process in which phagocytic cells engulf cells that die via apoptosis; for maintenance of our own tissue
antigen presenting cells
internalize pathogens, degrade them into little pieces, and take small peptides and display them on MHC molecules and this is what T-cells recognize.
enzymes that chew up collagen and proteins that are involved in junction adhesion to make it easier to move into the surrounding tissue
mediated by complement molecules, chemokines, and other small molecules which tell cells where to go once they have gotten through the endothelial cell layer
proteins found on a variety of leukocytes that bind to the Fc portion of antibodies; transduce intracellular signals , Cell-surface receptors for the Fc portion of some immunoglobulin isotypes. They include the Fcγ and Fcɛ receptors.
complement receptor on phagocytic cells; consists of short consensus repeats; bind to multiple ligands; does not mediate phagocytosis alone - needs help
complement receptor on phagocytic cells; can mediate phagocytosis alone with stimulation; have alpha and beta chains
An immune response in which the binding of antibodies to the surface of a microbe facilitates phagocytosis of the the microbe by a macrophage
stages of phagocytosis
ligand binding, activation of phagocytic cell, engulfment, internalization/fusion with lysosomes, bacterial killing
Fc receptors on leukocytes bind with Fc portion on antibodies (that is bound to antigen)
activation of phagocytic cell
mediated by ligand binding and activation of phagocytic cell through other receptors such as cytokines, LPS, chemoattractants, etc.
when phagocytic cell comes in with all of its receptors for different ligands that match the antibodies, it enables the phagocytic cell to zip around the pathogen and internalize it; this process is driven by receptors on phagocytic cell; dramatic change in the cytoskeleton of the cell
internalization/fusion with lysosomes
formation of the phagolysosome, an acidified vesicle suited for pathogen destruction
zipping up process
pseudopodia extend around the pathogen where the selectins and integrins run along the side of the pathogen; involves also actin filaments and myosin for motility and cytoskeletal changes.
Respiratory burst - NADPH Oxidase System
a series of membrane associated enzymes that form free radicals which kill pathogens by disrupting the structure of their proteins
found in azurophiic granules; mediated generation of HOCl (bleach/Dakin solution) which kill pathogens
enzymes generated by the Respiratory Burst-NADPH Oxidase system
Nitric oxide, myeloperoxidase, superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide
contain elastase, cathespins, lysozymes, meeloperoxidase, and other enzymes that degrade the phagocytosed pathogen
neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs)
when neutrophils are fully activated and have done some phagocytosis, they undergo this process where their nuclear membrane dissolves to release chromatin and granular proteins that form extracellular fibers than bind, trap, and kill bacteria (Gram + and Gram -)
membrane trafficking problems, poor fusion of lysosomes and other organelles