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Strayer, Ways of the World for the AP® Course, 4e, Chapter 19
Terms in this set (16)
Massive Chinese rebellion against the ruling Qing dynasty that devastated much of the country between 1850 and 1864; it was based on the millenarian teachings of Hong Xiuquan.
Two wars fought between Western powers and China (1840-1842 and 1856-1858) after China tried to restrict the importation of foreign goods, especially opium; China lost both wars and was forced to make major concessions.
Commissioner Lin Zexu
Royal official charged with ending the opium trade in China; his concerted efforts to seize and destroy opium imports provoked the Opium Wars. (pron. lin zuh-SHOO)
Series of nineteenth-century treaties in which China made major concessions to Western powers.
Term commonly used to describe areas that were dominated by Western powers in the nineteenth century but retained their own governments and a measure of independence (e.g., China).
China's program of internal reform in the 1860s and 1870s, based on vigorous application of traditional principles and limited borrowing from the West.
Antiforeign movement (1898-1901) led by Chinese militia organizations, in which large numbers of Europeans and Chinese Christians were killed. It resulted in military intervention by Western powers and the imposition of a huge payment as punishment.
Chinese revolution of 1911-1912
The collapse of China's imperial order, officially at the hands of organized revolutionaries but for the most part under the weight of the troubles that had overwhelmed the imperial government for the previous century.
"the sick man of Europe"
Western Europe's description of the Ottoman Empire in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, based on the empire's economic and military weakness and its apparent inability to prevent the shrinking of its territory.
Important reform measures undertaken in the Ottoman Empire beginning in 1839; the term "Tanzimat" means "reorganization." (pron. tahn-zee-MAHT)
Group of would-be reformers in the mid-nineteenth-century Ottoman Empire that included lower-level officials, military officers, and writers; they urged the extension of westernizing reforms to the political system.
Sultan Abd al-Hamid II
Ottoman sultan (r. 1876-1909) who accepted a reform constitution but then quickly suppressed it, ruling as a despotic monarch for the rest of his long reign.
Movement of Turkish military and civilian elites that advocated a militantly secular public life and a Turkish national identity; came to power through a coup in 1908.
A period of internal peace in Japan (1600-1850) that prevented civil war but did not fully unify the country; led by military rulers, or shoguns, from the Tokugawa family, who established a "closed door" policy toward European encroachments.
The political takeover of Japan in 1868 by a group of young samurai from southern Japan. The samurai eliminated the shogun and claimed they were restoring to power the young emperor, Meiji. The new government was committed to saving Japan from foreign domination by drawing upon what the modern West had to offer to transform Japanese society. (pron. MAY-jee)
Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)
Fought over rival ambitions in Korea and Manchuria, this conflict ended in a Japanese victory, establishing Japan as a formidable military competitor in East Asia. The war marked the first time that an Asian country defeated a European power in battle, and it precipitated the Russian Revolution of 1905.
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Strayer, Ways of the World for the AP® Course, 4e, Chapter 16
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Strayer, Ways of the World for the AP® Course, 4e, Chapter 20