Strayer, Ways of the World for the AP® Course, 4e, Chapter 10
Terms in this set (15)
The written product of Nestorian Christians living in China, these texts articulate the Christian message using Buddhist and Daoist concepts.
Emerging in the fifth and sixth centuries in the several kingdoms of Nubia to the south of Egypt, this Christian church thrived for six hundred years but had largely disappeared by 1500 c.e., by which time most of the region's population practiced Islam.
Emerging in the fourth century with the conversion of the rulers of Axum, this Christian church proved more resilient than other early churches in Africa. Located in the mountainous highlands of modern Ethiopia, it was largely cut off from other parts of Christendom and developed traditions that made it distinctive from other Christian churches.
The surviving eastern Roman Empire and one of the centers of Christendom during the medieval centuries. The Byzantine Empire was founded at the end of the third century, when the Roman Empire was divided into eastern and western halves, and survived until its conquest by Muslim forces in 1453.
New capital for the eastern half of the Roman Empire; Constantinople's highly defensible and economically important site helped ensure the city's cultural and strategic importance for many centuries.
A political-religious system in which the secular ruler is also head of the religious establishment, as in the Byzantine Empire.
Eastern Orthodox Christianity
Branch of Christianity that developed in the eastern part of the Roman Empire and gradually separated, mostly on matters of practice, from the branch of Christianity dominant in Western Europe; noted for the subordination of the Church to political authorities, a married clergy, the use of leavened bread in the Eucharist, and a sharp rejection of the authority of Roman popes.
A term used to describe the "holy wars" waged by Western Christendom, especially against the forces of Islam in the eastern Mediterranean from 1095 to 1291 and on the Iberian Peninsula into the fifteenth century. Further Crusades were also conducted in non-Christian regions of Eastern Europe from about 1150 on. Crusades could be declared only by the pope; participants swore a vow and received in return an indulgence removing the penalty for confessed sins.
A culturally diverse civilization that emerged around the city of Kiev in the ninth century c.e. and adopted Christianity in the tenth, thus linking this emerging Russian state to the world of Eastern Orthodoxy.
Prince Vladimir of Kiev
Grand prince of Kiev whose conversion to Orthodox Christianity in 988 c.e. led to the incorporation of an emerging Russian state into the sphere of Eastern Orthodoxy.
Western European branch of Christianity, also known as Roman Catholicism, that gradually defined itself as separate from Eastern Orthodoxy, with a major break occurring in 1054 c.e.; characterized by its relative independence from the state and its recognition of the authority of the pope.
Ruler of the Carolingian Empire (r. 768-814) who staged an imperial revival in Western Europe. (pron. SHAHR-leh-mane)
Holy Roman Empire
A loose confederation of regional states, centered on what is now Germany but stretching from Denmark to Rome and the borders of France to Poland. From its beginning in the early ninth century, it was headed by an emperor, but in practice regional states proved effective in limiting his power.
A highly fragmented and decentralized society in which power was held by the landowning warrior elite. In this highly competitive system, lesser lords and knights swore allegiance to greater lords or kings and thus became their vassals, frequently receiving lands and plunder in return for military service.
Roman Catholic Church
Western European branch of Christianity that gradually defined itself as separate from Eastern Orthodoxy, with a major break occurring in 1054 c.e. that still has not been overcome. By the eleventh century, Western Christendom was centered on the pope as the ultimate authority in matters of doctrine. The Church struggled to remain independent of established political authorities.
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