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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. hypomagnesemia
  2. insensible water loss
  3. hypocalcemia
  4. hemolysis
  5. concentration gradient
  1. a abnormally low level of calcium in the blood
  2. b deficiency of magnesium in the blood plasma
  3. c An increase or decrease in the density of a chemical substance in an area. Cells often maintain concentration gradients of ions across their membranes. When a gradient exists, the ions or other chemical substances involved tend to move from where they are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated.
  4. d water loss through the skin and lungs
  5. e lysis of erythrocytes with the release of hemoglobin

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. a serious, and potentially fatal, complication of a blood transfusion in which a severe immune response occurs because the patient's blood and the donated blood do not match
  2. negatively charged ions
  3. enzyme that is produced by the kidney; important for blood pressure and volume regulation; catalyzes the conversion of circulating angiotensinogen to angiotensin I
  4. difference between the concentrations of serum cations and anions, determined by measuring the concentrations of sodium cations and chloride and bicarbonate anions.
  5. excessive amounts of sodium in the blood

5 True/False questions

  1. respiratory alkalosisalkalosis resulting from increased gas exchange in the lungs (as in hyperventilation associated with extreme anxiety or aspirin intoxication or metabolic acidosis)


  2. metabolic acidosisa condition characterized by a deficiency of bicarbonate ions in the body in relation to the amount of carbonic acid in the body, in which the pH falls to less than 7.35


  3. hypokalemiaabnormally low level of potassium in the circulating blood leading to weakness and heart abnormalities


  4. hyperkalemiahigher than normal levels of potassium in the circulating blood


  5. osmolalitythe concentration of solutes in body fluids


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