Strayer, Ways of the World for the AP® Course, 4e, Chapter 8
Terms in this set (15)
Ruling dynasty of China (589-618) that effectively reunited the country after several centuries of political fragmentation. This unity was solidified through the extension of canals economically linking northern and southern China, but harsh leadership and futile efforts to conquer Korea eventually prompted the overthrow of the dynasty.
Ruling dynasty of China (618-907) noted for its openness to foreign cultural influences. Together with its successor, the Song dynasty, it represented a golden age of arts and literature and established patterns of Chinese life that endured into the twentieth century.
The Chinese dynasty (960-1279) that rose to power after the Tang dynasty. During the Song dynasty, an explosion of scholarship gave rise to Neo-Confucianism, and a revolution in agricultural and industrial production made China the richest and most populated country on the planet.
China's economic revolution
A major rise in prosperity that took place in China under the Song dynasty (960-1279), which was marked by rapid population growth, urbanization, economic specialization, the development of an immense network of internal waterways, and a great increase in industrial production and technological innovation.
China's capital during the Song dynasty, with a population at its height of more than a million people.
A Chinese invention that came about during the ninth century. A mix of saltpeter, sulfur, and charcoal, it was originally created by Daoist alchemists seeking to discover an elixir of immortality. Ultimately, though, it revolutionized global military affairs.
The Chinese practice of tightly wrapping girls' feet to keep them small, prevalent in the Song dynasty and later; an emphasis on small size and delicacy was central to views of female beauty.
A set of practices that required a show of subordination from all non-Chinese authorities and the payment of tribute — products of value from their countries — to the Chinese emperor. In return, China would grant trading rights to foreigners and offer gifts even more valuable than the tribute itself.
An imperial creation of nomadic steppe peoples who inhabited lands north of China. In the third and second centuries b.c.e., this empire stretched from Manchuria to Central Asia, establishing a model for later Turkic and Mongol empires.
The first ruling dynasty to bring a measure of political unity to the Korean peninsula (688-900). (pron. SHEE-lah)
A phonetic alphabet developed in Korea in the fifteenth century in a move toward greater cultural independence from China. (pron. HAHN-gool)
A variation of Chinese writing developed in Vietnam that became the basis for an independent national literature; "southern script."
Japanese statesman (572-622) who launched the drive to make Japan into a centralized bureaucratic state modeled on China; he is best known for issuing the Seventeen Article Constitution in 604 c.e., which lays out the principles of this reform.
The "way of the warrior," referring to the martial values of the Japanese samurai, including bravery, loyalty, and an emphasis on death over surrender. (pron. booshee-doh)
Buddhism was China's only large-scale cultural borrowing before the twentieth century; it entered China from India in the first and second centuries c.e. but only became popular in 300 to 800 c.e. through a series of cultural accommodations. At first supported by the state, Buddhism suffered persecution during the ninth century but continued to play a role in Chinese society alongside Confucianism and Daoism.
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