagnesemia → an excess of magnesium in the blood plasma
insensible water loss → water loss through the skin and lungs
homeostasis → a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level
respiratory alkalosis → acidosis resulting from reduced gas exchange in the lungs (as in emphysema or pneumonia or hypoventilation)