103 terms

Road To Revolution

A military force made up of ordinary citizens
Vocab: Militia
Britain vs. France
Who was fighting in the French and Indian War?
North America
What were the French and British fighting for in the French and Indian War?
George Washington
Who built Fort Necessity during the French and Indian War?
Benjamin Franklin
Who organized the Albany Congress during the French and Indian War?
William Pitt
Who came to power as Secretary of State in Britain, and helped turn the tide in the French and Indian War by spending more money and sending more troops and supplies?
James Wolfe
British general who captured Quebec in the French and Indian War
Who won the French and Indian War?
The Treaty of Paris marked the end of power in North America for what nation?
-French land east of the Mississippi River
What lands (3) did Britain gain after the French and Indian War according to the Treaty of Paris?
-French land west of the Mississippi River (Louisiana)
-New Orleans
What lands (2) did Spain gain after the French and Indian War according to the Treaty of Paris?
Lost French allies and trading partners
How did the French defeat in the French and Indian War effect the Native Americans?
-Raised price of goods
-Refused to pay for land
-Moved west onto Native lands
How did the British anger the Native Americans after the French and Indian War (3)?
Threat to the Native way of life
How did many Native Americans view the American settlers?
Ottawa chief
Who was Pontiac?
Several British forts were captured, and many American colonists were attacked
What was Pontiac's War?
King George III
Who issued the Proclamation of 1763?
American colonists were not allowed to settle west of the Appalachian Mountains
What did the Proclamation of 1763 state?
Sent 10,000 troops
How did the British plan to enforce the Proclamation of 1763?
-Kept the peace between Natives and colonists
-Kept colonists near the coast where British authority was strongest
-Controlled western expansion and trade
What advantages (3) did the Proclamation of 1763 offer the British?
-Limited movement
-Threatened liberties (freedoms)
-Led to distrust
Why did the Proclamation of 1763 anger the American colonists (3)?
incoming money from taxes or other sources
Vocab: Revenue
Incoming money from taxes or other sources
Vocab: Revenue
American colonist should pay part of the debt / costs
How did the King and Parliament feel about the American colonists in regard to the war debt?
Prime Minister of Britain, wanted to end smuggling
Who was George Grenville, and what did he want to stop?
Court document allowing customs officers to enter any location to search for smuggled goods
Vocab: Writs of Assistance
Imported molasses
What did the Sugar Act tax?
-Violated rights
-Taxation without representation
How did the Sugar Act anger the American colonists (2)?
Almost all printed material
What did the Stamp Act tax?
Taxation without representation
Why did the Stamp Act anger the American colonists?
Member of the Virginia House of Burgesses, who passed resolution that only the colonies had the right to tax the colonists
Who was Patrick Henry, and what did he do?
An official expression of opinion by a group
Vocab: Resolution
Started the Sons of Liberty in Boston to protest British policies
Who was Sam Adams, and what did he do?
Mocking rag figures representing an unpopular individual
Vocab: Effigy / Effigies
To refuse to buy items in order to show disapproval or force acceptance of one's terms
Vocab: Boycott
-9 colonies
-Met in New York
How many colonies met in the Stamp Act Congress, and where did they meet?
-Sent a statement to the king and Parliament (Declaration of Rights and Grievances), declaring that only the colonial assemblies could tax the colonists (taxation without representation)
What did the Stamp Act Congress do (2)?
To cancel and act or law
Vocab: Repeal
Lost so much money due to the colonial boycott
Why did Britain repeal the Stamp Act?
Declared that Parliament had the right to tax and make decisions for the colonies in all cases
What did the Declaratory Act state?
Imported goods (glass, lead, paint, paper, tea)
What did the Townshend Acts tax?
External tax - paid before goods were brought to America
How were the Townshend Acts different from other British taxes?
-Any tax angered them
-Taxation without representation
How did the Townshend Acts anger the American colonists (2)?
-Use "homespun" products instead of British goods
What did the Daughters of Liberty suggest (2) to protest the Townshend Acts?
Open defiance of authority
Vocab: Rebellion
Colonial protests made them nervous, and they believed that they were on the verge of rebellion
Why did Parliament send troops to Boston, what was making them nervous in 1768?
To move into and take control of a place, especially by force
Vocab: Occupy
-British laws violate their rights
-British army sent to occupy the colonies
-British soldiers were rude and violent (and some took their jobs)
Why did the addition of more British troops make the American colonists believe that the British had pushed them too far (3)?
How many colonists were killed in the Boston Massacre?
Ideas or information intentionally spread to harm or help a cause
Vocab: Propaganda
-Named the event a "massacre"
-Put up posters
How did Sam Adams use the Boston Massacre as propaganda?
-Made an engraving making the British look bad
How did Paul Revere use the Boston Massacre as propaganda?
Repealed the taxes from the Townshend Acts (except for tea)
How did Britain reply to the colonial protests and boycott resulting from the Boston Massacre?
An organization to spread political ideas and information though the colonies (and spy on the British
Vocab: Committee of Correspondence
An organization to spread political ideas and information though the colonies (and spy on the British)
Vocab: Committee of Correspondence
Gave the British East India Company nearly total control (monopoly) of the market for tea in the colonies
What did the Tea Act do?
-They did not want to pay any tax (taxation without representation)
-They did not want to be told what tea to buy
Why did the Tea Act make the American colonists angry (2)?
They were forced to turn back to Britain
What happened to the tea ships that arrived in New York and Philadelphia?
He ordered that the tea be unloaded
What did the royal governor order after three tea ships arrived in Boston?
Sons of Liberty disguised as Native Americans, threw 342 chests of tea overboard
What happened in the Boston Tea Party?
Actions meant to force someone to do something
Vocab: Coercive
Punish the colonists for resisting British authority
What was the purpose of the Coercive Acts?
-Quartering Act: Colonies had to provide housing from British soldiers
-Massachusetts Government Act: Banned town meetings and revoked Massachusetts charter
-Boston Port Act: Closed Boston Harbor until destroyed tea paid for
-Administration of Justice Act" Trials involving British officials would take place in Britain, not in the colonies
-Quebec Act: Created a government for Canada and extended it's territory
What were the Coercive Acts (5)?
"Intolerable Acts"
What did the American colonists call the Coercive Acts?
Painful and unbearable
Vocab: Intolerable
-55 delegates
-Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
How many delegates, from how many colonies met at the First Continental Congress?
Which colony did not attend the First Continental Congress?
-Sam Adams
-John Adams
-John Jay
-George Washington
-Richard Henry Lee
-Patrick Henry
Name some of the famous delegates to the First Continental Congress:
Complaints against the British
What did the delegates to the First Continental Congress discuss?
-Repeal of 13 acts of Parliament
In a statement of grievances, what did the delegates to the First Continental Congress call for (2)
-Coercive Acts illegal
-Called for colonists to form militias
What did the Suffolk Resolves declare (2)?
Civilian sworn to be ready to fight with only one minute's notice
Vocab: Minuteman
-Seize militia weapons
-Arrest colonial leaders
British General Thomas Gage sent 700 troops to Concord, MA to do what (2)?
Hung lanterns in the Old North Church as a signal ("one if by land, two if by sea")
How did the Sons of Liberty signal the alarm that the British army was on the march to Concord?
Spread the alarm in Lexington (captured by a British patrol)
What did William Dawes and Paul Revere do when they learned that the British army was on the march to Concord?
Spread the alarm in Concord
What did Dr. Samuel Prescott do when he learned that the British army was on the march to Concord?
Captain John Parker
Who commanded 70 colonial minutemen in Lexington?
Who fired the "Shot Heard 'Round the World?"
How many colonists were killed in the Battle of Lexington?
Continued to march to Concord, MA
What did the British army do after the Battle of Lexington?
-Encountered 400 colonial minutemen at the North Bridge
-Forced to retreat back to Boston
Explain the events of the Battle of Concord
-174 wounded
-73 dead
By the time the British army returned to Boston, after their march to Concord, how many were wounded, and how many were dead?
-John Adams
-Sam Adams
-Patrick Henry
-Richard Henry Lee
-George Washington
-Benjamin Franklin
-John Hancock
-Thomas Jefferson
Name some of the famous delegates to the Second Continental Congress:
-Printed money
-Set up post office
-Created committees to handle relations with Natives and foreign nations
-Created the Continental Army
What steps did the Second Continental Congress take to begin governing the colonies?
George Washington
Who did the Second Continental Congress choose to command the Continental Army?
A formal request
Vocab: Petition
-Declared loyalty to Britain
-Asked for the repeal of the Coercive Acts
What did the Olive Branch Petition state?
-Rejected the petition
-Prepared for war (hired more than 30,000 Hessian mercenaries)
What was King George III's reaction to the Olive Branch Petition (2)?
Colonel William Prescott
Who commanded colonial militia on Bunker and Breed's Hill?
"Don't fire until you see the whites of their eyes"
Because the Americans were low on ammunition, what order did William Prescott reportedly give?
-Americans ran out of ammunition (gunpowder)
Who the Battle of Bunker Hill, and why?
Defeating the Americans would be neither quick nor easy
What lesson did the British learn after the Battle of Bunker Hill?
Sided with Britain, and did not think that unfair taxes and laws justified rebellion
Vocab: Loyalist
Supported the war, and believed that the colonies should have the right to govern themselves
Vocab: Patriot
Writer who published a pamphlet called "Common Sense," which called for a complete break with British rule
Who was Thomas Paine, and what did he do?
Richard Henry Lee
Who offered a resolution in the Second Continental Congress, "That these united colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states?"
-John Adams
-Benjamin Franklin
-Thomas Jefferson
-Robert Livingston
-Roger Sherman
Who was on the committee to write a declaration of independence (5)?
Thomas Jefferson
Who wrote the first draft of the Declaration of Independence?
-English philosopher
-Expressed the idea that people are born with certain natural rights, and the job of government is to protect those rights, and that a government that doesn't should be overthrown
Who was John Locke, and what did he do?
July 4, 1776
On what date did the Second Continental Congress approve the Declaration of Independence?
The introduction to a formal document that often tells why the document was written
Vocab: Preamble
How many parts are there to the Declaration of Independence?
-Preamble: Explains why the declaration was written
-Declaration of Natural Rights: Lists rights of citizens and that government should protect those rights (life, liberty, pursuit of happiness)
-List of Grievances: Long list of complaints against the king and Britain
-Resolution of Independence: Declares the colonies are free and independent states
Identify the four parts to the Declaration of Independence