World History - Chapter 22 Vocab
Terms in this set (39)
In the Middle Ages, the earth-centered view of the universe in which scholars believed that the earth was an immovable object located at the center of the universe.
The idea that the earth and the other planets revolve around the sun.
A major change in European thought, starting in the mid-1500s, in which the study of the natural world began to be characterized by careful observation and the questioning of accepted beliefs.
Polish cleric and astronomer. In the early 1500s, he became interested in an old Greek idea that the sun stood at the center of the universe. After studying planetary movements for more than 25 years, he reasoned that the star, the earth, and the other planets revolved around the sun. (He created the heliocentric theory) His book, ON THE REVOLUTIONS OF THE HEAVENLY BODIES, caused religious stir.
Danish astronomer who carefully recorded the movements of the planets for many years. He produced mountains of accurate data based on his observations. However, it was left to his followers to make mathematical sense of them. After his death in 1601, his assistant Johannes Kepler continued his work.
Brilliant mathematician that continued Brahe's work. He concluded that certain mathematical laws govern planetary motion. One of these laws showed that the planets revolve around the sun in elliptical orbits instead of circles, as was previously thought. His laws showed that Copernicus;s basic ideas were true. The demonstrated mathematically that the planets revolve around the sun.
Italian scientist that built on the new theories about astronomy. He built his own telescope and used it to study heavens in 1609. In 1610, he published a book called STARRY MESSENGER which described his astonishing observations. He shattered Aristotle's theory that the moon and stars were made of a pure, perfect substance. His observations, as well as his laws of motion, also clearly supported the theories of Copernicus.
Logical procedure for gathering information about the natural world, in which experimentation and observation are used to test hypotheses.
English statesman and writer who had a passionate interest in science. He believed that by better understanding the world, scientists would generate practical knowledge that would improve people's lives. Instead of reasoning from abstract theories, he urged scientists to experiment and then draw conclusions. This approach is called empiricism.
He developed analytical geometry. As a mathematician, he approached faining knowledge differently - he relied on math and logic. He believed that everything should be doubted until proved by reason. The only thing he knew for certain was that he existed because as he wrote, "I think, therefore I am." From this starting point, he followed a train of strict reasoning to arrive at other basic truths.
Great English scientist that helped to bring together the breakthroughs of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo under a single theory of motion. His great discovery was that the same force ruled motion of the planet and all matter on earth and in space. The key idea that linked motion in the heavens with motion on the earth was the law of universal gravitation. He published his ideas in a work called THE MATHEMATICAL PRINCIPLES OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY. It was one of the most important scientific books ever written. He believed God was the creator of this orderly universe, the clockmaker who had set everything in motion.
During the Middle Ages, European doctors had accepted as fact the writings of an ancient Greek physician named ____. However, he had never dissected the body of a human being. Instead, he studied the anatomy of pigs and other animals. He assumed that human anatomy was such the same. His assumptions were lated proved wrong.
Flemish physician who proved Galen's assumptions wrong. He dissected human corpses and published his observations in ON THE STRUCTURE OF THE HUMAN BODY which was filled with detailed drawings of human organs, bones, and muscle.
British physician that introduced a vaccine to prevent smallpox. He used cowpox to produce the world's first vaccination.
Pioneered the use of the scientific method in chemistry. He is considered the founder of modern chemistry. In a book called THE SCEPTICAL CHYMIST he challenged Aristotle's idea that the physical world consisted of four elements - earth, air, fire, and water. Instead, he proposed that his most famous contribution to chemistry was his law - which explains how the volume, temperature, and pressure of gas affect each other.
In Buddhism, a state of perfect wisdom in which one understands basic truths about the universe.
Thomas Hobbes (social contract)
Emilie du Chatelet
Frederick the Great
Catherine the Great
Partitions of Poland