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Chapter 8: Early Civilizations in Africa
Terms in this set (50)
1871 found great Zimbabwe's ruins, thought that Africans couldn't have built it
City, now in ruins (in the modern African country of Zimbabwe), whose many stone structures were built between about 1250 and 1450, when it was a trading center and the capital of a large state.
located in West Africa, its rich soil gave rise to several civilizations; it also helped unite the region by enabling merchants and travelers to spread goods and ideas up and down the river. Empties into the gulf of Guinea
a deep valley that forms where two plates move apart, in Eastern Africa, extends about 4,000 miles from the Zambezi River through eastern and northeastern Africa into the Red Sea
a major African river (one of the world's longest) flows through Congo into the South Atlantic widely used for trade and transportation
an ancient region of northeastern Africa (southern Egypt and northern Sudan) on the Nile. Much of Nubia is now beneath lake Nasser
Region alongside the Nile River, South of Egypt. Kingdom arose in 2nd millenium B.C.E. It was deeply influenced by Egyptian culture and at times under the control of Egypt, which coveted its rich deposits of gold and luxury products from sub-Saharan Africa carried up the Nile corridor.
a city of northern Ethiopia. From the first to the eighth century A.D. it was the capital of an empire that controlled much of northern Ethiopia. Commercial trade center, eventually converted to Christianity
a island in the Netherlands Antilles that is the top of an extinct volcano, major trading state serving as a transit point for goods carried from South Asia into the lands surrounding the Mediterranean
a pejorative term applied to any country or society which willfully walls itself off from the rest of the world. EX: Korea in 1900's
Christian sect of Egypt; tended to support Islamic invasions of this area in preference to Byzantine rule. In part allowed Islam expansion
a Christian kingdom that developed in the highlands of Eastern Africa; retained Christianity in the face of Muslim expansion elsewhere in Africa; overthrow Axum; had trade contacts with Mediterranean
desertification of the Sahara
the process of degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting effecting the still growing, largest desert in the world, stretching 3,000 miles across the African continent, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Red Sea, and measuring 1,200 miles from north to south.
a flat grassland in tropical or subtropical regions
"fleets of the desert"
a term used for describing camel caravans- often used for trade or transportation throughout dry and difficult terrain EX: (areas) Africa, India etc.
earliest known west african culture believed to have began at about 500 BCE in Northern Nigeria, farmers, first to smelt iron weapons and tools, traded, believe to have settled in djenne-djenno located near niger river, also located on important trade routes.
island in the Indian Ocean off the southeastern coast of Africa. Unique plant and animal life - largest island in the world, volcanic
Collective name of a large group of sub-Saharan African languages and of the peoples speaking these languages. The Bantu population of Sierra Leone
the longest and largest river in sub-saharan africa (was formally the congo river)
an account of a Greek seafarer's travels down the coast of Cape Guardafui at the tip of the Horn of Africa to the Strait of Madagascar
Principal commercial center on east African coast commercial metropolis, exported ivory, rhinoceros horn, and tortoiseshell and importing glass, wine, grain, and metal goods such as weapons and tools
a Bantu language with Arabic words spoken along the East African coast; the most widely spoken Bantu languages
"bushmen" earliest inhabitants of southern Africa; had a language completely different than the Bantus, language famous for the 'click' sound; a family of languages spoken in southern Africa
West African tribal people who moved from the interior into the coastal area of present-day Ghana, and were the most powerful of the Akan people. They excelled in making lavish gold objects, and hand-woven cloth.
Ashanti's supreme god of heaven, created heaven, earth, and underworld. (sky god)
spirit figures that were made by the Kongo and Songye people of Congo
members of a North African, primarily Muslim people living in settled or nomadic tribes from Morocco to Egypt. Traveled with camel caravans that carried trade throughout Africa -- region of northern Africa on the Mediterranean coast between Egypt and Gibraltar "of the Berbers"
It is an Arabic word, literally meaning "place of sunset" or "the west"
the Arabian/ Muslim term for the east african coast -- Roman/ Greek traders called east African coast, trading power
one of many trading city-states on the East African coast ; fishing limited trade from 800-1000; turned to agriculture, increased trade in pottery and stoneware; major trading center by 14th century
Mombasa, Zanzibar, and Mogadishu
Swahili city-state used as a port city in southern Kenya on a coral island in a bay of the Indian Ocean --, Island in the indian ocean near off the coast of east Africa part of Tanzania. Widely used in trading (Swahili). -- , a coastal city that dominated Africa gold trade between about 1100 and 1300; the present-day capital of Somalia.
First known kingdom in sub-Saharan West Africa between the sixth and thirteenth centuries C.E. Also the modern West African country once known as the Gold Coast. Had salt trade as well. -- capital of Ghana
Empire created by indigenous Muslims in western Sudan of West Africa from the thirteenth to fifteenth century. It was famous for its role in the trans-Saharan gold trade.
this Mali king brought Mali to its peak of power and wealth from 1312 the 1337; he was the most powerful king in west africa
City on the Niger River in the modern country of Mali. As part of the Mali empire, Timbuktu became a major major terminus of the trans-Saharan trade and a center of Islamic learning
A West African empire that conquered Mali and controlled trade from the 1400s to 1591. A Nilo-Saharan language spoken by the Songhai people in Mali and Niger
african societies organized around kinship or other forms of obligation and lacking the concentration of political power and authority associated with states
Luba and Kongo
Bantu people in southeastern Congo (language) -- kingdom based on agriculture; formed on lower Kongo River; capital at Mbanza Kongo; ruled by hereditary monarchy, the Bantu language spoken by the Kongo people living in the tropical forests of Zaire and Congo and Angola
A river in southern Africa, flowing east through Zimbabwe and Mozambique into the Indian Ocean. Fed by sources in Angola and Zambia and forms the border between Zambia and Zimbabwe
hunting and foraging people who spoke a Khoisan language, lived in small family communities of twenty to twenty-five members throughout southern Africa. Traveled in small bands of a few related families
The southern deserts in Africa
larger communities formed from extended families (clan, were a group of about 25 people and would also make up the village or town)
relating to a social system in which family descent and inheritance rights are traced through the mother (based on or tracing descent through the female line)
was not based on people being property, but rather on dependency and military "prisoners of war." slaves stayed with families, were not mistreated, and could earn freedom
paintings of the San peoples of southern Africa; evidence of aboriginal people lived in the area for ten thousand years
Benin was famous for its bronze and brass sculptures; main function=please the king
an ancient upright stone slab bearing markings, used for recording important events; huge stone pillars built by the aksumites
bards and Son-Jara
poets (Greeks who sang songs to tell poems?)
Staunch Christians, the Zagwe devoted themselves to the construction of new churches and monasteries. These were often modeled after Christian religious
it ended peacefully as whites handed power over to blacks
In the seventh century, who ultimately defeated the eastern Turks?
This man listened to the word of the angel Gabriel and is considered a prophet int he Islamic religion.
based on this excerpt select the statement with the best role of the griots.? "talks about griots"
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