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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. renin
  2. hypernatremia
  3. solute
  4. fluid volume excess
  5. concentration gradient
  1. a the dissolved substance in a solution
  2. b An increase or decrease in the density of a chemical substance in an area. Cells often maintain concentration gradients of ions across their membranes. When a gradient exists, the ions or other chemical substances involved tend to move from where they are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated.
  3. c increases interstitial and vascular volumes, hypertension; tachycardia; strong bounding pulses; moist crackles/wheezes; jugular vein distension; dependent edema; taut skin turgor; low or normal urine output; low urine specific gravity; weight gain
  4. d excessive amounts of sodium in the blood
  5. e enzyme that is produced by the kidney; important for blood pressure and volume regulation; catalyzes the conversion of circulating angiotensinogen to angiotensin I

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. pressure exerted by plasma proteins on permeable membranes in the body; synonym for oncotic pressure, opposes the forces of hydrostatic pressure, pulls fluid back into capillaries
  2. abnormally low level of calcium in the blood
  3. a condition characterized by a deficiency of bicarbonate ions in the body in relation to the amount of carbonic acid in the body, in which the pH falls to less than 7.35
  4. Solute concentration expressed as molarity.
  5. A peptide hormone secreted by cardiac atrial cells in response to atrial distension (increased blood flow); causes increased renal sodium excretion and as such lowers blood pressure (antagonizing aldosterone). causes vasodilation and osmoregulation.

5 True/False questions

  1. dehydrationa process that separates materials based on the size of their particles


  2. hypermagnesemiaan excess of magnesium in the blood plasma


  3. insensible water losswater loss through the skin and lungs


  4. homeostasisa tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level


  5. respiratory alkalosisacidosis resulting from reduced gas exchange in the lungs (as in emphysema or pneumonia or hypoventilation)


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