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SPED 306 Exam #2
Terms in this set (37)
Gathering information in order to form a hypothesis as to variables occasioning or maintaining a behavior. May be done by interview, checklist, or direct observation.
Procedures (usually reversal design or multi-element design) that test a hypothesized relation by manipulating the variables thought to occasion or maintain a behavior in order to verify a functional relation.
two functions of behaviors
indirect data collection
talking to people.
- behavioral interviews
-FAI and student guided FAI
-behavior rating scales: (motivation assessment scale, and problem behavior questionnaire)
direct data collection
direct obersvation: (scatter plots, ABC)
develop summary statements
describing situations, behaviors, and the outcomes or reinforcers maintaining behaviors in those situations.
(when (ANT), student will (BEH), in order to (ONS)(FUNCTION)
(SE) occurs before (ANT): sometimes
a stimulus that proceeds a behavior. the stimulus may or may not serve as discriminative for the specific behavior.
(when it happens)
circumstances in an individuals life, ranging from cultural influences to an uncomfortable environment, that temporarily alter the power of reinforcers.
(occurs before the ANT)
any observable and measurable act of an individual.
what happens after the behavior.
(in order to)
a format for gathering single subject data that allows for monitoring behavior change.
This design cannot demonstrate a functional relation between dependent and independent variables because it does not include replication of the effect of the independent variable.
An extension of the AB design in which the independent variable is withdrawn and then reapplied. This reversal design can demonstrate a functional relation between dependent and independent variables.
change criterion design
a single subject experimental design that involved successively changing the criterion for reinforcement. the criterion is systematically increased or decreased in a stepwise manner.
functional relationship: yes, because the expectations are changed to be harder and the student keep meeting the expectations.
multiple baseline design
a simple subject experimental design in which a treatment is replicated across (1) two or more students, (2) two or more behaviors, or (3) two or more settings.
functional: yes, shows the same intervention movement across different settings.
the behavior to be changed through intervention.
the treatment or intervention that the experimenter manipulates in order to change the behavior.
Cause-effect relationship between the variables-exists if the dependent variable systematically changes in the desired direction as a result of the introduction of the independent variable.
(ABAB, change criterion, multiple baseline)
functional equivalency training
The process of (a) conducting a functional assessment/analysis of a problem behavior and (b) teaching a socially appropriate behavior to replace it.
a condition in which the student has not had access to a potential reinforcer.
a condition that occur when there no longer is a state of deprivation.
allowing students to come in contact with potential reinforcers. it allows teacher to determine which reinforcers are likely to be effective with individual students. it also allows students to become familiar with previously unknown potential reinforcers.
result directly from the appropriate behavior.
(if you finish your home work in class you wont have any at home, if you can feed yourself you wont be hungry)
a principle stating that any high probability activity(something preferred) may serve as a positive reinforcer for any low probability activity.
stimuli (such as food) that may have BIOLOGICAL importance to an individual: such stimuli are innately motivating (also called natural, unlearned or unconditioned reinforcers)
stimuli that are initially neutral but acquire reinforcing qualities through pairing with primary reinforcers.
should eventually replace primary reinforcers.
generalized condition reinforcers
a reinforcer associated with a variety of behaviors or with access to a variety of other primary or secondary reinforcers.
differential reinforcement alternative behavior (DRA)
reinforcing a more appropriate form of a behavior than the one in which the student is currently engaged. it is often used in conjunction with redirecting behaviors.
differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior (DRI)
reinforcing a response that is topographically incompatible with a behavior targeted for reduction.
differential reinforcement of lower rates of behavior (DRL)
delivering reinforcement when the number of responses in a specific period of time is less than or equal to a preschool limit. this maintains a behavior at a predetermined rate, lower than at its baseline or naturally occurring frequency.
differential reinforcement of other behaviors (DRO)
delivering reinforcement when the target behavior is not emitted for a specified period of time. reinforcement is contingent on the nonoccurence of a behavior.
symbolic representation and is exchangeable for something of value.
2 parts: token and backup reinforcer.
1. using a question format
3. eye contact
4. tow requests
5. loudness of request
7. more start requests instead of stop requests
8. non-emotional instead of emotional requests
9. descriptive requests
10. reinforce compliance
-tension decontamination through humor
-restructuring the classroom program
-support from routine
-removing seductive objects
1. collaborative activity
3. immediate antecedent assistance
4. preferred item as distracter
5. offering choices
6. behavioral momentum
7. embedding with preferred routines
dependent group oriented contingency
dependent on particular students behaviors (a few students behaviors are observed, but the whole class can earn the reward)
independent group oriented contingency
based on students behaviors individually.
based on overall group performance.
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