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Arts and Humanities
Advanced Language Disorders - Vocab Unit 2
Terms in this set (137)
Logos and letters are stored in ______ ______; there is perceptual salience(importance) and these items can be recognized again and again (Cheerios give me cereal but "C" gives me nothing)
Pattern detection allows the _____ _____ to emerge - letters have regularity (the two bumps are an "M")
The learner is developing a _____ for reading (child is self-teaching by exploring)
Learning is ____ because learner looks at many examples and determines a similarity (pattern detection)
Learning is a process of absorbing concrete experiences, problem solving and concept development
logos, letter combinations
How is learning to use print a process of pattern detection?
Becoming print aware involves pattern detection in _____ (we are flooded with these in our environment, creating a pattern of print awareness) and ______ ______ (allows for alphabetic stage to emerge)
meaning, visual regularities
Describe how attention to print is purposeful on two levels.
1. Seeking _____ of printed message (seeing a teddy bear is different than seeing a word - child knows word has a meaning)
2. Seeking ______ ______ in written stimuli (A is always A, B is always B)
A big cognitive insight and around age 3 or 4: a purposeful level and the child is able to pattern detect. E.g A is always A. A becomes a real thing in life that does not change and it has meaning. The child realizes somebody is trying to tell them something.
pointing, guiding, reading to themselves
Describe how early literacy begins with pragmatic interactions between children and adults. What do children's interactional experiences entail during the early literacy years?
______ to a word and saying something about it or _____ finger along the words when reading a book, the child connects/realizes that she gathered the info she's talking about from the word(s) on the page
Children recognize logos and know what it says (ex: McDonald's sign)
"______" a book ____ ____ by looking at pictures, not really knowing how to read
Negative pragmatic interactions include using reading as a consequence (ex: "you're being too rambunctious - go read a book")
phonological and orthographic components of alphabetic principle
WHAT IS A SOUND? - not print ready, invest in identification of sounds (with given letter, identify a picture or toy that begins with that letter)
WHAT IS A SPEECH SOUND? - some sounds go on for a long time (m, n), some are short (t, p)
WHAT IS A LETTER? - distinguishing letters from other things (picking out letters within a group of other objects; "where are the letters in this classroom or on this cereal box?")
HOW DOES A LETTER "MAKE A SOUND?" - letter-sound correspondence; grapheme establishment
WHY DOES THIS LETTER MAKE ONE SOUND SOMETIMES AND ANOTHER SOUND AT OTHER TIMES? - why do letters make different sounds at different times?
WHAT LETTERS MAKE THE SOUNDS THAT I AM INTERESTED IN? - pattern-detection phase (birds go tweet tweet and not vroom vroom)
HOW CAN I TALK ABOUT WHAT I KNOW ABOUT LETTERS AND SOUNDS? - developing a vocabulary for names of letters, or detecting long vs. short sounds, capital vs. lowercase letters; can say what they know about letters
WHAT IS RHYMING?
WHAT IS MEANT BY BEGINNING SOUND? A MIDDLE SOUND? AN ENDING SOUND?
HOW DO I BLEND SOUNDS TOGETHER TO SAY WORDS?
HOW DO I TAKE WORDS APART TO HEAR THEIR SOUNDS?
WHAT IS A SYLLABLE? HOW DO I FIND THEM IN WORDS?
semantic components of alphabetic principle
WHAT IS A WORD? - identifying words in a passage by pointing; site words; "what does that word mean?"; "use your words" means what are you supposed to say?
WHAT DOES A WORD LOOK LIKE?
WHAT DOES IT MEAN FOR A WORD TO HAVE MEANING? - understanding there is a concept behind a word
WHAT OTHER WORDS DO WE USE TO DISCUSS WHAT A WORD MEANS? - "it's another word for..." "it's about...", "it tells us that..."; children know the concept of synonyms - epistemic
syntactic components of alphabetic principle
WHAT IS A SENTENCE? - when reading, sweeping finger across sentence instead of word-by-word to teach that groups of words form sentences
WHAT ARE THE PARTS OF A SENTENCE? - beginning, middle, end, capitalized first letter, etc.
HOW DO WORDS LOOK WHEN THEY ARE TOGETHER IN SENTENCES? - space before and after each word, punctuation marks, etc.
HOW DO WORDS CHANGE THEIR MEANINGS IN SENTENCES? - words that change meaning based on concept (airplane flies, but an airplane is not the same as a fly)
HOW DO WORDS CHANGE? (MORPHOLOGY, MORPHOSYNTAX) - what does adding an 's' do to a word? -ing? -ed?
pragmatic components of alphabetic principle
WHAT DOES PRINT STAND FOR IN OUR WORLD? - having print in different settings (veterinarian's office [prescription bottles, charts, etc.], household play center [grocery list, checkbook, etc.])
WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF THE PRINT I AM SEEING NOW? - getting child to understand that the print is trying to tell us something; children learn print by pragmatic interest
WHEN I READ, WHO IS TALKING TO ME? - Don't just tell them the title of a book. Say, "This is If You Give a Mouse a Cookie by Laura Numeroff. This is her story she's going to tell us". This shows them that someone had to have written the words they see. Shows that there's a conversation going on within the print.
WHAT IS THE CONTEXT OF WHAT IS BEING SAID TO ME? - Word meanings change depending on the context of the rest of the sentence (Ex: "An airplane can fly. This bug is called a fly.")
WHAT SIGNALS ARE IN THIS PRINT (SUCH AS PUNCTUATION MARKS)? - they convey meaning (periods end sentences, questions marks follow a question, etc.)
Recognizing the letters and words on the page [A-L-A-S-K-A]
Allows for pattern detection
Prepares the reader for phonics
Stores our knowledge of logos and what they stand for.
In charge of syllable detection with the assistance of the orthographic processor. [/schwa/ /l/ a /s/ /k/ /schwa/ = the word ALASKA]
Blending individual sounds together to form words or segmenting the word into its individual phonemes.
Associating words with a meaning [Alaska is a place that is cold and has snow]
When children are in the logographic stage they are writing to their meaning processor, this is called pictographic writing.
Semantics and syntax
Transaction of the print happening right now [she is wearing an Alaska shirt because she likes Alaska or has been there]
Your brain decides what you are seeing because you have information stored about what it means.
Helps to figure out the meaning of unknown words by using the context of the words surrounding it.
Adam's model components are interconnected: Letters and sounds exist in the presence of ____ and _____.
Reading involves processing visual information, and also involves applying _____ information during a reader's interaction with print.
Understanding meaning of context
Reader must bring this to be able to read and comprehend what they are looking at
By bringing this into it, you can increase what you process and/or read
The more you have, the less visual information you need
Less of this you have, the more visual information you need
When Dr. Pershey wrote on the board what turned out to be 110 Lion St. but gave us little visual cues (it did not actually look like what it ended up being) and we needed more of this to figure what it actually said
whole print configurations
Print awareness: seeing _____ _____ ____ found in environmental print (ex: McDonald's sign)
reading text aloud
Participating by ____ _____ _____: getting the idea that someone is telling them something through text
_____ _____ of text language (ex: "Once upon a time" is only present in stories, not conversations)
construction of meaning, episodic memory
Learner's _________ of story or other messages through text:
Stories have characters, setting, beginning, middle, ending
______ ______ taken out of their meaning and context processors
logographic developmental behaviors
rint awareness: seeing whole print configurations found in environmental print (ex: McDonald's sign)
Participating by reading text aloud: getting the idea that someone is telling them something through text
Auditory comprehension of text language (ex: "Once upon a time" is only present in stories, not conversations)
Learner's construction of meaning of story or other messages through text:
Stories have characters, setting, beginning, middle, ending
Episodic memory taken out of their meaning and context processors
Learner is aware that print conveys meaning
Learner is interested in print (ex: points at words and asks adult what it says)
Learner experiments with writing
early attempts to write
Egocentric writing (writing what can only be understood by the child)
Letter experimentation (scribbles, bumps, random orientation)
Separating drawing and writing on the page
Using symbols (like a stop sign)
Letter strings represent words
Social Messages, Love Notes, Label/Caption Pictures
Kids expect that what they write will have meaning and _____ _____to others
Writing to their meaning processor
Egocentric: child may wonder why you can't understand what he/she wrote
Scribbles: trying to engage in literary conversation
Bumps: approximation/experimentation stage; an imitation of handwriting
Random orientation: letters all over the page
Letters placed on drawings
Drawing from left to right
print awareness, logographic concepts
Describe the purpose of the Concepts about Print test. What knowledge is the child being asked to display?
concepts about print test
Hold books right side up, know that people read pages from front to back and read words from left to right.
Know the differences between illustrations and print.
Identify and distinguish between letters, words and sentences.
how to test concepts about print
Show me the front of the book. - front of book
Where do I begin reading? - differentiating text and pictures
Which way do I read? - directionality
Where do I read next? (after finishing a sentence) - return sweep
Point to the words as I read - word awareness
Beginning of a word, upper and lowercase
(Pointing at punctuation mark) What is this for? - punctuation
(Read sentence backwards using finger pointing) What did I do wrong? - word order
Where does this word end? - end of a word
Where does the sentence begin? - sentence
Where is the back of the book? - back of book
What happened in the beginning? The end? - beginning and end
see individual letters (first letter, capital letters, naming letters)
What are children able to do in the alphabetic stage that they were not able to do in the logographic stage?
phonological and orthographic processor work together
What developmentally changes when children enter the alphabetic stage?
linguistic abstractions and arbitrary symbols
Children in the alphabetic stage see letters as...
Children in the alphabetic stage can create...
Interested in first letters of words and single letters
Reading is a _____ task
Knowing the letters and which letters make the sounds involve the _______ processor because the child forms a concept of the letter.
Pointing to a letter when an adult produces its sound involves the _______ processor to understand the sound and use letter sound correspondences, and ______ processor because they have developed a category/ name for that sound
Writing a letter when an adult produces a sound involves the ______ processor and ______ processor because they display letter-sound correspondence
meaning, phonological, orthographic
Writing a letter when an adult says its name uses the _____, ______, and _____ processors
Identifying upper and lower case forms involves the _____ and _____ processors because the child is forming categories of different forms a letter could be associated with
Finding letters in environmental print involves ____ processor because the child can recognize letter shapes and forms
Pairing letters with known concepts (such as the letters in their name) involves the ____ processor because letters in their name suggest a pragmatic use.
inventive spelling stage
Hypothesizing, inferring and learning how to spell by experimentation (ex: pep-sea, where r u)
By using one or two letters to stand for a word with some degree of accuracy
By using some phonetic rules
By misapplying spelling rules
Speech to print match: approximations that take years
Applying knowledge of word, sentence, or thought boundaries
experimentation, heuristic, inductive, phonetic rules
Inventive spelling is important and parents should not correct it because:
- It is not incorrect spelling, it is _____
- Child shows interest (learning is _____)
- Child will eventually learn to pattern detect by self-correction (learning is ______)
- Child is gaining insights into print by misapplying spelling rules, such as the word "bowk" [bouque] (child is learning ______)
meaning first, abstract, word-level tasks
Describe how phonological awareness is a whole-to-part process.
Whole to part with _____ ____ where we do _____ things with sounds within words later
________ - you can break apart and do different things with the words (ex. "I like to swim")
- A phonological awareness task
- Word-to-syllable, rhyming, word-to-sound, phoneme blending, phoneme segmentation
word-to-syllable, rhyming, word-to-sound, blending, segmentation
Process of phonological awareness development
Able to break apart compound words because there is meaning on both ends (ex: snowman)
Do these two words rhyme? (snow and show)
Breaking apart words into first sound and the rest of the word. (ex: "sss-now")
What's the last sound in the word "ball"?
Putting sounds together to make words (ex: /k/ a /t/ = cat)
Break apart the sounds (cat has three sounds /k/ a /t/)
Playing with words - Taps once for each word in a sentence
Most wholistic task
"I have a dog" and tap out (3-5 years)
Claps once for each part in the word camera (segmentation of compound words proceeds segmentation of non-compound words)
"Sunshine" before Sunny (4 years)
Tells the number of syllables in the word apple. (4-5 years)
Tells the word formed when ra-di-o are blended together (4-5 years)
Tells what remains when bow is removed from rainbow. (5 years)
Tells the new word formed if light from lighthouse is put after back from backpack. "Backlight" (7+ years)
awareness, segmenting, blending, deleting, manipulating
Describe the various syllable-level phonological awareness skills.
Spontaneous Production- Recites nursery rhymes; produces rhymes (unintentionally) (3-4 years)
Responds correctly when asked, "Do cat and bat rhyme?" (4-5 years)
Produces one or more rhymes when given a word (5+ years)
Compare bed, head, leg, read, and peg and identifies which rhymes. (6-7 years)
awareness, identification, generation, categorization
Describe the various rhyming phonological awareness skills.
Tells the word that is formed by blending (i.e.: m-e) (6 years)
Claps out the sounds in the word (i.e.:"bug") - what are the sounds in the words (6 years)
Tells what remains if /t/ is removed from "beet" (goes to "bee") (7 years)
Tells the new word formed if the /n/ in "pen" is changed to /t/ (goes to the word "pet") (7 years)
blending, segmenting, deleting, manipulating
Describe the various phoneme-level phonological awareness skills.
segmenting and blending
What is truly the "golden standard" of reading?
If you can't do this, you will not be able to read. It shows a linkage between the phonological and orthographic processors.
The best predictor of later reading success
letter-sound correspondence, segmenting, visual memory
Explain how sounding out words to read and being able to spell develop in parallel.
1. _______ gives the ability to sound out words because you can pair a sound with a letter.
2. ______ is where spelling and sounding out words parallel because sounding out each word teaches them how to spell it over time
3. ______ used for learning how words look in print
- A result of experimentation with spelling over time, in which they eventually learn the correct spelling of a word
- The prior pattern detection abilities result in them being able to spell, which is why sounding out words and spelling go hand-in-hand
- Children are combining their visual and auditory memories for how certain words look in print and how they sound when read aloud
capitalize on pattern detection, word families
Syllable types, morphemes, and spelling patterns are learned through phonics (rules of printed code)
A strategy to teach phonics is to ______
Needs to be simple, make sense and applied in multiple contexts
1. Start with teaching what sounds individual letters make
2. Work with chunks like ____ _____ and letter patterns for more complex words (ex: str-, ch-, etc.)
Presents the parts of language and then teaches how the parts work together to form a whole. (part to whole)
Ex: Looking at word families such as "at", "ip", and "up". Affix such as "ied", "ification","fully" that can be paired with the word "beauty".
Similar to blending
Presents examples of wholes (words, sentences) and teaches how they can be broken down into their component parts. (whole to part)
Ex: Looking at the whole word of "street" and finding "str".
Similar to segmenting.
Closed (VC)- cat
Open (CV)- go
Vowel consonant e (V-e)- rope
R controlled (VR)- fork
Consonant le (cle)- middle
Vowel team (vv)- steam
word structure, ends
How is knowledge of syllable structures important for reading and spelling?
Syllable division rules are taught in relation to _____ _____, so the child can learn phonetic spelling simultaneously
Looking at how the word ____. Not the spelling, it is what you hear. (ex: Closed - vc because cat ends with a consonant)
Ex: vowel consonant e: the e ending controls the vowel production (rope vs. rop - the 'o' is produced differently with the e after the consonant)
importance of morphemes for reading and spelling
In order to understand a word in isolation you need to understand its individual components
Understanding what each word means helps reader understand the overall message of a sentence
Whole to part to whole process
Why must reading, writing, and spelling instruction and intervention proceed from auditory to visual as well as from visual to auditory?
"No rule as to which come first because the orthographic and phonological processors have a line in between and arrows on both ends- one is not taking you to the other"
If targeting phonological (auditory), you're using the visual to _____ that learning, and vice versa
identify the individual sounds, syllables, rhymes
Visual "I see a word" to auditory "I can hear and _________ etc."
identify the letters or letter groups that represent these sounds/syllables
Auditory "I hear the sounds, blends, syllables, etc. in a word" to Visual "I can _____ "
connects all processors, language-based instruction, memory
What professional skills do SLPs bring to children's literacy development?
SLP _______ - interprets the orthographic processor in light of phonological understanding, meaning, context etc.
SLP provides comprehensive _______
Understand what goes on cognitively and developmentally with the child (ex: memory skills, comprehension skills, literacy skills)
Look at these as stages
Connects all types of _____ as well
There are rules for spelling and ______ to the rules. There are rules for spelling when ______ are added, and this is part of the study of the morphology of words.
When you learn spelling and morphology rules, you are developing a _________ - becoming aware of the morphological components of words.
Becoming aware of the way a word is "supposed to look"
They internally ask themselves if the word follows the rules of spelling
Letter-sound correspondence in itself is not enough knowledge in regards to spelling - language is so complicated, child must be aware of rules as they work whole to part and part to whole.
Being aware of rules corresponds with pattern detection.
Orthographic stage: progression from fairly ____ rules to very ____ rules
syllable structure, morpheme use (going from phase 1 -ed to phase 5 -cious) aka prefixes and suffixes (affixes), syllable length, vowels (irregular vowel and diphthong use in phase 4), rimes (irregular rimes such as -igh in phase 4), letter patterns (ee, -s vs. -es in stage 1) and sound variations (hard or soft).
Progression from easy to complex rules in orthographic stage:
After a child becomes a successful pattern detector, they are ready to learn and apply _____ to their spelling of language.
Children making sense of and using patterns proposed by other readers and writers
Print is a code that is stored in memory as categories of meaning
Letter forms, letter names, letter-sound correspondences (/b/, /k/; later learn syllable types, spelling rules, affixes and roots, derivational words (ex: electric, electricity, electrical)
Making sense of and using the patterns proposed by other readers
Two letters used to make one sound (ex: -ed makes /d/ sound)
The study of the rules of printed code; the relationship between letters and sounds in written words (letter-sound correspondence)
Ability to talk about, analyse, and think about language independent of the concrete meaning of each word; having insight into their own pattern detection
Chunking information about parts of words that readers see over and over again
Reading the whole word as one unit instead of each individual sound
See a word they don't know it, use patterns they know to tell what the word is; breaking word down into roots, affixes
Reading via syllabication, morphological components of words, and word derivations
(20-25% of our language): number words, color words, body parts, name of farm, forest, and ocean animals, "tw" (as in two, twin, between), "Wr" as in wrist, twist, and wreath, and th, wh, ch, sh, ow, mb, and kn digraphs. The base of English comes from these roots
(60% of our language): the use of the schwa (any word with a schwa in the middle probably has latin origin), tion, ti, sci, ci words, roots and affixes of multisyllabic words like conductor, erupting and destruction, and words like index, library, medicine, and instant. This influence is still early elementary range, first graders should know these words
(10-12% of our language): productions such as ph= /f/, ch= /k/, and y=/i/, as well as scientific words.
gentry's stages of writing
Stage 5 or earlier: child cannot be taught spelling rules
After stage 5: child begins using rule-based information about spelling
Pictures, approximation, random letters, random and initial, initial consonants, initial and final sounds, vowel sounds appear, all syllables represented, multiple related sentences with many words with correct spelling
gentry's stages of spelling
1.: Precommunicative spelling is used to describe writing that only conveys meaning for the child who wrote it. At this stage, the child conveys a message through scribbles, shapes, drawings, and/or letters that are strung together randomly and does not know that letters represent sounds. Examples: PRT = cake, RLFP = type. (Stages 1-3)
2. Semiphonetic: Semiphonetic spellers know that letters represent sounds. The word semiphonetic is used to indicate that these spellers write only some of the letters in a word. They very often use an initial consonant to represent a whole word. They may or may not put spaces between words Examples: K= cake, t = type, MBEWWLNT = My baby was with me last night. (Stages 4-6)
3. Phonetic: Phonetic spellers spell words the way they sound. They write all the sounds they hear in words. These spellings do not necessarily look like English spellings, but they are quite readable. Initial and final consonants are in place, and these spellers gradually add vowels, even though they may not be correct. Word spacing is evident. Examples: cak = cake, tip = type, caek = cake, It trd in to a brd = It turned into a bird. (Stages 6-7)
4. Transitional: Transitional spellers begin to write words in more conventional ways. These spellers undergo a transition from reliance on sound to reliance on visual memory of how the word looks in print. They write with more correct vowels in every syllable. Often, all the letters necessary to spell the word are there, but some letters may be reversed. Examples: tipe = type, caek = cake, huose = house, opne = open. (Stage 7-8)
5. Conventional: Conventional spellers develop over years of word study, reading, and writing. Their knowledge of the spelling system is firmly established. These spellers know when words don't look right, and they experiment with alternatives. They spell a large number of words automatically. Conventional spelling is a lifelong process. (Stage 9 and beyond)
1.: Used to describe writing that only conveys meaning for the child who wrote it. At this stage, the child conveys a message through scribbles, shapes, drawings, and/or letters that are strung together randomly and does not know that letters represent sounds. Examples: PRT = cake, RLFP = type. (Stages 1-3)
2. Know that letters represent sounds. The word semiphonetic is used to indicate that these spellers write only some of the letters in a word. They very often use an initial consonant to represent a whole word. They may or may not put spaces between words Examples: K= cake, t = type, MBEWWLNT = My baby was with me last night. (Stages 4-6)
3. Spell words the way they sound. They write all the sounds they hear in words. These spellings do not necessarily look like English spellings, but they are quite readable. Initial and final consonants are in place, and these spellers gradually add vowels, even though they may not be correct. Word spacing is evident. Examples: cak = cake, tip = type, caek = cake, It trd in to a brd = It turned into a bird. (Stages 6-7)
4. Begin to write words in more conventional ways. These spellers undergo a transition from reliance on sound to reliance on visual memory of how the word looks in print. They write with more correct vowels in every syllable. Often, all the letters necessary to spell the word are there, but some letters may be reversed. Examples: tipe = type, caek = cake, huose = house, opne = open. (Stage 7-8)
5. Develop over years of word study, reading, and writing. Their knowledge of the spelling system is firmly established. These spellers know when words don't look right, and they experiment with alternatives. They spell a large number of words automatically. Conventional spelling is a lifelong process. (Stage 9 and beyond)
emergent, letter-name, within-word pattern, syllable juncture, derivational constancy
Merrett and Culatta Stages:
_______ (PreK to middle of first) Scribble letters and numbers, lack concepts of words, lack letter-sound correspondence, pretend to read and write.
_______ (K to middle of 2nd) Represents beginning and ending sounds, has functional concept of word, reads whole words (word by word), Ex: BOWK (boquet).
________ (1st to middle of 4th) Spells most single-syllable short vowel words correctly, spells most beginning consonant digraphs and 2-letter consonant blends, attempts to use silent E markers, reads silently and more fluently, can edit and revise.
________ (3rd through 8th) Spells most singlesyllable words correctly, makes errors at syllable juncture and in unaccented syllables, reads with good fluency and expression, reads faster silently than orally.
________ (5th through 12th) Have mastered high-frequency words, make errors on low-frequency words derived from Greek and Latin combining forms, read with good fluency and expression, read faster silently than orally.
write the way they speak
Children's simplifications are similar to phonological processes because children...
- Ex: inventive spelling
- Predictable patterns of error
Phonological system is primarily responsible for reading disorders because they have difficulty with __________, which is the basis for learning how to read. If you don't have this, there is a broken link between phonological and orthographic processors, which will affect the other processors as well
Receptive/productive errors in perception: see or write reversals; figure-ground; midline and laterality and directionality
If the individual can see, they should be able to see to read
Receptive error would occur if they misread a letter or shape, this is called miscue (reading the wrong thing)
Productive errors- they can't recreate what they have seen
Some people will see and write the reverse of letters or in transposition or inverted, but this is not a sign of dyslexia
Figure ground- when it is hard to read in a busy background. They would be able to read these words in a less busy page. An example of a busy page would be a web pages.
Midline- crossing midline of your body. Children can do this around 11 months. When you write you have to cross the midline on a page, or even reading left to right is crossing midline- for some kids crossing midline is hard
Laterality- to the side. The child needs to know what is on one side of the page and the other, or for a letter, what does the left side of the letter look like.
Directionality- writing left to right. Directional movements for writing letter lines. To teach this skill we do tracing with them.
immaturity of visual (gestalt) processing
Children who can't recognize the whole forms of letters or of words and as a result don't recognize the "big picture."
In some cases of dyslexia, these configurations are unstable. Can't discern the spatial arrangement of p/b/d.
recognize the letters, symbols, patterns
The orthographic processor is not stable in dyslexia because the orthographic processor is looking at letters, symbols, and patterns. A person with dyslexia cannot _________ when reading, then there will be a problem with the orthographic processor.
doesn't know letter sounds,
The phonological processor is matching letters to sounds. If the child _______ the child cannot use his orthographic processor. Orthographic readers make use of information about the SOUND structure of language and the orthographic code in stored memory/ meaning. If there is a problem with phonological processor, then there will be a problem with the orthographic processor.
difficulty remembering labels, visual system overcompensated
Why might dyslexic children mix up letters in words? (not seeing them backwards)
There is a biological, neurological reasoning behind dyslexia, so saying that dyslexia is seeing words or letters backwards is inaccurate.
Dyslexic children have _________ associated with specific letters that are visually similar (p/d/b, rapid naming test)
__________ since poor decoding strategies result in child relying solely on visual memory, resulting in confusing two words that look visually similar (ex: was/saw)
phonological awareness, visual memory
Difficulty with _________ and ________: difficulty with the ability to attend to the sound structure of spoken language as distinct from its meaning
Phonological awareness entails (which means children with dyslexia will have difficulty with):
Word awareness - accurate/fluent word recognition
Decoding and encoding (relationship between phonological and orthographic processors)
Memory storage/retrieval/rapid memory (association of phonological and orthographic processors lends to these skills)
The breakdown of these skills affect comprehension
Everything is _______ - children should have repeated exposure for memory consolidation through senses
Memory that stores facts
Memory that stores words and sentences
Visual memory of words you read, pictures; (dyslexia difficulty storing letters and numbers)
Auditory memory of words being said
Biographical memory of how you remember the events you experienced
You use semantic, iconic, echoic memory to form this type of memory
Physical procedure of doing something (ex: opening and closing a scissors)
Remembering how something feels
Haptic memory of things we learn by moving (usually tactile + kinesthetic) - Why we have VAKT strategies
People with autism will take info from this memory and make it short-, long-term, or working memory that others would normally leave here
Information can really only be stored here if there is some kind of motivation
Hold info at the forefront for purposes of working on it
Phonological working memory: working with sounds and words
Able to produce complex, multi-word utterances vs. forgetting what one is talking about
Able to process complex sentences and passages (passive voice, embedding, e.g., CELF)
phonological awareness, rapid naming, word retrieval
Triple deficit hypothesis is difficulty with...
difficulty with phonological awareness
Difficulty with the ability to attend to the sound structure of spoken language as distinct from its meaning
Phonological awareness entails (which means children with dyslexia will have difficulty with):
Word awareness - accurate/fluent word recognition
Decoding and encoding (relationship between phonological and orthographic processors)
Memory storage/retrieval/rapid memory
difficulty with rapid naming
Involves time testing; naming a bunch of things like individual letters, squares of different colors, symbols, etc. as quickly as they can. How quickly and accurately can they do this? Dyslexic children will have difficulty with this (2nd indicator of dyslexia)
difficulty with word retrieval
This would implicate the meaning processor; inability to come up with the words you need when they need them usually in spoken language. You can do this with language tests or just observing them in conversation or in the classroom.
There is a word meaning component of dyslexia.
disruption of posterior reading systems
Neural signature of dyslexia
Word form area. Allows orthographic processor to do its job for word recognition and has immediate shuttling to frontal area for deep brain. Word form area processes visual info and deals with reasoning. See it.
Word analysis (letters have names). When children are asked to do phonological awareness tasks and this area is lit up when kids are doing tasks confidently and have strong recognition. Think about it phonologically.
Needed for articulatory/word analysis. See it and program articulation to say/produce words and sounds. Overall this area is well informed as info comes from parieto-temporal and occipito-temporal areas. Say it.
For dyslexia, this is overcompensated without being able to use visual or auditory systems (which could account for why kids w/dyslexia blurt out answers, simply because they want to speak and when given a rapid naming task, they tend to have many errors present, because they are relying solely on one system).
In dyslexia brain, not much activity goes on, except in Broca's area. The child is trying to talk about what's going on, rather than phonologically processing it. "I think it's a dog, I think it's a cup." kids are guessing what's on the page, because don't have other 2 areas to rely on and pull information from. Overcompensation happens here, as this area is so much bigger than in individuals without dyslexia. Language is being used ineffectively.
fluent, automatic reading
You see the word and know what it says without breaking it down into separate components (ex: I see the word Cleveland and I know it says Cleveland immediately; sight words)
mental representation of the symbols
"Special Primer" is impossible to read because we do not have a ______ of that language (code)
As a result, we rely upon our visual memory of how words look as a strategy to decode the text. This leads us to guess the incorrect label for arrays of symbols that appear visually similar, but actually represent different semantic meaning.
multi sensory grammar instruction
Teaches parts of speech using color codes (pink word)
Lessons are sequential using VATK learning strategies.
Students manipulate cards to design sentences.
Appropriate for all grade levels.
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