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First Aid | Health
Terms in this set (42)
How to treat a muscle cramp?
have the victim stop the activity, stretch out the muscle, massage then ice, give electrolyte drink or water
a serious injury in which there are small tears in the muscle that often result in pain, swelling, bruising and diminished movement.
injury to the ligament; the tissue that connects one bone to another. is caused by a sudden twisting movement. needs doctors attention
when should you use the RICE procedure?
when you or someone you know has a minor sprain or strain
a broken bone
what to do when someone has a fracture?
keep the person as still as possible and call 911
what should you do if the person who has a fracture must be moved?
put a split around the fracture to make said immobile
How are burns categorized?
by degree according to which layer of the skin has been burned.
least serious type, injure only the epidermis. May or may not have blisters. usually heals quickly
A burn marked by pain, blistering, and superficial destruction of dermis with edema and hyperemia of the tissues beneath the burn. usually no scarring after healed
a burn involving all layers of the skin; characterized by the destruction of the epidermis and dermis, with damage or destruction of subcutaneous (muscles, fat, and nerve endings within) tissue. may appear white or charred
How should one treat all burns except third-degree burns?
If the burned area is fairly small (less than 2 to 3 inches), submerge the burned area in cold water for 10 minutes to half an hour and then wrap the burn loosely in a dry, clean dressing.
What should you do if you have a third-degree burn?
call 911. do not submerge the burn In cold water bc that could cause shock. Cover the burned area with a clean, loose dressing and elevate your arms and feet. drink small amounts of water
early frostbite. characterized by a whitening of the skin around the nose, ears, fingers, or toes.
a condition in which body tissues become frozen. The skin in the frostbitten area looks hard, pale, and cold. The affected area may ache and may not be sensitive to touch. As the area thaws, the flesh becomes red and very painful.
what should you di if someone has frostbite?
-move the person to a warmer place
-remove all wet/cold clothing
-if possible wrap the bite in sterile dressing
-separate the affected fingers and/or toes
-get the person to an ER immediately
A condition in which the body temperature drops below 95°F is called hypothermia
what does a person w hypothermia experience?
shivering or shaking; confused and disoriented; death
how to treat hypothermia
1. Evacuate the individual to a medical facility as soon as possible.
2. Remove all wet clothing and replace with dry items.
3. submerge the affected areas in warm (not hot) water or apply warm cloths to the affected areas for 20 to 30 minutes.
4.When feeling has returned to the area, apply dry, sterile dressing to the affected areas
5. Continuously monitor the victim's respiration and heartbeat; administer CPR, if required, to maintain circulation.
6. Warm liquids in small sips may be given if the victim is conscious.
condition in which the body's temperature rises to about 104°F because it cannot get rid of excessive heat by perspiring.
what to do if someone has heatstroke
-move the person from the heat to a cool place where he or she can lie down.
-Elevate the person's feet about a foot above the ground.
-Apply cool, wet cloths to the body, and place a cold compress to the neck, groin, and armpits.
- Use a fan to reduce the body's temperature.
-. Give the person a half-cup of salt water every 15 minutes.
-Call 911 if the person loses consciousness, starts having seizures, or shows signs of shock, such as bluish lips and fingernails and reduced alertness.
Scrape of the skin due to something abrasive
a cut in which bleeding occurs.
a small but deep wound that occurs when the skin is pierced by an object, such as a nail. A puncture wound typically does not have much external bleeding, although internal bleeding may occur.
a wound in which tissue is partly or completely separated from the body. A severed finger is an example of an avulsion.
grows in wounds that shut out oxygen, such as a puncture wound. You can prevent this serious disease by having up-to-date immunizations for tetanus aka a tetanus shot
pressure-point bleeding control
pressing the main artery against a bone to stop blood supply to the injured area.
a condition in which blood flow to part of the heart muscle is blocked, causing heart cells to die
what do to if someone is having a heart attack?
-perform CPR until ambulance gets to the location
after how many mins does the brain become damaged from a lack of oxygen?
after how many mins does brain death typically set in?
a condition when there is not enough blood circulating to the body's vital organs
what causes shock?
such things as a heart problem, an allergic reaction, an infection, or trauma.
symptoms of shock
anxiety or confusion; pale, clammy skin; shallow breathing; bluish lips and fingernails; heavy sweating; and/or a rapid, weak pulse.
how to treat shock
-help lie on her back
-cover the person in shock to keep her warm
-elevate the persons legs 12 inches off the ground
what should you do if someone is choking?
Heimlich maneuver aka abdominal thrusts
any substance that causes injury, illness, or death when it enters the human body.
symptoms of heat stroke
hot, dry skin; higher than normal body temperature; rapid pulse; rapid, shallow breathing; could lose consciousness; confusion
what should one do if they get bitten by a venomous snake?
stay still as possible and call 911
What is the best way to treat poison on the skin?
Rinse the skin with water for 15 minutes.
Why do we elevate injuries?
when you raise a sore body part above the level of your heart youre reducing pain, throbbing, and any internal bleeding that can lead to bruises.
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