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The primary functions of the respiratory system are

to move air to and from the exchange surfaces of the lungs, to provide an area for gas exchange between air and circulating blood, to protect respiratory surfaces from dehydration and environmental variations

The conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II in the lung capillaries indirectly assists int the regulation of

blood volume and blood pressure

Pulmonary surfactant is a phospholipid secretion produced by alveolar cells to

reduce the cohesive force of H2O molecules and lower surface tension

The "patrol force" of the alveolar epithelium involved with phagocytosis consist primarily of

alveolar macrophages

The respiratory system consists of structures that

provide an extensive surface area for gas exchange between air and circulating blood, permit vocalization and production of sound, move air to and from the exchange surfaces of the lungs along the respiratory passageways

The air-filled pockets within the lungs where all gas exchange between air and blood occurs are the


Structures in the trachea that prevent its collapse or overexpansion as pressures change in the respiratory system are the

C-shaped tracheal cartilages

The entry of liquids of solid food into the respiratory passageways during swallowing is prevents by the

epiglottis folding down over the glottis

A single respiratory contraction consists of

inspiration & expiration

The trachea allows for the passage of large masses of food through the esophagus due to

distortion of the posterior tracheal wall

The function of the hilus along the medial surface of the lung is to

provide access to pulmonary vessels and nerves

Dilation and relaxation of the bronchioles is possible because the walls of bronchioles contain

smooth muscle tissue regulated by the ANS

Structural features that make the lungs highly pliable and capable of tolerating great changes in volume are

the elastic fibers in the trabeculae, septa, and the pleurae

After passing through the trachea, the pathway a molecule of inspired air would take to reach an alveolus is

primary bronchus -> secondary bronchus -> bronchioles -> terminal bronchioles -> respiratory bronchioles -> alveolus

The serous membrane in contact with the lung is the

visceral pleura

The diffusion of gases between interstitial fluid and cytoplasm is

internal respiration

Breaching, which involves the physical movement of air into and out of the lungs is

pulmonary ventillation

The process which prevents the buildup of carbon dioxide in the alveoli and ensures a continuous supply of oxygen that keeps pace with absorption by the bloodstream is

alveolar ventillation

The absorption of oxygen and release of carbon dioxide by cells is

internal respiration

Air enters the respiratory passageways when the pressure inside the lungs is lower than then

atmospheric pressure

The movement of air into and out of the lungs is primarily dependent on

pressure differences between the air in the atmosphere and air in the lungs

During inspiration there will be an increase in the volume of the thoracic cavity and an

increasing lung volume, decreasing intrapulmonary pressure

During expiration the diaphragm

relaxes and the dome rises into the thoracic cage

Stiffening and reduction in chest movement effectively limit the

respiratory minute volume

During expiration there is an

increase in pulmonary pressure

A lack of surfactant secretion onto alveolar surfaces causes the

alveoli to collapse

If there is a PO2 of 104mm Hg in the alveoli, and a PO2 of 40 mm Hg and a PCO2 of 45 mm Hg within the pulmonary blood, there will be a net diffusion of

O2 into the blood from the alveoli; CO2 from the blood into the alveoli

When the partial pressure difference is greater across the respiratory membrane, the rate of gas diffusion is


The arrangement that improves the efficiency of pulmonary ventilation and pulmonary circulation occurs when

blood flow and air flow are coordinated

If the partial pressure of oxygen is lower in the puolmonary capillaries than in the alveolus, then

O2 will diffuse out of the alveolus into the pulmonary capillary

Blood entering the system circuit normally has a PCO2 of 40mm Hg, while peripheral tissues have a PCO2 of 45mm Hg; therefore

CO2 diffues into the blood

Each molecule of hemoglobin has the capacity to carry ______ molecules of oxygen (O2)


What percentage of total oxygen (O2) is carried within red blood cells chemically bound to hemoglobin


Factors that cause a decrease in hemoglobin saturation at a given PO2 are

increasing diphsphoglycerate (DPG), increasing temperature, decreasing pH

Each hemoglobin molecule consists of

four globular protein subunits, each containing four heme units

When each hemoglobin molecule binds with four molecules of oxygen, the end product is


Carbon dioxide is transported in the blood by

conversion to a molecule of carbonic acid, binding to the protein part of the hemoglobin molecule, dissolving in plasma

If the rate and depth of respiration exceed the demands for oxygen delivery and carbon dioxide removal, the condition is called


Under normal conditions the greatest effect on the respiratory centers is initiated by

increases and decreases in PCO2

Emotional states which initiate sympathetic activation in the ANS cause

bronchodilation and increase the respiratory rate

The initiation of inspiration originates with discharge of inspiratory neurons in the


Examples of protective reflexes which operate when you are exposed to toxic vapors, chemical irritants, or mechanical stimulation of the respiratory tract include

sneezing, coughing, pharyngeal spasms

As volume of the lungs increases, the

inspiratory center is inhibited, the expiratory center stimulated

With increasing age, elastic tissue deterioration and stiffening and reduction in chest movement effectively limit the

respiratory minute volume

The nervous system interacts with the respiratory system by

monitoring respiratory volume and blood gas levels

In the chronic, progressive condition of emphysema

respiratory bronchioles and alveoli are functionally eliminated

A respiratory disorder characterized by fluid leakage into the alveoli or swelling and constriction of the respiratory bronchioles is


Intracellular bicarbonate ions are exchanged for extracellular chloride ions resulting in a mass movement of chloride ions into the

red blood cells

The paranasal sinuses include

frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary

A rise in arteriole PCO2 elevates cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) carbon dioxide levels and stimulates the chemoreceptive neurons of the medulla to produce


The primary function of pulmonary ventilation is to maintain adequate

alveolar ventilation

The purpose of the fluid in the pleural cavity is to

reduce friction between the parietal and visceral pleura

When the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract

intrapleural pressure decreases

If a person is stabbed in the chest and the thoracic wall is punctured but the lung is not penetrated

the lung will probably collapse

The most important factor determining airway resistance is

airway radius

The sympathetic division of the ANS causes _______ of airway smooth muscle; therefore, resistance is _________

relaxation; decreased

The substance often administered during an asthmatic attack to decrease resistance via airway dilation is


Decreased amounts of CO2 concentrations in the bronchioles cause

an increase in bronchiolar constriction

The air flow and blood flow in the right proportion at each alveolus improves

efficient external respiration

If a person is breathing 15 times a minute and has a tidal volume of 500ml, the total minute respiratory volume is

7,500 ml

The residual volume is the volume of air

that remains in lungs after maximal expiration

The maximum amount of air moved in and out during a single breath is

vital capacity

If a person is breathing 12 times per minute, the tidal volume is 350ml, and the volume in the anatomic dead space is 150ml, what is the alveolar ventilation rate


The most effective means of increasing alveolar ventilation is

breathe slowly and deeply

When a person does not produce enough surfactant and becomes exhausted by the effort required to keep inflating and deflating the lungs, the condition is called

respiratory distress syndrome

The partial pressure of O2 in the atmosphere at sea level is

160mm Hg

The process of internal respiration involves each of the follow except that

hemoglobin binds more oxygen

Movement of air into and out of the lungs is accomplished by the process of _______, while all movement of gases across membranes is by ________

bulk flow; passive diffusion

The correct sequential transport of O2 from the tissue capillaries to O2 consumption in cells is

erythrocytes, plasma, interstitial fluid, cells

It is important that free H+ resulting from dissociation of H2CO3 combine with hemoglobin to reduce the possibility of

an acidic condition within the blood

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