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61 terms

8th grade social studies midterm

terms for Mr. C's social studies midterm
STUDY
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Abraham Lincoln
won election of 1860, republican, president during Civil War, credited with ending slavery and opposed the expansion of slavery
Robert E. Lee
confederate general during Civil War, Lincoln's first choice to lead Union Army
Ulysses S. Grant
union general credited with winning the civil war. Republican president from 1869-1877
Sitting Bull
Sioux chief who led the raid on the Battle of Little Bighorn
Chief Joseph
was Nez Perce chief who tried to unite Native Americans against white man
Thomas Edison
inventor from N.J. who founded the most uses for electricity
Alexander Graham Bell
credited with inventing the telephone
John D. Rockefeller
robber baron who dominated the oil industry with his company "Standard Oil"
Andrew Carnegie
was a robber baron who led the steel industry with his company "Carnegie Steel" which became US Steel
Jane Addams
founded Chicago Hull House which was a model for settlement houses in U.S.
Ida B. Wells
African American journalist who wrote articles exposing the wrongs of "lynching".
Booker T. Washington
an early opponent of segregation who founded the Tuskegee Institute, which was a trade school for African Americans
Theodore Roosevelt
republican, first progressive president, won his own election in 1904
Susan B. Anthony
was co-founder and president of National American Women's Suffrage Association
Woodrow Wilson
democrat, won presidential election of 1912, was president during WW1
John J. Pershing
commanding general of AEF
Alvin York
WW1 hero, single -handedly killed 25 German machine gunners and captured 132 German soldiers
Queen Liliuokalani
queen of Hawaii, with the help of the U.S. was overthrown
William Seward
Secretary of State who negotiated the purchase of Alaska from Russia
William Howard Taft
won the presidential election of 1908, republican, Roosevelt's hand picked successor
Bill of Rights
first 10 amendments to the constitution that protected citizen's rights against the government
Separation of power
the framers of the constitution broke up the federal government into three separate but equal branches to ensure that no one branch of government had too much power
Electoral College
group in charge of electing the president
Emancipation Proclamation
issued by Lincoln on January 1st, 1863 freeing the slaves in rebel areas
Compromise of 1850
compromise between the north and the south that admitted California into the union as a free state, abolished the slave trade in Washington D.C., enacted a stricter fugitive slave law, and made congress promise not to restrict the expansion of slavery into the territory gained by the war with Mexico
Appomattox Court House
location where General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant officially ending the Civil War
13th amendment
amendment that ended slavery
14th amendment
amendment that granted African Americans full rights as citizens and prevented states from depriving them of life, liberty or property without due process of the law
15th amendment
amendment that granted African Americans the right to vote
16th amendment
amendment that allowed the government to tax people's income
Battle of Antietam
bloodiest battle of the civil war that resulted in a union
Freedman's Bureau
government agency created after civil war to help American Americans find jobs, a place to live, and get educated
Bleeding Kansas
after the Kansas-Nebraska act was passed, both pro-slavery and anti-slavery groups flooded into Kansas to sway the vote. Because the two sides hated each other, fighting broke out
Vigilantes
ordinary people who take the law into their own hands and punish law breakers
Exodusters
African Americans who moved west to farm the land and escape
Reservation
an area of public land set aside for Native Americans
Battle of Little Bighorn
battle where General George Custer and his men were wiped out by Cheyenne and Sioux warriors led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse
Tenement
a building in which several families rent rooms or apartments, often with little sanitation or safety
Assimilation
to become part of the American Culture
Department Store
new store in the late 1800s that offered lots of different kinds of goods
Mail-order Catalogs
a new way for people to buy goods where they no longer had to go to the store to buy goods
Ragtime
new type of music with strong rhythms, a lively melody, and accent notes that was popular in the early 1900s
Vaudeville
variety show that offered various acts, such as dancing, singing, comedy, and magi shows that was popular in the early 1900s
War Bonds
temporary loans to the government that would be paid back to the government over time and helped pay for world war I
Great Migration
the movement of hundreds of thousands of African Americans from rural areas in the south to northern cities in search of jobs and to escape racism
Armistice
a temporary agreement to end fighting
American Expeditionary Force
all American soldiers in Europe during W.W. I led by John J. Pershing
Executive Branch
job is to enforce and carry out the laws and consists of the president and his cabinet
President
term is four years, must be 35 years old and a natural born citizen and must live in the United States 14 years prior to running.
Veto Power
the president can refuse to sign a bill and temporarily prevent it from becoming a law
Legislative Branch
job is to make the laws and consists of the house of representatives and the senate
Senate
must be 30 years old, be a citizen for 9 years, and live in the state you represent and have a 6 years term
House of representatives
must be 25 years old, be a citizen for 7 years, and live in the state you represent and have a 2 year term
Judicial Branch
job is to interpret the laws and punish lawbreakers and consists of the supreme court and lesser courts
Supreme Court
consists of 9 justices whose term is life on good behavior
Fort Sumter
On April 12th, 1861 in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina the fort was being held by the union army and was running low on supplies. Lincoln tried to send in troops and in response the confederate army fired upon the fort, marking the beginning of the Civil War.
Railroads' effect on land
helped with westward expansion and getting goods and people to the west and getting things back from the west, but also contributed to the extinction of the buffalo
Railroads' effect on Native Americans
forced Native Americans out of their homes and created conflict between Native Americans and the United States
Standard time
time that was standard in the time zones created by the railroads
Union Pacific Company
railroad company that built from Missouri westward, employed ex-slaves and European immigrants (mostly Irish), and had less harsh terrain than other company
Central Pacific Company
railroad company that built from California eastward, employed Asian immigrants, an had harder terrain to built on than the other company