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BIO TEST: chapters 30 & 31
Terms in this set (75)
What are the 3 main functions of the Circulatory System?
transports O2, nutrients, wastes
What are the 3 main structures of the Circulatory system?
Blood, Heart, Blood Vessels
What is the main function of blood?
to transport oxygen and nutrients to the rest of your body
What is the main function of the heart?
pumps blood through the body
What is the main function of Blood Vessels?
carry blood throughout the body
lymphatic system functions
defends against infection and disease, returns tissue fluids to the bloodstream
structure, body parts, shape
The study of body function
What are the 4 types of tissues?
epithelial, connective, nervous, muscle
job of epithelial tissue
cover and protect your bodies organs
characteristics of the epithelial tissue
cilia, mucus, smooth, thin
Job of connective tissue
support, insulate, connect
characteristics of the connective tissue
fibers, bones, cartilage, fat cells, blood
Job of nervous tissue
characteristics of the nervous tissue
made of nerve cells = neurons
Job of muscle tissue
characteristics of the muscle tissue
voluntary = skeletal muscle
involuntary = smooth muscle
job of arteries
carry blood away from the heart
job of veins
carry blood to the heart
prevent back flow of blood
characteristics of arteries
thick smooth muscle
carry blood under high pressure
characteristics of veins
thin smooth muscle
carry blood under low pressure
job of capillaries
connect arteries and veins
blood flows between heart and lungs
blood flows between heart and rest of body cells
What causes your heart to beat?
Atria contract together and ventricles contract together controlled by a pacemaker which sends electrical signals
how does blood flow to the pulmonary and systemic systems?
through circuits composed of the heart and blood vessels
highest recorded pressure when the ventricles contract
lowest recorded pressure during relaxation of the heartbeat
path of fluid
plasma (in blood) --> tissue fluid (round body cells) --> lymph (in lymph glands)
characteristics of plasma
10% dissolved salts
characteristics of white blood cells
characteristics of red blood cells
most numerous cells in your body
characteristics of platelets
clot the blood
make protein called fibrin
plaque build up in arteries
hardening of the arteries
abnormally high blood pressure
damage to brain tissue resulting from a clot blocking blood flow to the brain
limit intake of cholesterol
limit intake of salt
eat fresh fruits and vegetable
Germ Theory of Disease
infectious disease is caused by pathogens that can spread the disease
what are 3 ways diseases can be transmitted?
airborne pathogens are inhaled
contaminated water or food
An organism that causes disease
What is a virus made of?
nucleic acid (DNA) inside a protein coating
What is your bodies first line of defense?
Examples of barriers
Skin, mucous, tears
What is your bodies second line of defense?
Internal Nonspecific Diseases
eat pathogens and damaged cells (lives)
engulf and destroy pathogens (die)
natural killers cells
release chemicals to kill pathogen
mast cells release protein histamine
widens blood vessels
raises temp (fever)
attracts white blood cells
what is your bodies third line of defense?
What happens during the third defense?
the immune system recognizes and defends against specific pathogens. It distinguishes between body cells and intruder cells.
physical barriers that stop pathogens
skin, mucous, cilia
chemical barriers that destroy using enzymes
sweat, oil, tears, saliva
proteins made by infected body cells = stop virus reproduction
What is the job of Antigens?
they mark proteins
Where are antigens located?
on the surface of pathogens
What is the job of Antibodies?
proteins made by white blood cells that attach to antigens and destroy pathogens
white blood cells
medicine you buy to kill bacteria
Helper T cells function
1. recognize antigen that has been eaten by a macrophage
2. releases a chemical signal to activate B cells and cytotoxic T cells
Cytotoxic T cells function
1. Recognize an antigen that's on an infected body cell
2. attaches to the infected cell and releases chemicals to destroy it
primary immune response
The first formation of B and T cells to battle a new invading pathogen (slow and weak)
secondary immune response
B and T cells recognize and respond to the repeat visit of the pathogen (strong and quick)
Plasma cells (B cells)
produce antibodies and release into plasma
antibodies grab antigen and macrophage eats it
Memory cells (B cells)
remember antibody shape
stay in plasma provide to immunity
main job of B cells
recognize antigen on pathogen using antibody and divides into plasma cells and memory cells
dose of a disabled or destroyed pathogen used to stimulate a long-term immune defense against the pathogen
when your body makes its own antibodies to fight antigens
when you are given antibodies to fight off antigens; medicine, shots, etc.
What is an example passive immunity?
a fetus receives antibodies from the mother
abnormal immune system sensitivity to an otherwise harmless antigen
effects of an allergic reaction
sneezing, coughing, runny nose, watery eyes
Auto immune disease
A disease when the immune system turns against some of the bodies own cells
3 effects of auto immune disease
fever, weakness, weight loss
What is an example passive immunity
a fetus receives antibodies from the mother
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