Strayer, Ways of the World for the AP® Course, 4e, Chapter 9
Terms in this set (16)
Muhammad (570-632 c.e.)
The Prophet and founder of Islam whose religious revelations became the Quran, bringing a radically monotheistic religion to Arabia and the world.
Also transliterated as Qur'án and Koran, this is the most holy text of Islam, which records the words of God through revelations given to the Prophet Muhammad.
The community of all believers in Islam, bound by common belief rather than territory, language, or tribe. (pron. OOM-mah)
Pillars of Islam
The five core requirements of the Quran: the belief in one God, regular prayer, charitable giving, fasting during Ramadan, and a pilgrimage to Mecca (if financially and physically possible).
The "journey" of Muhammad and his original followers from Mecca to Yathrib (later Medina) in 622 c.e.; the journey marks the starting point of the Islamic calendar. (pron. HIJJ-ruh)
Islamic law, dealing with political, economic, social, and religious life. It literally translates as "a path to water," which is considered the source of all life. (pron. shah-REE-ah)
Special tax paid by dhimmis (protected but second-class subjects) in Muslim-ruled territory in return for freedom to practice their own religion.
Family of caliphs who ruled the Islamic world from 661 to 750 c.e., expanding the Arab Empire and creating a ruling class of Arab military aristocrats. (pron. oo-MEYE-ahd)
An Arab dynasty of caliphs (successors to the Prophet) who governed much of the Islamic world from its capital in Baghdad beginning in 750 c.e. After 900 c.e. that empire increasingly fragmented until its overthrow by the Mongols in 1258.
Islamic religious scholars, both Sunni and Shia, who shaped and transmitted the core teachings of Islamic civilization.
An understanding of the Islamic faith that saw the worldly success of Islamic civilization as a distraction and deviation from the purer spirituality of Muhammad's time. By renouncing the material world, meditating on the words of the Quran, chanting the names of God, using music and dance, and venerating Muhammad and various "saints," Sufis pursued an interior life, seeking to tame the ego and achieve spiritual union with Allah.
Religious tradition of northern India founded by Guru Nanak (1469-1539); combines elements of Hinduism and Islam and proclaims the brotherhood of all humans and the equality of men and women.
A major commercial city of West African civilization and a noted center of Islamic scholarship and education by the sixteenth century.
Arabic name for Spain, most of which was conquered by Arab and Berber forces between 711 and 718 c.e. Muslim Spain represented a point of encounter between the Islamic world and Christian Europe.
Formal colleges for higher instruction in the teachings of Islam as well as in secular subjects like law, established throughout the Islamic world beginning in the eleventh century.
House of Wisdom
An academic center for research and translation of foreign texts that was established in Baghdad in 830 c.e. by the Abbasid caliph al-Mamun.
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