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Chapter 8 review

STUDY
PLAY
Napoleon Chagnon's visit to the Yanomamö tribe, where he observed tribe members appearing naked in public, using hallucinogenic drugs, and letting mucus hang from their noses, is a good example of ________.
the cultural relativity of deviance
Violations of norms and rules that are written into law are officially called ________.
crimes
The concept of the relativity of deviance is best illustrated by which of the following statements?
It is not the act itself, but the reaction of others to the act that makes it deviant.
The relativity of deviance is most aligned with which sociological perspective?
symbolic interactionism
Erving Goffman used the term ________ to refer to characteristics that discredit people.
stigma
A group's usual and customary social arrangements, on which its members depend and on which they base their lives, is called ________.
social order
What is a group's formal and informal means of enforcing norms called?
social control
Why did the "XYY" chromosome theory fall out of favor as an explanation for criminal behavior?
Most criminals do not have XYY and everyone with XYY is not a criminal.
Suicide bombers in Iraq are accorded high praise by those who oppose an American presence in the Middle East and are considered heroic warriors. Such honor and praise is an example of a ________.
positive sanction
Explanations for deviance that focus on genetic predispositions to explain why individuals commit deviant acts are most aligned with which discipline?
sociobiology
Which of the following theories of deviance is LEAST associated with sociobiology?
social learning theory: we learn deviance from our peers
The two disciplines that would be most concerned with addressing qualities within the individual to explain deviant behavior are ________ and ________.
sociobiology; psychology
The theory of behavior in which people who associate with some groups learn an "excess of definitions" of deviance, increasing the likelihood that they will become deviant is ________.
differential association theory
Differential association theory was developed by sociologist ________.
Edwin Sutherland
Sociologists who believe we help to produce our own orientations to life by joining specific groups is most aligned with which sociological perspective?
symbolic interactionist
Based on differential association theory, what is the most likely background shared by juvenile delinquents?
They are from families that have a history of being involved in crime.
Inner and outer controls that work against our tendencies to deviate is known as what theory?
control theory
The sociologist responsible for developing one of the first control theories that addressed the inner controls of the individual and outer controls of society was ________.
Walter Reckless
According to control theory, when are inner controls most effective in deterring deviant behavior?
In the presence of strong attachments, commitments, and involvement with other members of society.
Susie is a first-year college student. Although she wants to be popular, she has refused invitations to attend underage drinking parties. Susie has a strong respect for authority, even when it conflicts with a simple matter such as attending a college party. Susie's decision in this situation demonstrates a quality of control theory called ________.
inner control
In which of the following settings would shaming be LEAST effective?
a large inner-city neighborhood
Ritualistic procedures intended to humiliate norm violators and mark them as being moral outcasts of the group to which they once belonged are called ________.
degradation ceremonies
The term degradation ceremony was coined by sociologist ________.
Harold Garfinkel
In The Scarlet Letter, why was Hester Prynne required to wear a scarlet "A" on her dress?
Sociologically, this served as a negative sanction and an example of shaming.
The significance of names or reputations given to people when they engage in certain types of behavior is the focus of ________ theory.
labeling