abnormal psych 2nd change study guide

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(ch 1) different ways of defining abnormality from the perspectives of deviance, distress, dysfunction, and danger
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Terms in this set (47)
(ch 3) reliabilityconsistency of a test (yields same results in same situation multiple times)(ch 3) validityaccuracy of test's results (measures what it's supposed to be measuring)(ch 3) standardizationprocess in which a test is administered to a large group whose performance serves as a norm against which individual scores are judged(ch 3) what is co-morbidity and how common is it(ch 3) recognize examples of different types of assessment tools(ch 4) define phobia-persistent and unreasonable fears of particular objects, activities, or situations -specific phobia: persistent fears of specific objects or situations -agoraphobia: fear of traveling to locations from which escape might be difficult -social anxiety disorder: fear of social or performance situation where scrutiny and embarrassment may occur(ch 4) describe OCD and social phobia(ch 4) what treatments work(ch 5) four types of symptoms for PTSD & risk factors for developing it-symptoms: reexperiencing, avoidance, reduced responsiveness, increased arousal -risk factors: female; poverty; abuse/catastrophe at young age; view negative events outside of control; poor social support; type/severity of trauma(ch 5) difference between PTSD and acute stress disorder-acute stress disorder: severe anxiety, dissociation, etc symptoms last less than 1 month -PTSD: result of injury or severe shock; involves disturbance of sleep, vivid recall, and dulled responses; symptoms last 3 months or longer(ch 6) symptoms of depression and mania-depression: low, sad state in which life seems dark and overwhelming -mania: state of breathless euphoria or frenzied energy(ch 6) biological, cognitive, behavioral, sociocultural perspectives on depression and types of treatments associated with each perspective-biological: lower activity in prefrontal cortex, undersized hippocampus, greater activity in amygdala, broadman's area 25 undersized and overactive -cognitive: learned helplessness; have no control over rewards and punishment; believe they are responsible for helpless state -behavioral: occurs when person experience few rewards and more punishment -sociocultural:(ch 7) define suicidea self-inflicted death in which the person acts intentionally, directly, and consciously(ch 7) describe each of the four kinds of people who intentionally end their lives & describe the category of subintentional death-death seekers: clear desire to die, plan with almost guaranteed fatal outcome -death initiators: clear desire to die, but believe process of death has already begun -death ignorers: don't believe death will mean end of existence (reunite with loved one) -death darers: ambivalence in intent to die, but may want to gain attention, make others feel guilty(ch 7) risk factors for suicide, including cultural factors (race, sex, age) and common precipitants-stressful events -mood & thought changes -mental disorders/alcohol and drug use -modeling(ch 9) anorexia nervosa-purposeful restriction of nourishment, leading to significantly low body weight -intense fear of gaining weight -disturbed body perception, undue influence of weight/shape on self-evaluation, persistent final of the seriousness of low weight -preoccupation with food(ch 9) bulimia nervosa-repeated binge eating episodes -inappropriate compensatory behaviors in order to prevent weight gain -symptoms last on average at least once/week for 3 months -undue influence of weight on shape(ch 9) binge eating disorder-repeated binge eating, but not followed by vomiting -fast eating, not hungry, uncomfortable fullness, eating in secret, feeling of disgust/guilt afterwards -distress -occurs weekly over 3 months -2/3 become overweight/obese(ch 9) explain how each of the following factors can place a person at risk for an eating disorder-societal pressures -family environment -cognitive disturbances -mood disorders -biological factors(ch 10) explain the terms tolerance and withdrawal symptoms and give examples-tolerance: need more of drug to get same effect -withdrawal: symptoms when person suddenly stops taking or cuts back on drug(ch 10) know the biological and behavioral models for substance use and treatment, including withdrawing individuals from a drug-behavioral/cognitive: substance use is reinforcing (operant conditioning); environmental triggers become classically conditioned to cue cravings. aversion therapy (based on classical conditioning), behavioral self-control training, relapse-prevention training. -biological: moderate genetic component to alcoholism. detoxification, antagonist drugs, drug maintenance therapy(ch 12) describe the three types of schizophrenia-positive symptoms: delusions, disorganized thinking, heightened perceptions & hallucinations, inappropriate affect -negative symptoms: poverty of speech, blunted and flat affect, social withdrawal -psychomotor symptoms: catatonic stupor/rigidity/posturing/excitement(ch 13) odd type personality disorder-displays odd or eccentric behaviors -suspiciousness, peculiar thinking/perception, isolated -rarely seek treatment(ch 13) odd cluster: paranoid-interpret others as threatening/demeaning -deep distrust -aloof, emotionally distant; avoid close relationship -hostile; sensitive to criticism -M>F(ch 13) odd cluster: schizoid-genuinely prefer to be alone -aloof, cold, poor eye contact -avoid social contact -flat affect -M>F(ch 13) odd cluster: schizotypal-odd beliefs and magical thinking (ideas of reference) -shy/sensitive -stays isolated but feels lonely -affect and attention problems -M>F(ch 13) dramatic type personality disorder-dramatic; emotional; erratic behaviors that interfere with ability to have a healthy relationship(ch 13) dramatic cluster: antisocial-psychopaths/sociopaths -persistent disregard and violation of others' rights -no remorse, lie repeatedly, usually can't work consistently, impulsive, aggressive -linked to criminal behavior, highly co-morbid with substance abuse -doesn't learn well from punishment -history of conduct problems starting from childhood -manipulative -M>F(ch 13) dramatic cluster: borderline-mood changes, unstable self-image, intense conflict-ridden relationships -prone to bouts of anger, self-injurious behavior, extremely impulsive -70% attempt suicide -emptiness, fear of abandonment -F>M(ch 13) dramatic cluster: histrionic-highly emotional -seeks to be center of attention, always "on stage" -grandiose language but statements actually lack details and substance -exaggerated and rapidly changing moods, but emotions are shallow -exaggerate illness, provocative/seductive, flamboyant -long for approval -M=F(ch 13) dramatic cluster: narcissistic-grandiose, self-important on the surface, arrogant -seek attention, envious -charming; good first impressions; can't maintain long-term relationships -lack of empathy -difficult to treat -M>>F(ch 13) anxious type personality disorder-similar features of Axis 1 depression and anxiety(ch 13) anxious cluster: avoidant-extreme fear of criticism, disapproval or rejection -feel timid, vulnerable -yearn for, but fear, intimate relationships -few or no close friends -may reject others before they can be rejected -similar to social phobia -M=F(ch 13) anxious cluster: dependent-excessive and pervasive need to be taken care of -fear separation and rejection, difficulty with separation or ending of relationships -sensitive to disapproval, will perform demeaning or unpleasant tasks to meet others' needs -cannot make small decisions due to reliance on others -feel helpless, lonely, sad, often dislike self -M=F(ch 13) anxious cluster: obsessive-compulsive-focused on order, perfection, control -rigid, stubborn, formal, inefficient -unreasonably high standards, never satisfied -wont work with a team (others are incompetent) -afraid of making mistakes; reluctant to make decisions -similar to OCD but people with OCPD are more likely to have depression, GAD, or substance abuse disorder -M>F(ch 13) system for categorizing "normal" personality(ch 13) define the Big 5 personality factors-neuroticism: high levels of distress, anxiety, anger, self-consciousness, lower coping -extroversion: sociability, activity, fun loving, optimistic, person-oriented -openness to experience: experience for own sake, curious, imaginative, unconventional, novel ideas -agreeableness: courteous, kind, altruistic, eager to help -conscientiousness: organization, persistence, and goal directed behavior, reliability, punctual