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terms for Mr. C's social studies midterm

Abraham Lincoln

won election of 1860, republican, president during Civil War, credited with ending slavery and opposed the expansion of slavery

Robert E. Lee

confederate general during Civil War, Lincoln's first choice to lead Union Army

Ulysses S. Grant

union general credited with winning the civil war. Republican president from 1869-1877

Sitting Bull

Sioux chief who led the raid on the Battle of Little Bighorn

Chief Joseph

was Nez Perce chief who tried to unite Native Americans against white man

Thomas Edison

inventor from N.J. who founded the most uses for electricity

Alexander Graham Bell

credited with inventing the telephone

John D. Rockefeller

robber baron who dominated the oil industry with his company "Standard Oil"

Andrew Carnegie

was a robber baron who led the steel industry with his company "Carnegie Steel" which became US Steel

Jane Addams

founded Chicago Hull House which was a model for settlement houses in U.S.

Ida B. Wells

African American journalist who wrote articles exposing the wrongs of "lynching".

Booker T. Washington

an early opponent of segregation who founded the Tuskegee Institute, which was a trade school for African Americans

Theodore Roosevelt

republican, first progressive president, won his own election in 1904

Susan B. Anthony

was co-founder and president of National American Women's Suffrage Association

Woodrow Wilson

democrat, won presidential election of 1912, was president during WW1

John J. Pershing

commanding general of AEF

Alvin York

WW1 hero, single -handedly killed 25 German machine gunners and captured 132 German soldiers

Queen Liliuokalani

queen of Hawaii, with the help of the U.S. was overthrown

William Seward

Secretary of State who negotiated the purchase of Alaska from Russia

William Howard Taft

won the presidential election of 1908, republican, Roosevelt's hand picked successor

Bill of Rights

first 10 amendments to the constitution that protected citizen's rights against the government

Separation of power

the framers of the constitution broke up the federal government into three separate but equal branches to ensure that no one branch of government had too much power

Electoral College

group in charge of electing the president

Emancipation Proclamation

issued by Lincoln on January 1st, 1863 freeing the slaves in rebel areas

Compromise of 1850

compromise between the north and the south that admitted California into the union as a free state, abolished the slave trade in Washington D.C., enacted a stricter fugitive slave law, and made congress promise not to restrict the expansion of slavery into the territory gained by the war with Mexico

Appomattox Court House

location where General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant officially ending the Civil War

13th amendment

amendment that ended slavery

14th amendment

amendment that granted African Americans full rights as citizens and prevented states from depriving them of life, liberty or property without due process of the law

15th amendment

amendment that granted African Americans the right to vote

16th amendment

amendment that allowed the government to tax people's income

Battle of Antietam

bloodiest battle of the civil war that resulted in a union

Freedman's Bureau

government agency created after civil war to help American Americans find jobs, a place to live, and get educated

Bleeding Kansas

after the Kansas-Nebraska act was passed, both pro-slavery and anti-slavery groups flooded into Kansas to sway the vote. Because the two sides hated each other, fighting broke out


ordinary people who take the law into their own hands and punish law breakers


African Americans who moved west to farm the land and escape


an area of public land set aside for Native Americans

Battle of Little Bighorn

battle where General George Custer and his men were wiped out by Cheyenne and Sioux warriors led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse


a building in which several families rent rooms or apartments, often with little sanitation or safety


to become part of the American Culture

Department Store

new store in the late 1800s that offered lots of different kinds of goods

Mail-order Catalogs

a new way for people to buy goods where they no longer had to go to the store to buy goods


new type of music with strong rhythms, a lively melody, and accent notes that was popular in the early 1900s


variety show that offered various acts, such as dancing, singing, comedy, and magi shows that was popular in the early 1900s

War Bonds

temporary loans to the government that would be paid back to the government over time and helped pay for world war I

Great Migration

the movement of hundreds of thousands of African Americans from rural areas in the south to northern cities in search of jobs and to escape racism


a temporary agreement to end fighting

American Expeditionary Force

all American soldiers in Europe during W.W. I led by John J. Pershing

Executive Branch

job is to enforce and carry out the laws and consists of the president and his cabinet


term is four years, must be 35 years old and a natural born citizen and must live in the United States 14 years prior to running.

Veto Power

the president can refuse to sign a bill and temporarily prevent it from becoming a law

Legislative Branch

job is to make the laws and consists of the house of representatives and the senate


must be 30 years old, be a citizen for 9 years, and live in the state you represent and have a 6 years term

House of representatives

must be 25 years old, be a citizen for 7 years, and live in the state you represent and have a 2 year term

Judicial Branch

job is to interpret the laws and punish lawbreakers and consists of the supreme court and lesser courts

Supreme Court

consists of 9 justices whose term is life on good behavior

Fort Sumter

On April 12th, 1861 in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina the fort was being held by the union army and was running low on supplies. Lincoln tried to send in troops and in response the confederate army fired upon the fort, marking the beginning of the Civil War.

Railroads' effect on land

helped with westward expansion and getting goods and people to the west and getting things back from the west, but also contributed to the extinction of the buffalo

Railroads' effect on Native Americans

forced Native Americans out of their homes and created conflict between Native Americans and the United States

Standard time

time that was standard in the time zones created by the railroads

Union Pacific Company

railroad company that built from Missouri westward, employed ex-slaves and European immigrants (mostly Irish), and had less harsh terrain than other company

Central Pacific Company

railroad company that built from California eastward, employed Asian immigrants, an had harder terrain to built on than the other company

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