Strayer, Ways of the World for the AP® Course, 4e, Chapter 23
Terms in this set (16)
An extraordinarily rapid growth in human population during the twentieth century that quadrupled human numbers in little more than a century. Experienced primarily in the Global South.
Innovations in agriculture during the twentieth century, such as mechanical harvesters, chemical fertilizers, and the development of high-yielding crops, that enabled global food production to keep up with, and even exceed, growing human numbers.
The explosive growth of cities after 1900, caused by the reduced need for rural labor and more opportunities for employment in manufacturing, commerce, government, and the service industry.
Very large urban centers with populations of over 10 million; by 2017, there were thirty-seven such cities on five continents.
The movement of people, often illegally, into another country to escape poverty or violence and to seek opportunities for work that are less available in their own countries.
The worst pandemic in human history, caused by three waves of influenza that swept across the globe in 1918 and 1919, carried by demobilized soldiers, refugees, and other dislocated people returning home from World War I; between 50 million and 100 million people died in the pandemic.
A pathogen that spreads primarily through sexual contact, contaminated blood products, or the sharing of needles; after sparking a global pandemic in the 1980s, it spread rapidly across the globe and caused tens of millions of deaths.
The global spread of elements of popular culture such as film, language, and music from various places of origin, especially the spread of Western cultural forms to the rest of the world; has come to symbolize modernity, inclusion in global culture, and liberation or rebellion. It has prompted pushback from those who feel that established cultural traditions have been threatened.
Occurring within all the major world religions, fundamentalism is a self-proclaimed return to the alleged "fundamentals" of a religion and is marked by a militant piety, exclusivism, and a sense of threat from the modern secular world.
A Hindu nationalist movement that became politically important in India in the 1980s; advocated a distinct Hindu identity and decried government efforts to accommodate other faith communities, particularly Islamic.
Movements that promote strict adherence to the Quran and the sharia, often in opposition to key elements of Western culture. Particularly prominent since the 1970s, such movements often present themselves as returning to an earlier expression of Islam. Examples include the Iranian revolution, Taliban, al-Qaeda, and Islamic State.
A recently coined term denoting the "age of man," in general since the Industrial Revolution and more specifically since the mid-twentieth century. It refers to the unprecedented and enduring impact of human activity on the atmosphere, the geosphere, and the biosphere.
A warmer and often a wetter period that began approximately 12,000 years ago following the end of the last ice age. These environmental conditions were uniquely favorable for human thriving and enabled the development of agriculture, significant population growth, and the creation of complex civilizations.
The warming of the planet largely caused by higher concentrations of "greenhouse gases," generated by the burning of fossil fuels. It has become the most pressing environmental issue of the early twenty-first century.
A movement that began in the 1960s and triggered environmental movements in Europe and North America. It was characterized by widespread grassroots involvement focused on issues such as pollution, resource depletion, protection of wildlife habitats, and nuclear power.
Paris Climate Agreement
An international agreement negotiated in 2015 among some 195 countries, 700 cities, and many companies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions sufficiently to avoid a 2° C increase in global temperatures. The United States withdrew from the agreement in 2017.
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