16 terms

Period 4: Government APUSH

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Terms in this set (...)

Federalist
Political party created in the 1790s led by Alexander Hamilton; favored a stronger national government; supported primarily by the bankers and moneyed interests
Democratic-Republicans
Political party created in the 1790's; led by Thomas Jefferson; favored limited government and state rights; supported primarily by the "common man"
Election of 1800
(AKA Revolution of 1800) election that led to a peaceful transfer of power from the Federalist party to the Democratic Republican Party
Hartford Convention, 1814
Meeting of Federalists during the War of 1812 discuss strategy to gain more power in government; viewed as unpatriotic by many; as a result, the Federalist Party was no longer a significant force in American politics
Era of Good Feelings
Term used to describe the time period after the 2nd Party System in the United States after the Federalist Party fell from the national stage, leaving only the Democratic Party; associated with the presidency of James Monroe
Democrats
Political party that brought Andrew Jackson into office in 1829; part of the 2nd Party System of the United States; supported Jeffersonian ideas of limited government and individualism; drew its support from the "common Man"
Whig Party
Political Party created in 1834 as a coalition of anti-Jackson political leaders and dedicated to internal improvements funded by the national government
Andrew Jackson
Leader of the Democrats who became the seventh president of the US (1829-1837); known for his opposition to the 2nd Bank of the US, the Indian Removal Act, and opposition to nullification
Henry Clay
Leader of the Whig Party who proposed an "American System" to make the United States economically self-sufficient, mostly through protective tariffs; worked to keep the Union together through political compromise
John C. Calhoun
South Carolina political leader who defended slavery as a positive good and advocated the doctrine of nullification, a policy in which state could nullify federal law.
John Marshall
Appointed to the Supreme Court by John Adams in 1801; served as a chief justice until 1835; legal decisions gave the Supreme Court more power, strengthened the federal government, and supported protection of private property.
Judicial Review
The power of the Supreme Court to review the constitutionality of laws passed by Congress
War Hawks
Members of Congress from the West and South elected in 1810 who wanted war with Britain in the hopes of annexing new territory and ending British trade with the Indians of the Northwest
War of 1812
1812-1815, War between the U.S. and Great Britain caused primarily by the perceived British violation of American neutral rights on the high seas (impressment); ended with an agreement of "status quo ante" (a return to how things were before the war)
Monroe Doctrine (1823)
President Monroe's unilateral declaration that the Americas would be closed to further European colonization and that the U.S. would not allow European interference in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere; in return the U.S. pledged to stay out of European conflicts and affairs; significant foreign policy state that lasted through most of the 19th century
Spoils System
Public offices given as a reward for political support. Most iconically used by Andrew Jackson after his first election, which then became a precedent for future federal leaders.

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